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WRITINGS OF FRANKLIN

ESSAYS,

HUMOROUS, MORAL, ECONOMICAL, AND POLITICAL.

THE WAY TO WEALTH, As clearly shown in the practice of an old Pennsylvania

Almanac, entitled, Poor Richard Improved.

COURTEOUS READER, I have heard that nothing gives an author so great pleasure as to find his works respectfully quoted by others. Judge, then, how much I must have been gratified by an incident I am going to relate to you. I stopped my horse lately where a great number of people were collected at an auction of merchants' goods. The hour of the sale not being come, they were conversing on the badness of the times ; and one of the company called to a plain, clean old man, with white locks, Pray, Father Abraham, what think you of the times ? Will not these heavy taxes quite ruin the country? How shall we ever be able to pay them? What would you advise us to ?” Father Abraham stood up and replied, “ If you would have my advice, I will give it you in short ; for A word to the wise is enough, as Poor Richard says.” They joined in desiring him to speak his mind; and, gathering round him, he proceeded as follows: Friends,"

,” said he, “the taxes are indeed very heavy, and if those laid on by the government were the only ones we had to pay, we might more

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easily discharge them; but we have many others, and much more grievous to some of us.

We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us, by allowing an abatement. However, let us hearken to good advice, and something may be done for us : God helps them that help themselves, as Poor Richard says.

“I. It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one tenth part of their time, to be employed in its service; but idleness taxes many of us much more; sloth, by bringing on diseases, absolutely shortens life. Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labour wears; while the used key is always bright, as Poor Richard says. But dost thou love life, then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of, as Poor Richard says. How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep? forgetting that The sleeping fox catches no pouliry, and that There will be sleeping enough in the grave, as Poor Richard says.

If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be, as Poor Richard says, the greatest prodigality ; since, as he elsewhere tells us, Lost time is never found again; and what we call time enough, always proves little enough. Let us, then, up and be doing, and doing to the purpose; so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity. Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy; and He that riseth late must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night; while Laziness travels so slowly, that Poverty soon overtakes him. Drive thy business, let not that drive thee; and Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise, as Poor Richard says.

So what signifies wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better if we bestir ourselves. Industry need not wish, and he that

lives upon hopes will aie fasting. There are no gains without pains ; then help, hands, for I have no lands ; or, if I have, they are smartly taxed. He that hath a trade hath an estate ; and he that hath a calling hath an office of profit and honour, as Poor Richard says; but then the trade must be worked at, and the calling followed, or neither the estate nor the office will enable us to pay our taxes. If we are industrious, we shall never starve; for, At the workingman's house hunger looks in, but dares not enter. Nor will the bailiff or the constable enter; for Industry pays debts, while despair increaseth them. What though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left you a legacy? Diligence is the mother of luck, and God gives all things to industry. Then plough deep while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn to sell and to keep. Work while it is called to-day, for you know

not how much you may be hindered to-morrow. One to-day is worth two tomorrows, as Poor Richard says; and farther, Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day. If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle? Are you, then, your own master ? Be ashamed to catch yourself idle when there is so much to be done for yourself, your family, and your country. Handle your tools without mittens; remember that The cat in gloves catches no mice, as Poor Richard says. It is true there is much to be done, and perhaps you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadily, and you will see great effects; for Constant dropping wears away stones; and By diligence and patience the mouse ate in two the cable; and Little strokes fell great oaks.

“ Methinks I hear some of you say, “Must a man afford himself no leisure ?' I will tell thee, my friend, what Poor Richard says : Employ thy time well, if thou meanest to gain leisure ; and, since thou art not sure of a minute, throw not away an hour.

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Leisure is time for doing something useful; this
leisure the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy
man never; for A life of leisure and a life of laziness
are two things. Many, without labour, would live by
their wits only, but they break for want of stock;
whereas industry gives comfort, and plenty, and
respect. Fly pleasures, and they will follow you.
The diligent spinner has a large shift; and now I have
a sheep and a cow, everybody bids me good-morrow.

" II. But with our industry we must likewise be
steady, settled, and careful, and oversee our own
affairs with our own eyes, and not trust too much
to others; for, as Poor Richard says,

I never saw an oft-removed tree,
Nor yet an oft-removed family,

That throve so well as those that settled be.
And again, Three removes are as bad as a fire; and
again, Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee; and
again, If you would have your business done, go; if
not, send, And again,

He that by the plough would thrive,
Himself must either

hold or drive.
And again, The eye of a master will do more work than
both his hands ; and again, Want of care does us more
damage than want of knowledge ; and again, Not to
oversee workmen is to leave them your purse open.
Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of
many; for in the affairs of this world men are saved,
not by faith, but by the want of it; but a man's own
care is profitable; for, If you would have a faithful
servant, and one that you like, serve yourself. A little
neglect may breed great mischief; for want of a nail
the shoe was lost; for want of a shoe the horse was lost;
and for want of a horse the rider was lost, being overla-
ken and slain by the enemy; all for the want of a little
care about a horseshoe nail.

“ III. So much for industry, my friends, and at-
tention to one's own business; but to these wo

must add frugality, if we would make our industry more certainly successful. A man may, if he knows not how to save as he gets, keep his nose all his life to the grindstone, and die not worth a groat at last. A fat kitchen makes a lean will; and

Many estates are spent in the getting,
Since women for tea forsook spinning and knitting,

And men for punch forsook hewing and splitting. If you would be wealthy, think of saving as well as of getting. The Indies have not made Spain rich, because her outgoes are greater than her incomes.

Away, then, with your expensive follies, and you will not then have so much cause to complain of hard times, heavy taxes, and chargeable families. And farther, What maintains one vice would bring up two children. You may think, perhaps, that a little tea, or a little punch now and then, diet a little more costly, clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and then, can be no great matter; but remember, Many a little makes a mickle. Beware of little expenses ; A small leak will sink a great ship, as Poor Richard says; and again, Who dainties love, shall beggars prove ; and moreover, Fools make feasts, and wise men eat them.

“ Here you are all got together at this sale of fineries and knickknacks. You call them goods ; but, if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you. You expect they will be sold cheap, and perhaps they may for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you. Remember what Poor Richard says: Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries. And again, At a great pennyworth pause a while. He means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent only, and not real; or the bargain, by straitening thee in thy business, may do thee more harm than good. For in another place he says, Many have been ruined by buying good pen

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