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which are immediately appropriated to their perception. This appears from the origin of the nerves, and from their progress, as far as it can be traced, through the brain ;-from the effects of blows of compreffion from extravafated fluids; of different difeafes, &c. &c. each of which may, and often does, injure one faculty, while the other is left unhurt. It is needlefs to produce inftances; but on the whole, this general pofition is true, and the learned Author will not deny it, that the health of the whole mind, and the proper exercise of all its faculties, depend on an uninterrupted freedom of communication between the fe veral parts of the brain; but that any individual function, or the exercife of any one faculty only, requires that portion of the brain to be free that is peculiarly adapted to it by the Author of our frame, together with the free use of thofe nerves that are external to the brain, and which are effential to the communication of impulfions from the objects of sense.

In this fection, the Author contefts the pofitions of Dr. Price and Mr. Harris with much good fenfe and plaufibility; and though he differs from that truly fagacious Phyfiologist, Baron Haller, in many inftances in which his theory is materially con cerned, yet he frequently avails himself of that learned phyfician's obfervations, and always speaks of him with a respect due to his fingular merit.

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The third fection contains fome fhrewd and ingenious remarks on the properties of matter. He thinks, the late Mr. Baxter hath thrown a very thick cloud on this subject.' In his idea, the doctrine of the vis enertia, fo earneftly contended for by this philofopher, is indefenfible, and involves in it many palpable errors and inconfiftencies. He infers from the phæno. mena of electricity, magnetism, chemistry, and above all from the fimpleft and commoneft of all appearances, viz. the communication of motion from a moving body to one at reft, that matter is poffeffed of powers incompatible with the fuppofition of a vis inertia. His reafonings on this fubject produce the following conclufions: 1. That where there is elasticity, contact is not neceffary to the communication of motion. 2. That as we know of no bodies poffeffing perfect elafticity, we neither know of any perfectly hard and inelastic. 3. That (as the denfeft bodies are pervaded by the matter of electricity and by heat; and as, by abftracting their heat, we can proportionably leffen their volume) there is little reafon to imagine, that the particles of bodies, even of the clofeft texture, are, properly fpeaking, in contact with each other; and still less reason to prefume, that in cafes of the most forcible impulfe, the impelling body even touches (frifly fo fpeaking) the impelled. The fum of the whole is, that motion may be communicated without contact, and without any refiitance from a supposed vis inertia, which is utterly inconceivable

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conceivable where contact is not concerned, and scarcely conceivable in any other point of view; confequently, that fome different power is neceffary: fuch a power is that of repulfion, of the existence of which we have unequivocal proof; and without its intervention, the communication of motion from one body to another hath been esteemed by the wifeft phyfiologifts an inexplicable phenomenon.

In a note referring to this part of the fubject, our Author takes notice of fome pofitions of the ingenious M. de Luc, which are incompatible with his hypothefis. This refpectable writer (of whofe works we gave a large and particular account in our laft Appendix) attempts to accommodate the difference between the Materialists and Spiritualists, by supposing that there are certain common properties by which matter and fpirit may reciprocally act on each other. Our Author is not fatisfied with this folution of the difficulty, and fays If I might prefume to exercife the office of a commentator on what M. de Luc hath delivered, I fhould explain his principles on this footing; that matter may be refined to fuch a degree as to emulate the fubtilty of fpirit; and on the contrary, that fpirit may be condensed into what approaches very nearly to the grofsnefs of matter; and that at these oppofite extremes of their respective scales they meet, and affume the common properties before spoken of.' On this intricate fubject it is hazardous to risk an opinion. The Author recommends a free difcuffion of it: and we think the hints thrown out by a very ingenious writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for March and April on the properties of matter, well deferving attention; though we almoft defpair of seeing any thing on a point of fuch exquifite fubtilty and refinement that will bring the controverfy to a decifive iffue.

The laft fection, on the gradations in the works of Nature from the different claffes of vegetables to the various species and ranks of animals and rational beings, is curious and fenfible. The notes at the end of the effay difcover both learning and tafte, and well illuftrate the feveral fubjects difcuffed in the preceding fections.

On the whole, we have read thefe Mifcellaneous Obfervations' (which appear to have been written by a medical gentleman) with much pleafure: and though we do not in every respect adopt his fentiments, yet we refpect his abilities, and applaud his candour.

ART. XVI. Select Tragedies of Euripides. ginal Greek. 8vo. 6. Boards.

Tranflated from the ori-
Conant. 178c.

F the twenty tragedies of Euripides, now extant, the prefent volume contains only four; the Phoeniffe, Iphigenia


in Aulis, The Troades, and Oreftes. It is the Tranflator's in




tention, as we learn from his fenfible and well-written Preface, fhould this attempt meet with encouragement, to tranflate the remainder. If, on the other hand,' fays he, it fhould appear that I am unequal to the talk, I can lay down my pen without feeling any great mortification. In either cafe, I have the fatisfaction of reflecting, that I have spent those hours at least innocently, and with pleasure to myself, which, at my time of life, are generally loft in a circle of folly and diffipation.'

Senfible as we are of the difficulty attendant on an undertaking fo arduous as the prefent, and defirous as we may be of fhewing every indulgence to a Writer who appears to have taken up the pen from fuch ingenuous motives; nevertheless, what we owe to the Public, in general, permits us not to be fo warm in our approbation of this performance as we could with. In his dialogue, though the Tranflator fometimes preferves the characteristic fimplicity and concifenefs of his original, yet he is too frequently languid and profaic; and in the choral parts there is an obvious want of animation and vigour, fo effential to Lyric compofition. In juftice to him, however, we must remark, that, as far as we have compared it with the original, his tranflation is faithful and clofe; except indeed in fome of the Odes, in which he has indulged in greater latitude, though not in any unwarrantable deviations from the general (cope or tendency of his original.

