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who had orders to ufe his beft endeavours to make a treaty of friendship with the Zamorin of Calicut, and to petition him for liberty to build a fort near the city, by which the Portuguefe might be enabled to live fecure from the violence of their enemies, and carry on their traffick with fafety. But if he found him averfe to peace, and obftinately bent against our people, that he should, without any farther delay, declare him an enemy, and treat him in an hoftile manner. Cabral had a very bad voyage, feveral of his fhips being obliged to put back to Lisbon, and no lefs than four of them loft, with all on board. He himself, with the reft, were driven fo far to the weftward, that he fell in with the Brazils, of which we have here a fhort defcription, together with the manners of the natives. As this country appeared extremely beautiful and fertile, Cabral fent one of his fhips exprefs to acquaint Emmanuel with his new discovery, and then proceeded on his voyage. Being arrived at Calicut, the Zamorin fent two of his nobles to falute him; and on Cabral's going afhore, he was received with the utmost demonftrations of joy. The Zamorin made the warmeft profeffions of friendship, granting the Portuguese a free trade in his dominions. He, befides, affign'd them a large house, near the shore, for the ufe of those who were to transact the affairs of king Emmanuel.

Notwithstanding, however, all this boafted friendship of the Zamorin, he connived at the malicious and fraudulent proceedings of the Arabian merchants, who bought up all the spices at the highest prices, in order to prevent their falling into the hands of the Portuguefe. When Cabral complained of this, he gave him power to take the fpices out of the Arabian fhips, after paying the value of them to the merchants. On receiving this anfwer, Cabral remained in fufpence, fearing, left if he did fo, the Arabians might fall upon and destroy the Portuguefe who were afhore. However, being pushed on by Correa, the chief of thofe on fhore, he stopped all ships outward bound, till the Portuguefe had received their full loading of fpices. This fo exafperated the Arabians, that 4cco of them befet the Portuguefe houfe, thofe within being only 70. On Correa's making a fignal of distress, a detachment was fent in the longboats to his relief; but he himself, and fifty of his men were cut in pieces, twenty only making their efcape, and thefe fo miferably wounded, that most of them died.

This was the beginning of the war between the Portuguefe and the Zamorin, which lafted many years.

Cabral

Cabral finding that the Zamorin had been privy to this tumult, refolved to take vengeance on ten large Arabian ships in the harbour. The engagement, for fome time, was fierce and warm on both fides; but the Portugueje at last boarded them, killing about 600 of the enemy. They plunder'd these vefiels, and being in great want of hands, they put all the prifoners aboard their own fhips. They found likewife three elephants, and (being fhort of provifions) killed and falted them for food. They afterwards fired the fhips, which were all destroy'd in the fight of the Zamorin of Calicut. This done, Cabral failed for Cochin, a city about 70 miles fouth of Calicut, the prince of this place being defirous to cultivate a friendship with the Portuguefe. Here Cabral took in what fpices and other merchandize he wanted, and then set fail for Portugal, where he arrived in July 1502.

Thus the Portuguese continued fending out a fleet every year to India, which always touched at Cochin, and did all the damage in their power to the Zamorin of Calicut, by plundering and burning all his fhips they could meet with. The Zamorin, on his part, left nothing untried to distress the Portuguese. He several times fitted out numerous fleets, with 15,000 troops, and fometimes more, on board; but he always came off with the worst, many of his fhips being funk, and great flaughter made among his men: all this, however, ferved only to provoke him ftill more. Wherefore, taking advantage of the abfence of the Portuguese fleet, he fell upon the king of Cochin, whom he forced to take shelter in a small island, after abandoning Cochin to the enemy. The prince of Cochin fuffered all this, because he abfolutely refused to deliver up the Portuguese who had been left in his dominions, and to enter into a league with the Zamorin against them.

When the famous Albuquerque arrived in India (viz. in 1503) he found the king of Cochin in this low condition; but foon reinftated him in his dominions, making him, at the fame time, a prefent of 10,000 ducats; a piece of generofity which was very acceptable at that juncture. Albuquerque therefore thought it a proper time to defire he would. allow him to build a fort, as a bulwark to the Portuguese, and a defence to his majefty against the attempts of the Zamorin. This requeft being granted, the foundation of a fort was laid on the 27th of September 1503; after the finishing of which, Albuquerque carried on an offenfive war against the Zamorin and his allies, invading his territories,

and

and laying all wafte with fire and fword; wherever he came. This done, and the Portuguese fhips having taken in their full loading of fpices, &c. they fet fail for Europe, leaving only one fhip, two caravals, and another small veffel, with 150 Portuguese. The command of this fmall fquadron, if it deferves that name, was given to Duarte Pacheco, a man of great ability, and unquestionable courage.

After the departure of Albuquerque, the Zamorin, more bent than ever upon the deftruction of the Portuguese and their ally the king of Cochin, raised an army of near 60,000 men, befides a fleet of 160 fhips; hoping with fuch fuperior force to carry all before him; but in this he was mistaken, for Pacheco baffled all his measures, repulfed this mighty armament, and defended the kingdom of Cochin from being invaded. The particulars of this brave defence are narrated at large; and are a proof of the incredible, and almost romantick magnanimity of Pacheco and his few Portuguefe. These exploits were performed in the year 1504, and bring down the history to the end of the third book.

