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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY
TRANSFERRED FROM BOTANICAL MUSEUM LIBRARY
FEB. 26, 1934
ARGYLE PRESS, PRINTING AND BOOKBINDING, 265 & 267 CHERRY 6T., N. Y.
Encyclopædia Britannica.- VOL. VIII,
ELECTRICITY. GEORGE CHRYSTAL, M.A., Prof. of
Mathematics, University of St Androws.
“History of Lace," &c.
Regius Prof. of Civil Law, Oxford
MARTIN. (HISTORY). E. A. FREEMAX, D.C.L.,
and S. RAWSON GARDINER.
Author of “History of the Church of England."
Author of "Manual of Eaglish Literature."
Divinity, Aberdeen University.
Pare Mathematics, Cambridge.
ERASMUS. Rov. MARK PATTISON, B.D., Rector of
Lincoln College, Oxford.
Economy, Owens College, Manchester.
Lecturer, Balliol College, Oxford.
mental Plıysics, Cambridge.
Science, Trinity College, Cambridge,
K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S.
powder Factory, Waltham Abbey.
E LE - E L E
TLEANOR, of Aquitaine (1122-1204), queen of France has been described as the founder of the school, and though William IX., the last duke of Guienne, and was born in it may not incorrectly be applied to him. The philosophy 1122. She succeeded her father in 1138, and was married of Xeropbanes took its rise in a strong antagonism to the the same year to Louis VII. of France. Her lively and popular anthropomorphic mythology; and, though it consomewhat frivolous manners, and her love of pleasure, did tains part, it is far from containing the whole, of the pot fi ber for the society of a husband who was naturally Eleatic doctrine as maintained by Parmenides and bis austere, and who from religious conviction had adopted followers. Its chief doctrines were that “the One is God," many ascetic habits. They became gradually estranged, and that God is self-existent, eternal, unchangeable, and in the Holy Land, whither she had accompanied Louis i immovable, of the same substance throughout, and in every in 1147, their quarrels became so frequent and so bitter respect incomparable to man. that at last a divorce was agreed upon, which on their re- The Eleatic philosophy is founded upon the doctrine of turn from France was completed under the pretext of kin- a complete severance and opposition of thought and sense. edip
, 18th March 1152. Six months afterwards she gave Truth is in no degree attainable by sense ; sense gives only ber band and her possessions to Henry of Navarre, who false appearances, non-being: it is by thought alone that 1155 mountrd the throne of England as Henry II. That we arrive at the knowledge of being, at the great truth that the duchy of Guienne should thus become permanently “the All is One," eternal, unchangeable; or rather, as annered to the English crown was naturally displeasing to Ilegel rightly interprets the Eleatics, thought is being. No Louis
, and the indirect consequence of his displeasure was distinction is drawn by Parmenides between thought and protracted wars between France and England. In other material being; the “ One and All,” indeed, is described tespecta also the marriage had unhappy consequences. The materially as a perfect and immovable sphere. The notions inddelities of Henry, and the special favours he showed to of creation, change and destruction, diversity and multiplione of his mistresses, so greatly roused Eleanor's jealousy, city, time and space, and the various sensations, are all that she inc'ted her son Richard to rebellion, and also in- mere false appearances of sense, which thought shows to trigued with her former husband to get him to lend his in- be contradictory and false. Upon a very common conidence to the great league formed against Henry in 1173. fusion of the word exist with the verb to be, which does Her son bad fled to Louis, and she was preparing to follow not necessarily imply existence, he founded his argument him when she was arrested and placed in confinement, against the possibility of creation : creation cannot be, for where she remained till the death of her husband in 1189. being cannot arise out of non-being ; nor can non-being As soon as he died she regained her liberty, and reigned as be. Again, there can be no difference or change except in regent until Richard's arrival from France. She also held appearance, for a thing cannot arise from what is different this position during Richard's absence in the Holy Land, from it. But this side of the Eleatic argument was more for which he left in 1190. After his escape in 1194 from completely developed by Zeno. In the second part of his the captivity which befe! him as he was returning home, poem, Parmenides, notwithstanding his assertion of their she retired to the abbey of Fontevrault, where she died falseness, does offer an explanation of the facts of conscious. April 1, 1204.
Of this part of his theory, however, we have only ELEATIC SCHOOL, a Greek school of philosophy, so very incomplete knowledge. It stands altogether distinct called because Elea was the birth-place or residence of its from his main doctrine. It is materialistic, like nearly all chief representatives. Parmenides, who was born at Elea the other early Greek explanations of the universe. The probably about the year 515, was the first completely to universe (that is, the apparent universe) is, he says, made up develop the Eleatic doctrines; but his philosophy has a of two elements, one of which he describes as heat and light, Fery close connection with that of Xenophanes, who was the other as cold and darkness. Of these elements all men bort more than a centary earlier. Xenophanes, indeed, are composed, and their thinking varies as the proportions
in which these elements are mixed in their composition. ELECTIONS. The law of parliamentary and municipal Even tho dead body feels cold and darkness.