As a fpecimen of this tranflation, we fhall lay before our Readers part of the first scene of the fifth act of the Troades: TALTHY BIUS, HECUBA, CHORU S.


One fhip alone remains of all the proud
Theffalian fleet; the reft, great Hecuba,
For Phthia's fhores have fleer'd their courfe,
Headed by Pyrrhus, who in hafte departed
Soon as he heard the factions in his kingdom)
His grandfire, Peleus, from his throne expell'd,
And proud Acaftus reigning in his flead:
And with him fail'd the poor Andromache,
Diffolv'd in tears! her country's hapless fate.
She mourn'd, and frequently invok`d

The empty fhade of Hector!-mov'd with her woes,
I melted into tears, and from her lips receiv'd
This ft request, which is, that you inter,
The body of her lov'd Alyanax,

Great Hector's fon, who perish'd in his fall
From Ilion's towers! befides, the brazen fhield
Which his great father on his fhoulders bore,
And fpread a terror thro' the Grecian hoft.
Muft never be convey'd to Theffaly

As a proud trophy, to adorn the nuptials
Which, with reluctant heart, Andromache


Prepares to celebrate, but as a fepulchre
For her poor fon, I now to thee prefent.
In linen garments wrap his lifeless limbs;
Adorn his head with flow'ry wreaths; and pay
Due honcurs to his filent fhade.-Alas!
Abfent his mother is, nor can attend
Her fon's funereal rites, compell'd to follow
The fteps of her imperious lord!

Do thou adorn the body; we, meanwhile,
Will form the grave, and, in the cryftal stream
Of fair Scamander, wash the clotted blood,
And bathe his limbs.-And now I haste
My promife to fulfil.


Oh! far remove the variegated shield
Which my dear Hector bore!-a spectacle
Difpleafing to my fight!-Oh Greece! more fam'd
For timid counfels than for valiant deeds,
This tender child, alas! has FELL a facrifice
To gratify thy favage cruelty!

And fear, left he might live one day to raise
Thefe ruin'd walls to all their former fplendor!
Not Hector's felf, tho' great his fame in arms,
Tho' aided by a numerous hoft of friends,
From diftant regions could preferve his country,
But bravely fell, and with him Troy expir'd!
The Trojans captive, and the town in flames!
Amid the joy which victory infpires,

Can this poor infant fill your fouls with terror?
How mean and pufillanimous that fear!-
Aftyanax, my dearest child! how hard,

How cruel was thy destiny !-fo foon

To feek the fhades of death!—had heaven thy life
Prolong'd to fome more diftant period, hadst thou dy'd
In fighting for thy country, and poffefs'd
Of the imperial fceptre, and bequeath'd
Thy kingdom to thy children, the bleft fruit
Of fome aufpicious marriage, then I should
Pronounce thee happy, if that name belongs
To one who but poffeffes earthly bleffings,
And in their nature of no long duration.
But thou, alas! born for the task of empire,
Haft scarcely enter'd on the flage of life
Ere thou art dead!-that beauteous face, alas!
Thy mother's fond delight-how torn-how mangled,
In falling from the heaven-built walls of Troy!
Oh tender hands! fweet mouth! eyes clos'd in death!
The very image of thy godlike father!-
Dear infant, you deceiv'd me when you held
My garment, and address'd me in thefe words:
My mother, at thy funeral I'll attend
With pious care, and offer on thy grave,



My treffes, and with mournful obfequies
Thy dear departed fhade appeafe. Alas!
This melancholy duty I must pay

To thee, not thou to me!-worn down with years,
A flave-an exile-harder yet,-depriv'd
Of all my children!-this, alas! the fruit
Of leepless nights, and kiffes oft imprefs'd
On thofe fweet lips, with all a mother's fondness !
This verfe upon thy tomb I must infcribe:
Aftyanax lies here, who fell

A victim to the fears of Greece!

Moft glorious this elogium for that nation!
Thy father's fceptre thou doft not inherit,
Nor his extended realms, but yet this fhield
Will ferve thee for a fepulchre-Oh, faithful fhield!
Of all the great poffeffions of my Hector,
Thou art moft valu'd-but, alas! the hero
Which once fuftain'd thee, is no more-
How pleafing to my eyes, didft thou appear?
How did I fondly gaze upon the figures,
Which the engraver's hand defcrib'd around
Thy margin, when the godlike Hector
Return'd victorious from his flaughter'd foes,
And from his temples wip'd the fweat and blood?
Thou yet art dear-thus kindly to fuftain
The body of this helpless infant, let us pay
The laft fad honours to his empty shade.
Since heaven rewards not virtue with fuccefs,
Weak is that man, who with presumptuous pride
Fancies his happinefs fecure, and gives

His mind to infolence of joy ;

The gifts of fortune, never at a ftand,

Shift here and there, perplexing human wifdom,'



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For JANUARY, 1781.


Art. 17. A Letter to Lieutenant General Burgoyne, occafioned by a fecond Edition of his State of the Expedition from Canada. 8vo. 15. Kearfly. 1780.


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HE Author profeffes that the first impreffion of General Burgoyne's State of the Expedition &c. had efcaped his attention, but that the appearance of an advertisement announcing a Second edition, raised his curiofity; and the perufal of it, he gives us to understand, has provoked his indignation, at the fame time that it has produced his contempt.

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The Author's great purpose, in this Letter, is to defend Lord G. Germaine, and Government in general, from the charges brought

* See Review for March 1780, p. 247.

Rev. Jan. 1781.


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