The fourth, fifth, and fixth books contain the progress made by the Portuguese in the Eaft Indies, under the conduct of Francis Almeed, who was invefted with the authority of a viceroy. During his time the war against the Zamorin of Calicut was carried on without intermiffion: the Portuguefe likewife extended their fettlements, by obtaining leave to build forts at feveral places. But we shall only take notice of one exploit of Almeed, which happened after the arrival of his fucceffor Alphonfo Albuquerque, already mentioned, who offer'd him his affiftance, but was rejected.

Almeed having therefore fitted out a fleet of nineteen ships, aboard which there were three hundred Portuguese and four hundred Cochinians, failed firft for Dabul, a city be longing to the king of Goa, who had entered into an alliance with the enemies of the Portuguefe. When Almeed approached Dabul, there were in the harbour a great number of fhips well mann'd, and furnished with plenty of arms; befides which, the town was garrifon'd with fix thousand foldiers. The enemy in vain attempted to hinder his landing; for being routed, the Portuguese pursued them so closely, as to enter the town at the fame time. Now followed a moft dismal scene; the Portuguese, blinded by their fury, committing the most shocking barbarities. The flaughter was continu'd till fun-set, when Almeed ordered a retreat to be founded; fearing fome mifchief might happen, if the foldiers were allowed to go a plundering in the night-time. Next day

the

the city was firft pillaged and then burnt; after which Almeed purfued the enemy to the mountains, where he burnt many castles and villages,

This done, Almeed failed to Diu, a city fituate in a small island, belonging to the king of Cambaya, where the enemies of the Portuguese had assembled their united fleets. Mirhocem, admiral of the fultan of Egypt, had fix large ships, four Cambaian veflels, and feveral floops of war, together with a confiderable number of Calicutian paraos; to which adding the ships that belonged to Melichiaz, viceroy of Diu, the whole fleet amounted to above one hundred fail. Mirbocem's fhips were mann'd with Mamalukes, men of the utmost intrepidity, and not a little confident of fuccefs. Thofe of the other allies were armed with the fame affurance. Hope and refentment fpurred them on to defend their liberty, and to destroy a people whom they hated. There were likewife in this fleet feveral Venetians and Sclavonians, who commanded fome of the gallies; and thefe Chriftians, if worthy to be fo called, fhewed no lefs ardour to engage our fleet, than thofe enemies of our holy religion.

• Each commander used various arguments to excite the courage of his foldiers; Mirhocem, by all poffible methods, endeavoured to rouze the refentment of his men against the Chriftian name, and animated them with the agreeable profpect of rewards and honours. "If you are worfted this day," faid he, "the ignominy and lofs will be everlasting and irretrievable; on the other hand, if you prove victorious, the empire of India will be fecure, and your names will become for ever immortal." Almeed, on his part, did not omit any thing which he thought might inflame his men against the Mahometans, and infpire them with a zeal for their own religion. "For," faid he, "if conquered, you are every where furrounded by your enemies, who, when freed from the terror of your arms, will vent their implacable rage against the Chriftian name. You can have

no fuccour but from a great diftance: nor will you be able to find any shelter in your calamity; for the people are faithlefs, and will not fcruple to break through the most folemn ties of treaty, as foon as opportunity offers. Behave, therefore, like men; refolve either to conquer, or die hohourably."

By thefe, and fuch like fpeeches, Almeed having endeavoured to whet the courage of his men, of themfelves fufficiently eager, he ordered the fails to be hoifted; but as the wind failed, and the enemy did not advance from their ftations,

he

he came again to an anchor, waiting the return of the tide, and a favourable gale. The wind answering fooner than he expected, he again weighed; and the fignal being given, he advanced fo far that he could reach the enemy with his cannon; for the tide not beginning yet to flow, the water was low, fo that he was afraid to approach nearer, left he fhould run aground.

The enemy had planted several cannon on the walls of the city, and on the tower upon the fea-fhore; from thence they threw a great number of weapons, and fired from their batteries on our people, who, in their turn, attacked the enemies fleet with grear fury. The engagement continued. till it was interrupted by the darkness of the night. Almeed, who was in the first line with his fhip, had refolved to attack that commanded by Mirhocem, but he was diffuaded from this defign by the reft of his offices; for they represented to him the diforder and confufion which the Portuguese fleet would be thrown into, if their admiral should be involved in danger. This advice was not agreeable to his inclination; however he followed it, because he thought it moft confiftent with the rules of prudence. He appointed Numez Vafco Pereira to attack Mirhocem's fhip, and gave him the bravest men in the fleet to carry on this enterprize, and ordered George Melos Pereira to follow him. In every fhip the men were drawn up in four lines, at the poop, ftern, and fides; and each of these under particular officers.

• Mirhocem perceiving that Almeed rufhed on boldly to the engagement, refolved not to pafs the fhallow, but drew back his fleet nearer the walls, that he might act with more fafety, when affifted by the cannon of the city, and be more readily fupply'd with reinforcements, when neceffary. On this a moft bloody engagement enfued, the result of which was, that Almeed gained a compleat victory. Three large. ships with feveral paraos and 'floops of war were funk, and two fhips, two galleys, and four large veffels taken. In thefe they found a great number of cannon, vast quantities of gold as well as filver coin, and a prodigious variety of filk and embroider'd cloaths, of great value. Almeed, however, referved none of the booty for himfelf, but gave it all among the foldiers.

In this action the enemy loft four thousand men, amongst whom were a confiderable number of the fultan's foldiers, called Mamalukes; for out of eight hundred that were prefent at the fight, only twenty-two furvived this difafter.

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