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resign des commission as commander-in-chief, but he was | tage, however, by being both in war and in peace overpersuaded to retain it, and was passive, if not co-operating, i shadowed by his associate Cromwell : in all the proceedings of the army which had for their

"And under him object to destroy the power of parliament. Lord Fer

His genius was rebuked, as, it is said, dinando Fairfax died in the spring of 1647, and Sir Thomas

Jark Antony's was by Cæsar." succeeded to his title and to his office as governor of Hull.

Lord Fairfax had a taste for literature. He translated A second civil war broke out in the summer of 1648; a some of the Psalms, and wrote poems on solitude, the Chris. Scots army of 40,000 was raised to deliver the king from tian warfare, the shortness of life, &c., none of which are the “sectaries ;" there were tumults in England and in above mediocrity. During the last year or two of his Weles. Fairfax displayed the greatest activity in putting life he wrote two Memorials which have been published — down these insurrections, and took Colchester, whither the

one on the northern actions in which he was engaged in royalist army had betaken themselves. It was at this time, 1642–44, and the other on some points during his command when the commander-in-chief was hesieging Colchester, in the army. At York and at Oxford he endeavoured to that Milton addressed to him the sonnet :

save the libraries from pillage, and be enriched the Bodleiou "Fairfax, whose name in arms through Europe rings,

with some valuable MSS. His correspondence was pubFilling each mouth with envy or with praise."

lished in 1848-9 in four volumes, and a life of him by The poet eulogizes the brave soldier for “firm unshaken Clements R. Markham in 1870.

(R. CA.) virtue," but he hesitated to go along with the army and In- FAIRFIELD, a town and port of entry of Fairfield co., dependents in the trial of the king. He was placed at the Connecticut, is situated near Long Island Sound, and on the head of the judges before whom Charles was arraigned, but New York and New Haven railroad, 22 miles S.W. of New be refused to act. In calling over the court, when the crier Haven. It consists chiefly of one spacious street of new pronounced the name of Fairfax, a lady in the gallery called and handsome buildings. The beautiful scenery and fine out" that the Lord Fairfax was not there in person, that sea air of the neighbourhood attract to the town a consider. he would never sit among them, and that they did him able number of summor visitors, but its prosperity dependa wrong to name him as a commissioner.” This was Lady chiefly on its shipping trade. About one and a half miles Fairfax, who could not forbear, as Whitelock says, to exclaim south-east from the town is Black Rock, one of the finest cloud against the proceedings of the High Court of Justice. harbours of the state. Fairfield was settled in 1659. Iu The decision of the court was a grievous error. “ When 1779 it was burned by the British under Governor Tryon, living, Charles was a baffled tyrant,” as Lord John Russell The population in 1870 numbered 5645, but since then a has remarked; "when dead he became a royal martyr.” In portion of the town, containing more than a fourth of the June 1650, after the Scots had declared for Charles II., the inhabitants, has been annexed to Bridgeport. council of stato resolved to send an army to Scotland in FAIRHOLT, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1813–1866), a most order to prevent an invasion of England. Fairfax declinud industrious antiquary, draughtsman, and editor of our older to act against the Presbyterian Scots, and resigned his com literature, was born in London in the year 1813. His toission. Cromwell was appointed his successor, “captain- father, who was of German family (the pame was gedurel and commander-in-chief of all the forces raised or originally Fahrholz), was a tobacco manufacturer, and for ic be raised by authority of parliament within the common- some years Fairholt himself was employed in the business. wealth of England." Fairfax received a pension of £5000 Ho had, however, other aims. For a time he was a draw: a year, and is no more heard of till after the death of the ing-master, afterwards a scene-painter. Some pen and ink triumphant Protector.

copies made by him of figures from Hogarth’s plates led When Monk invited him to assist in the operations about to his being employed by Charles Knight on several of that to be undertaken against Lambert's army he promptly gentleman's illustrated publications. His first published obeyed the call, and in December 1659 appeared at the literary work was a contribution to Hone's Year-Book in tead of a body of Yorkshire gentlemen ; and such was the 1831. His life seems to have been one of almost uninterinfluence of Fairfax's name and reputation that the Irish rupted quiet labour, carried on until within a few days of brigade, consisting of 1200 horse, quitted Lambert's colours death. Several works on civic pageantry and some collecand joined him. This was speedily followed by the tions of ancient unpublished songs and dialogues were breaking up of all Lambert's forces, and that day secured edited by him for the Percy Society in 1842. In 1844 ho the restoration of the monarchy. A "free" parliament was was elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. An called ; Fairfax was elected member for Yorkshire, and was edition of the dramatic works of Lilly was published by him put at the head of the commission appointed by the House in 1853. His principal independent works are Tobacco, its cf Commons to wait upon Charles II. at the Hague and History and Association, 1859; Up the Nile and Home '?go bis speedy return. Of course the “merry monarch, Again, 1862; many articles and serials contributed to the

