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remaining seminarists are doing well in both secular and religious studies, and prove surprisingly apt therein, as well as docile in behavior; they wish to remain always with the missionaries, who hope that these heretofore wild youths may be induced to become tillers of the soil, thus affording a needed example to their fellow-savages.

Le Jeune recounts the hindrances to their work from the credulity of the natives, influenced by various false reports spread among them concerning the smallpox epidemic which, that year, had ravaged all Canada. This and other misfortunes were attributed to the French, and especially to the preachers of the new faith; these are considered by the Indians as sorcerers, who have bewitched them, and the tribesmen have sometimes threatened the lives of the Jesuits. The seminary is for a time in danger of ruin; but a turn in affairs, with a novena of masses in honor of St. Ignace, restores it to safety; and new pupils are sent down from the Huron country.

Brébeuf has sent a letter of "instructions for the Fathers of our Society who shall be sent to the Hurons," which is here given in full. Among these, are injunctions to "never make the savages wait for you in embarking; take, at first, everything they offer, although you may not be able to eat it all,for when one gets somewhat accustomed to it, there is not too much; do not be at all annoying to even one of these barbarians; do not ask too many questions; try always to be cheerful; " etc.

Le Jeune concludes his relation by the usual " Journal" of the year's events. In September he had gone with Montmagny to Three Rivers and the Richelieu River; and in October he had visited Beau

pré. Later, the Indian women come to him for instruction; but he soon has to dismiss these visitors on account of the noise made by the babies that accompany them. In April, a party of Algonkins and Montagnais go to attack the Iroquois, but are defeated, losing both their chiefs in battle. Makheabichtichiou, the Montagnais chief, applies to Montmagny for aid, and is told that it will be given them, if they consent to settle at Three Rivers and give up their nomadic life.

May day is celebrated by the light-hearted French, and a Maypole erected before the Quebec church

66

the first May day on which New France has honored the Church."

In June, a battle occurs between the Iroquets and Iroquois. The latter are defeated, losing thirteen prisoners, whom the Algonkins put to death with fearful tortures.

In July, a party of Abenakis come to Quebec, to visit the Montagnais. In defiance of prohibitions from the latter and from the French, they go to Three Rivers, to barter for beaver skins; but Montmagny compels them to return to their own country without any pelts, that they may not injure the trade of the Hundred Associates. The ships from France bring Fathers Claude Pijart and Claude Quentin.

Le Jeune and Ragueneau attend Montmagny to Three Rivers, to meet the annual Huron fleet. Pierre Pijart meets them there, having come with the Huron chief Aënons (mentioned by Brébeuf, in his Relation of the preceding year, as a warm friend of the mission). This man, becoming sick on the journey, dies at Three Rivers,-meeting his end piously, after having been baptized. As the Huron canoes

start to return, they are attacked by an ambushed band of Iroquois, numbering some 500 warriors. Some of the Hurons are captured; but the others escape for their homeward journey,-Ragueneau being, fortunately, with this band. The Iroquois even

threaten the French at Three Rivers; but Montmagny keeps them at bay, and sends to Quebec for reinforcements, whereupon the Iroquois retire. Soon after, the French return to Quebec, arriving there in time for Le Jeune to send his letters to France by the returning ships. He finishes writing the Relation, "on board the Sainte Marie," the ship that carried them back from Three Rivers.

Arrived at Quebec, he writes a dernière lettre, as a postscript to the former; this letter closes Part I. of the present document. In this epistle he relates that he was obliged, four days after reaching Quebec, to return to Three Rivers, to meet another Huron fleet that had just arrived at that settlement. The Hurons bring with them new pupils for the seminary,- even more than the Fathers can accept. Letters from the Huron mission relate the calumnies current there regarding the French, who are accused of being the cause of all the natives' misfortunes; but the missionaries heed not their persecutions, and continue their work full of faith and ardor. Montmagny's lieu tenant, De l'Isle, and Le Jeune hold a council with the savages at Three Rivers, making many speeches and presents; the savages are thus pacified, and their friendship won. Le Jeune concludes by relating the particulars of the illness and death of Charles Turgis, the missionary at Miscou.

MADISON, WIs., December, 1897.

R. G. T.

XXIX (continued)

LE JEUNE'S RELATION, 1637

ROUEN: JEAN LE BOULLENGER, 1638

Chaps. x.-xv. of the Relation proper, of 1637, and Le Jeune's Dernière Lettre, completing Part I. of the document, are given in the present volume. The greater portion of Part II. (Le Mercier's Huron Relation) will occupy Volume XIII.

[154] CHAPITRE X.

DES SORCIERS, ET S'ILS ONT COMMUNICATION AUEC LE DIABLE.

L

ES Sauuages Montagnets donnent le nom de Manitou à toute Nature fuperieure à l'homme, bonne ou mauuaife. C'eft pourquoy quand nous parlons de Dieu, ils le nomment par fois le bon Manitou, & quand nous parlons du Diable ils l'appellent le mefchant Manitou. Or tous ceux qui ont quelque cognoiffance particuliere auec le Manitou bon ou mauuais fe nomment parmy eux Man[i]touifiouekhi. Et pour autant que ces gens-là ne cognoiffent que le mefchant Manitou, c'est à dire le Diable, nous les appellons Sorciers. Ce n'eft pas que le Diable se comfe munique à eux fi fenfiblement qu'il fait aux Sorciers & aux Magiciens [155] d'Europe: mais nous n'auons point d'autre nom pour leur donner, veu mefmes qu'ils font quelques actions de vrays forciers: comme de fe faire mourir les vns les autres par forts ou defirs, & imprecations, par prouocations du Manitou, par des poisons qu'ils compofent: Et cela est si ordinaire parmy eux, du moins dans leur eftime, que ie n'en voy quafi mourir aucun, qui ne pense estre enforcelé. C'eft pourquoy ils n'ont point d'autres Medecins que ces Sorciers dont ils fe feruent pour rompre les forts defquels ils penfent estre liez: en effet ils meurent quafi tous etiques, deffeichans en forte qu'ils n'ont plus que la peau & les os quand on les porte en

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