elections in England is now governed as to procedure by Zeno, born in the beginning of the 5th century B.C., the the 35 and 36 Vict. c. 33 (the Ballot Act, 1872), and fellow-townsman, disciple, and adopted son of Parmenides, as to disputed returns by the 31 and 32 Vict. c. 125 (Paris famous for his attempts to prove that the notions of liamentary Elections Act, 1868) and 35 and 36 Vict. c. 60. time, space, motion, multiplicity, sight, sound, &c., are self. See Ballot and BRIBERY. contradictory and unthinkable. His paradoxes were stated The inquiry into a disputed parliamentary election was with a subtlety which has forced thinkers even of distinc formerly conducted before a committed of the House of tion, who were opposed to his main position, for instance, Cummons, chosen as nearly as possible from both sides of Sir William Hamilton, to admit some of them to be un- the House for that particular business. The decisions of answerable. Against motion Zeno directed several argu- these tribunals laboured under the suspicion of being ments, the most celebrated being that of Achilles and the prompted by party feeling, and by the above-named Act of tortoise, which are founded upon the confusion of that 1868 the jurisdiction was finally transferred to Her Majesty's which is infinitely divisible with that which is infinite. judges, notwithstanding the general unwillingness of the Against space Zeno argued that any space, however | bench to accept a class of business wbich they feared might large, must be in a larger space, this larger space again bring their integrity into dispute. In future no election in a still larger, and so on ad infinitum. Against the shall be questioned except in accordance with the provisions manifold he argued (1) that the manifold, being divisible of this Act. Section 11 of the Act orders, inter alia, that into the infinitely small, i.e., into that which has no the trial of every election petition shall be conducted before magnitude, can itself have none, as divisions that have no a puisne judge of one of the common law courts at Westmagnitude must make up a whole without magnitude ; and minster and Dublin; that the said courts shall each select (2) that, being divisible into an infinite number of parts, a judge to be placed on the rota for the trial of election it must be infinitely large. Against sound he argued—and petitions; that the said judges shall try petitions standing he applied similar reasoning to sight—that, as you cannot for trial according to seniority or otherwise, as they may hear a single grain of corn fall, you cannot hear the sound of agree; that the trial shall take place in the county or a number of grains falling, the sound of the falling of the borough to which the petition refers, unless the court number of grains being made up of the sounds of the should think it desirable to hold it elsewhere. The judge falling of each grain. Thus Zeno sought to prove that shall determine “whether the member whose return is comthought and sense are opposed, and that the latter, con- ' plained of, or any and what other person, was duly returned tradicting itself, proves itself unworthy of the consideration and elected, or whether the election was poid," and shall of the philosopher,
certify his determination to the Speaker. When corrupt The last of the Eleatic teachers was Melissus of Samos, practices have been charged the judge shall also report (1) the friend of Heraclitus, who was probably born somewhat whether any such practice has been committed by or with later than Zeno. We only possess fragments of his works, the knowledge or consent of any candidate, and the nature preserved by Simplicius and collected by Brandis. His thereof ; (2) the names of persons proved to have been modifications of the doctrines of his master, Parmenides, guilty of any corrupt practice ; and (3) whether corrupt are not important, with the exception of his assertion of practices have extensively prevailed at the election. the infinity, the unlimitedness, of “ the One and All," and Questions of law may be referred to the decision of the his distinct insistance upon the doctrine that the “One and Court of Common Pleas. The report of the judge is All” is immaterial, unextended, without parts.
equivalent to tho report of an election committee under See the separate articles XENOPHANES, PARMENIDES, the old system. Petitions may be presented by the followand ZENO.
ing persons :-(1) some person who has voted or had the ELECAMPANE (M. Lat., Enula Campana), a perennial right to vote at the election; (2) some person claiming to composite plant, the Inula Helenium of Linnæus, which is have a right to be returned or elected; (3) somo person common in many parts of Britain, and ranges throughout alleging himself to bave been a candidate. The trial of a central and southern Europe, and in Asia as far eastwards petition shall be proceeded with notwithstanding the as the Himalayas. Its stem attains a height of from 3 to acceptance by the respondent of an office of profit under 5 feet; the leaves are serrate-dentate, the lower ones stalked, the Crown, and notwithstanding the prorogation of Parliathe rest embracing the stem; the flowers are yellow, and ment; though it would appear that the dissolution of 2 inches broad, and have many rays, each three-notched at Parliament abates a petition. The judge appointed to try the extremity. The root, the radix inulæ of pharmacy, is a petition shall be received with the same state as a judge thick, branching, and mucilaginous, and has a warm bitter of assize in an ašsize town. The costs and expenses of taste and a camphoraceous odour. For medicinal purposes the petition shall be paid by the parties in such manner it should be procured from plants not more than two or and such proportions as the court or judge may determine, three years old. Besides inulin, C2,H.,0
O, a body isomeric regard being had to the discouragement of needless expense with starch, the root contains, according to Kallen, two by throwing the burden thereof on the parties by whom it crystallizable substances-helenin, C,H,O, and alanicam- | has been caused, whether they are on the whole successful phor, C.,H160. By the ancients the root was employed both or not. When a returning officer has wilfully neglected to as & medicine and as a condiment, and in England it was return a person found on petition to have been entitled to formerly in great repute as an aromatic tonic and stimulant be returned, such person may sue the officer (within one of the secretory organs. " The fresh roots of elecampane year of the act complained of, or six months of the trial of preserved with sugar, or made into a syrup or conserve," are the petition), and shall recover double the damage he has recommended by Parkinson in his Theatrum Botanicum as actually sustained, together with full costs of suit. “ very effectual to warm a cold and windy stomack, and the To meet the additional work imposed on the English pricking and stitches therein or in the sides caused by the courts of common law by this Act, power was given to Spleene, and to helpe the cough, shortnesse of breath, and appoint an additional judge to each of them. Section 58 wheesing in the Lungs.” As a drug, however, the root is applies the provisions of the Act, with certain modificanow seldom resorted to excopt in veterinary practice. In tions, to Scotland. France and Switzerlaud it is used in the manufacture of This, like the Ballot Act, is a continuing Act. absinthe.
Petitions against municipal elections are dealt with in 35.