andclous and poor," was glad to obey the summons, and Art Journal, some of which were afterwards separately airfax provided the horse on which Charles rode at his published, as Costume in England, 1846 ; Dictionary of Tonation. The remaining eleven years of the life of Lord Terms in Art, 1854. These works are illustrated by wirfax were spent in retirement at his seat in Yorkshire. numerous cuts, drawn on the wood by his own hand. His He must, like Milton, have been sorely grieved and shocked pencil was also employed in illustrating Evan's Coins of the by the scenes that followed—the brutal indignities offered Ancient Britons, Madden's Jewish Cornage, Halliwell's to the remains of his companions in arms, Cromwell and folio Shakespeare, Roach Smith's Richborough, the Ireton, the sacrifice of Sir Harry Vane, the neglect or Miscellanea Graphica of Lord Londesborough, and many 1.-secration of all that was great, noble, or graceful in other works. Mr Fairholt was entirely a Londoner; born England, and the flood of immorality which, flowing from in London, and never cut of sight of St Paul's for the first Whitehall, sapped the foundations of the national strength twenty-two years of his life, he ever loved a paved street and honour. Lord Fairfax died at Nunappleton on the better than a green lane. His later years were mucb 12th of November 1671. The integrity of Fairfax has never troubled by disease which, though temporarily alleviated been doubted. No one has ever attenipted to charge mean by a voyage to Egypt and Nubia with the present Lord ness or corruption on the Parliamentary general. But he Londesborough, terminated in consumption. He died was great only in the field, and had apparently none of the April 3, 1866. His books relating to Shakespeere were bequalities of a statesmau. He is placed at great disadvan. I guenthed to the library at Stratford-ou-Avon : those on civio



pageantry (between 200 and 300 volumes) to the Society of rides with a restriction. Gervaise of 'l ilbury, writing early Antiquaries; his old prints and works on costume to the in the 13th century, has, in his Otia Imperialia, a chur British Museum.

De lamiis et nocturnis lurvis, where he gives it out, as prored FAIRIES (Fr., fée, faerie;.Prov., fada; Sp., hada; Ital., by individuals beyond all exception, that men bare bez fata ; Med. Lat., fature, to enchant, from Latin fatum, lovers of beings of this kind whom they call Falch, and fate, destiny). In early times, when so much of the energy who did, in case of infidelity or infringement of secrecy, in of man was not, as now, applied to practice, it seems to flict terrible punishment—the loss of goods and evea of 152 have found a natural outlet in ihe imagination. Of all the There seems little in the characteristics of these Lina e minor creations of mythology, the fairies are the most beau- romance to distinguish them from human beings, lice: tiful, the most numerous, the most memorable in litera- their supernatural knowledge and power. They wert ture. Like all organic growths, whether of nature or of the often represented as diminutive in stature, and seem to be fancy, they are not the immediate product of one country subject to such human passions as love, jealousy, envy, 21 or of one time; they have a pedigree, and the question of revenge. To this class belong the fairies of Boiardo, Arissa, their ancestry and affiliation is one of wide bearing and and Spenser. weighty side-issues. But mixture and connexion of races The etymology traced at the beginnii.g of this article is have in this, as in many other cases, so changed the original that generally given, but it is by no means universy folk-product that it is difficult to disengage and separate accepted. Some fanciful theories that prevailed at the te the different strains that have gone to the making or ginning of the century, as, for instance, that adopted by Sir moulding of the result as we have it. Certain points, how- W. Scott in his Essay on the Fairy Superstition, which oraever, in the course and development of the superstition can nects the word fairy with the Persian peri, are now genera* be definitely placed..

rejected. M. Walckenaer believed the word to be puni The character of the religion of the people of Gaul was Celtic (see bis Letters sur les Contes des Fées, Paris, logik undoubtedly much changed by the Roman occupation, but, Apart, however, from the question of the origin and TuTu in inscriptions and legends, traces are to be found of what intention of the term, the kind of beings first signified by the primitive belief was, which faintly shadow out that it can be fairly connected with creatures of the Greek ui primitive belief, and it is here that we first find traces of Roman mythology. one of the various classes of beings which have in later The Gauls had no doubt a populous pantheon. The times received the general name of fairies. Votive inscrip- peasants seem to have offered worship to, and peopled the cions to sapernatural beigs, corresponding to the nymphs old hills, trees, rocks, streams, and springs with, bern and fauns of classic mythology, have been found on Gaulish similar to the nymphs and fauns of antiquity. And es and German soil repeatedly. A passage in Pomponius Mela little locality seems to have had its protecting dzitis, (De Situ Orbis, bk. iii. c. 6) points distinctly to a belief of female, and generally three in number. The coming d the Bretons in certain beings having many characteristics of Christianity only changed slightly the way of regarding the the fairies.

creatures--did not by any means overcome the superstiticou "' Sena being situate in the British sea against the country of the It is niost likely to the similarity in character and faceOsismyes is renowned with the oracle of the god of the Galles, tion of these local deities to the Parcæ or Fates of artut whose vowesses in number nine, are hallowed to continual that we owe the name generally given to all the diferent virginitie. They call them Gallicens, and aro of opinion that, through the singular wisdom wherewith they are indued, they raise beings, a great part of whose functions it was to preide the seas and winds with their charms, and transform themselves the birth and rule the destiny of man. It seems probazie into what beastes they will, and heale such diseases as to others that among the people generation after generation of Des are incurable, and knowe things to come and prophesy of them, but changed these topical divinities into those fairies, the ta not unto any other than such as sayle thither for the nonce, and of which Perrault and his successors made so popular. The come of set purpose to demaund counsell of them.”—Golding's trans- fairy tales in tbe Piacevoli Notte of Straparola (15505 lation, p. 78.

and the Pentamerone of Basile (1672) are also, do deckt, The similarity of these beings to the fays that play 80 important a part in mediæval romances is remarkable. A influence of Eastern stories had been brought by trave's

the results of genuine tradition. By this time, however, the passage in the romauce of Lancelot du Lac is so directly and crusaders to bear upon the traditions of the West, s vel descriptive that it may be quoted:

as that of the superstition next to be mentioned. Totes “En cellui temps estoient appellees fées toutes celles qui sentermet. elves and duergar of the northern mythology we sunt toient den-chantements et de charmes

, et moult en estoit pour lors for the origin of those little creatures that dance in se principallement en la Grande Bretagne, et scavoient la force et la vertue des parolles, des pierres, et des herbes, parquoy elles estoient woods and meadows. The elves are divided into : tenue en jeunesse et en beaulte et en grandes richesses comment classes, the light and the dark. It is related in the a elles divisoient. Et ce fut estably au temps de Merlin le prophete.- Edda that the gods reflected how the duergar animasi Ed. 1533, p. V.

clay below the earth like maggots in flesh; and otuer These fays preside at the birto and influence the destiny under different names, as brownie, claricaone, totta, of men, taking individuals under their special protection. lutin, hobgoblin, beings of this kind, whether el tie They take lovers from among den, and are often described wood, of the rock or stream, or of the household, bateri as of delicate, unearthly, ravishing beauty. The enjoyment a great part in the life of the peasantry of many cucia. of their charms is, however, generally qualified by some re- | They are represented as of very various characterists :: striction or compact, the breaking of which is the cause of propensities. Their appearance and power are se calamity to the lover and all his race, as in the notable tale propitious, at other times baleful." He that 20 of Melusine. This fay by enchantment built thu castle of them shall die," says Falstaff, and hides his face meesters Lusignan for her husband. It was her nature to take, every Perhaps the leading features of their character vità n. week, the form of a serpent from the waist below. The to man is a desire for fair human children, which are hebdomadal transformation being once, contrary to compact, tuting abortive creatures, they practise may be witnessed by her husband, she left him with much wailing, obtain. They are often represented as animated breast and was said to return and give warning by her appearance of malicious mockery towards men, which is not, bres and great shrieks whenever one of the race of Lusignan was altogether malignant. In connexion with their tale about to die. At the birth of Ogier le Dannois six fairies abode underground, it is to be noted thas Choice attend, five of whom give gond gifts, which the sixth over- Pluto and Proserpina king and queen of faery.

Besides scattered allusions, we owe to this superstition 3,028,502 ; Malumetans and others, 350,760 ; total, many fair products of our poetry. Works of Drayton, Ben 3,379,262, of whom 1,747,411 were males and 1,631,851 Jonson, Fletcher, Randolph, and Herrick will at once females. Number of villages or townships, 8452. Area, suggest themselves. Its influence is of course very marked 7671 square miles. In the youthful works of Milton. Of the Midsummer FAIZÁBÁD, a district of British India in Oudh, under the Night's Dream, that perfect rose among all these flowers lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces, iu of fancy, it is unnecessary to speak, even were it possible 26-27° N. lat. and 81°-82° E. long., is bounded on the N. to do so adequately.

and E. by the Gogra river, on the S. by Azinigarh district, For an elaborate account of fairies in general, see Keightley's and on the W. by the Gumti river. The area, according Puiry Mythology, where the legends of different countries are col to the latest estimate in 1877, is 1649 square miles, and lected.

(W. HE.)

the population 1,024,092 souls. Faizabad forms a very FAITHORNE, WILLIAM, & painter and engraver, was historical district, lying between the two great rivers of porn in London, at what date is uncertain, but most pro- Oudh, and is interesting alike for its calamities and its ruins. bably either in 1626 or 1627. He was apprenticed to Ajodhya, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Oudh, which Robert Peake, a painter and printseller, who received the plays so conspicuous a part in the Sanskrit epics, lies in its bonour of knighthood from Charles I. On the outbreak northern angle, close to the present city of Faizabád. In of the civil war he accompanied his master into the king's more modern times the district was the centre of the service, and being made prisoner at Basinghouse, he was nawáb vizier's influence, and contained his capital until the confined for some time to Aldersgate, where, however, he removal of his court to Lucknow in 1775. In 1857 it bewas permitted to follow his profession of engraver, and

came the scene of the disaster described below. Since among other portraits did a small one of the first Villiers, the mutiny, the district has settled down into a peaceful duke of Buckingham. At the earnest solicitation of his part of the British empire, with an increasing population. friends he very soon regained his liberty, but only on con. It is penetrated throughout its length from north to south dition of retiring to France. There he was so fortunate as by the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway, and does an import to receive instructions from Robert Nanteuil, by which his ant trade with the great cities of the north-weat. The style was greatly benefited. He was permitted to return | growth of its population has been the more markod, owing to England about 1650, and took up a shop near Teniple to the previous desertion and decay in the last century on Bar, where, besides his work as an engraver, he carried on the transfer of the nawab's court to Lucknow. The popula. A large business as a printseller. In 1680 he gave up his tion, classified according to religion, is—Hindus, 922,360, shop and retired to a house in Blackfriars, occupying himself Mahometang, 100,410, Christians, 1322, of whom 1267 chiefly in painting portraits from the life in crayons, represent the European soldiers ; total, 1,024,092 ; the although still occasionally engaged in engraving. He died density of population averaging 621 per square mile. The of a lingering consumption, May 13, 1691 ; and it is said five largest towns, containing upwards of_5000 inhabithat his life was shortened by the misfortunes, dissipation, tants, are-Faizabad, population, 37,804 ; Tánda, 13,643; and early death of his son William. Faithorne is especially Ajodhya, 9949 ; Jalálpur, 6275; and Sajauli, 5614. The famous es a portrait engraver, and among those on whom railway stations are the following :-Málipur, Akbarpur,' he exercised his art were a large number of eminent persons, Kánurpur, Gosáinganj, Tandauli,

Belargbåt, Darsinagar, including Sir Henry Spelman, Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ajodhya, Faizabád, and Sajauli. The estimated cultivated Somerset, the marquis of Worcester, John Milton, Queen area in 1875 was 628,690 acres, of which rice was returned Cetberine, Prince Rupert, Cardinal Richelieu, Sir Thomas as occupying 162,562 ; wheat, i $2,895 ; other food grains, Fairfax, Thomas Hobbes, Richard Hooker, Robert second 248,837 ; oil-seeds, 6888; sugar, 27,800 ; cotton, 492 ; earl of Esses, and Charles I. All his works are remarkable opium, 4982 ; indigo, 6900 ; fibres, 202; tobacco, 3957; for their com bination of freedom and strength with softness and vegetables, 3522. The total value of the trade of end delicacy, and his crayon paintings unite to these the addi- Faizabád in 1874-75 was exports £425,115, and imports tional quality of clear and brilliant colouring. Faithorne £122,511, the chief articles of export being food grains, is the author of a work on engraving, which was published oil-seeds, country cloth, and silk, and cotton; and of im. in 1622.

ports, sugar, spices, European piece goods, &c. The FAITHORNE, WILLIAM (1656–1686), a mezzotinto en. revenue of the district in 1874-75 was £151,850, of which graver, son of the former, was born in 1656. He had the £133,243, or 85 per cent., was derived from the lend-te udvantage of his father's instructions, and devoting his The machinery for protecting person and property consisted atiention chiefly to mezzotinto, at an early age gave promise of 15.magisterial and 15 civil and revenue courts. The of attaining great excellence, but became idle and dissi- regular police force consisted of 552 officers and men, paced, and it is said involved his father in money difficulties. maintained at a cost of £8363 out of the imperial revenue ; Among persons of note whoge portraits he engraved are a town and cantonment police numbering 237, and costing Charles II., Mary princess of Orange, Queen Anne when £1402 from local sources ; and a village police numbering princess of Denmark, and Charles XII. of Sweden. He 2277 men, maintained by the villagers or landholders at a died in 1686.

cost of £5524. The average daily number of prisoners in The best account of the Faithornes is that contained in Walpole's | jail in 1875 was 791, or one to overy 1294 of the popula: Anecdotes of Painting. A life of Faithorne the elder is preserved tion. The schools in the same year numbered 98, attended in the British Museum among the papers of Mr Bayford, librarian by 4461 pupils. Four charitable dispensaries afforded to Lord Oxford, and an intimate friend of Faithorne.

medical aid to 13,463 patients; and a poorhouse furnished FAIZÁBÁD, a division or commissionership of Oudh in assistance to 6752 paupers in the shape of food, clothing, British India, now under the jurisdiction of thu lieutenant- and shelter. governor of the North-Western Provinces. It lies in 26°-28° FAIZÁBÁD, the chief own and administrative head. 30' N. lat. and 81° 5°-83° 15' E. long., and comprises the quarters of the district of the same name, situated on the three districts of Faizabád, Gonda, and Bharaich. It is right or south bank of the Gogra, in 26° 47' N. lat, and brunded on the N. by the independent state of Nepál, on the 82° 15' E. long. Adjacent to Faizabad on the E., and now E. by Gorakhpur district, on the S. by Azimgarh and Sultán. forming a suburb of the town, is Ajodhyá, the ancient par, and on the W. by Bára Banki, Sitapur, and Kheri. capital of King Daswratha, the father of Ráma, the hero of Population, according to the cousus nf 1868—Hindus. I the Ramayaná. Of this ancient city. said to have covered


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an area of 48 kos, now hardly a trace remains. The 1857, the cantonment contained two regiirents dia... modern Ajodhyá contains several Jain and Hindu temples. a squadron of cavalry, and a light field bartery of art. The city of Faizabad was founded about 1730 by Sa'adat all natives. Owing to their threatening demeanor. Ali Khán the first nawab vizier of Oudh, who made it bis the Meerut massacre, many of the European iais: capital. The place rapidly grew in importance until 1775, children were sheltered by one of the great lani... when the court of Oudu was removed to Lucknow. It Oudh, and others were sent forvard to less distanza then rapidly decayed, all the leading merchants, bankers, of the country. Tho troops rose, as w23 &c., abandoning the place. In 1839, Butter estimated its although they at first permitted their officers to nei population at 100,000 but fast diminishing, owing to the and proceed towards Dinapur, a message was alt exactions and oppressions by the native officials of the sent to a rebel force lower down the river to isto nawab's Government. At the time of the census in 1869 fugitives. Of four boats, one succeeded in Faizábád contained only 37,804 inhabitants ; but it is now safely, having passed the rebels unnoticed Oiten again advancing in prosperity, and is rapidly becoming an pants of the other three boats, one person alone esis. emporium of trade. At the time of the annexation of Oudh Faizábád is now a station for European as well as for 2013 iu 1856 Faizabad was made, and still continues to be, a | troops. Large military station. On the outbreak of the mutiny in | FAKIR. See DERVISA, VOL vii., p. 113.

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