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former cafe, their temporal interefts may in fome measure be guarded by political regulations and penal reftraints; whereas in the latter, they fpurn all laws, as derogatory to the divine influences by which the faints are guided.
The previous Advertisement to this new edition is dated fince the late riots, which were firangely fuffered to triumph for feveral days, over every kind of civil government in the metropolis. And Mr. H. here fuggefts many good remarks applicable to that extraordinary occurrence.
He begins by informing his readers, that this work appeared in 1775, under the title of Defects of Police, &c. It was then acknowledged, by fome perfons of high rank, to contain many ufeful hints: perhaps they may be now more generally approved of; it being found, that to appeal to a mob, is not the way of preferving the property of fubjects, the fanctity of laws, nor the lives of indi viduals.
**It hath been a frequent complaint, that the nature of our conftitution will not admit of a police; in other words, it will not admit of fuch falutary domestic regulations, as are calculated, to preferve the lives and properties of the people, from that violence and rapine they are fubject to, and which fometimes aim a dagger at the vitals of liberty. This complaint is the refult of indolence, and the ignorance which ufually accompanies it. It defcends from the civil magiftrate to the parochial clergy; and obftructs the fear of God and man.
Thas we have often reafoned ourselves into a principle which establishes the worst kind of flavery and while riches encreased the diffipation of the higher claffes, and the immoral and irreligious conduct of the lower, have threatened the diffolution of both civil and religious rights.
What is the natural confequence of this fituation? The most profligate will look out for an occafion of fubverting all order, and of levelling all distinctions. We have seen the moft atrocious violences committed, even under a meridian fun; encreafing under the fhadow of the night, by dreadful conflagrations. The frantic humour which played havock with places of worship; broke down all the boundaries of hofpitality to ftrangers; deftroyed the houfes of many peaceful fellow-fubjects; opened prifons, and deftroyed them with fire; fo far rooted up the foundations of government: -while magiftrates, with a timidity that stains our annals, looked on with feeming indifference!-A number of the most wretched, countenanced by the moft thoughtless, have done this!
If we trace the caufe through all its windings, we fhall find it originate in the lenity of government, or the relaxation of it. Our fpirit for commerce, and our libertinifm, have operated fo far, as even to reduce thievery to a fyftem; and no inconfiderable number of perfons live by Supporting thieves, drawing a maintenance from converting the pecuniary rewards for taking them, into the chief motives of their conduct; acting, as if it were the political intereft of the community to preferve the fraternity.'
True liberty, which should afford us the peaceful enjoyment of our lives, habitations, and property, can only be secured by a vigor
a vigorous exertion of the laws already provided, or by supplying others, fuited to circumftances as they arise. For when a crew of miscreants affemble to perpetrate the most horrid outrages to tell us, that the nature of our conftitution will not allow of effectually fuppreffing them by any means in our power (or even of destroying them in the very act, like fo many mad dogs), because they are free-born Englifhmen, is infulting us with the most cruel mockery! Experience has now difcredited the position, that the civil power is in all cafes equal to the fupport of law. If by the civil power is meant merely a band of conftables with their official ftaves in their hands; if they are armed, they become a military force, as effectually as a company of foldiers became peace officers, whom an honeft vigilant country juftice, who ought to have been a London magiftrate, is faid to have very feasonably converted into that character, by fwearing them all in as conftables. In fhort, if English liberty is to tie up our hands against English infurgents, let the emergency be what it may; and if we are to pay for defenders, whom we are not to call out to defend us on extremities of this kind, the fooner fuch a conftitution is corrected the better.
We shall conclude this Article with fome very pertinent questions stated by Mr. H. If the objects to which they refer continue to be difregarded, the country is in more danger from vipers at home, than from any enemies abroad.
And whence arise these calamities? We may add to the causes I have mentioned, the intemperate pursuit of pleasure, and the impiety and irreligion of the times. Much intemperance, and much irreligion, are found in all countries; but the people in the most civilized parts of Europe being more awed by police, do not fo often commit fuch monftrous enormities. They are in a habit of difcipline: We are as undifciplined, as if we fought the ruin of liberty. If the civil magiftrate does not render himself respectable by the fupport of his own dignity and office, he becomes contemptible. But if there is a want of a proper number of magistrates, in fubordinate claffes, can the bufinefs be done? If any of them are guilty of connivance at the fupport of houses, in different parts of thefe vaft cities, which are the ordinary rendezvous of thieves: if the most infamous and abandoned among the children of men are rendered fuch, in part, by their knowing where they may live and carry on their traffick: if thieves know how they shall be treated if they are taken, and that only about one in thirteen, who may have forfeited their lives to the laws, are really put to death: if things are fo, ought we to be furprized at any thing we fee? Let us reduce the enquiry to a few fimple questions; and if we can establish the facts, we may obtain justice on ourfelves.
1. Are there not, in feveral parts of thefe vast cities, houses which are calculated for the accommodation, protection, and efcape of the most abandoned part of the community, even perfons known to live by thievery?
" 2. Are.
2. Are not profecutions against the keepers of fach houfes generally terminated by the impofition of fines, of fuch a trifling nature, they by no means remove the evil?
3. Are not licences, for felling liquors, often continued to perfons of this ftamp, who keep alehouses, after the discovery of the most infamous practices; as if fuch houses were effential to the interest of the ftate?
4. Are not many perfons, profeffedly emploved in detecting villany, often found acting as if their maintenance depended on the fupport of thievery?
5. Where men of bold and daring fpirits have no visible means of fupport, is not a conftant attention to their behaviour neceffary to our fafety?
6. If we drive a robber from his ftrong hold, and encrease his difficulties how to conceal himself from juftice, will he not the fooner learn, that it is his intereft to act honeftly? The more fternly the brow of the law frowns upon the diffolute, will they not be the more intimidated in their pursuits?
7. Ought not magiftrates, and perfons of property, to interest themselves in procuring employment for those who are most fubject to be enthralled in vice, and evil practices against their neighbour, that they may turn to useful industry ?'
We fincerely with this worthy gentleman long life to exercife his laudable paffion as a public monitor, to point out the errors of our domeftic policy. We owe him fincere thanks for all his vigilant labours, though fome of his propofed regulations may be found too arduous to be carried into execution.
ART. XIII. A View of Northumberland; with an Excurfion to the Abbey of Mailrofs in Scotland. By W. Hutchinfon, Anno 1776. Vol. II. 4to. 15 s. Beards. Price of the 2 Vols. 1 1. 16 s. Boards, Newcastle, printed; London, fold by Johnson. 1778.
Very short account of the firft volume, with a general character of this work, is to be feen in our Review for Nov. 1778, p. 396. Great part of this additional volume confifts of defcriptions of ancient caftles and abbeys, most of them now in ruins; together with relations of their hiftory, and of memorable occurrences connected with them. Wark Castle, Ford Caftle, Norham Caffle, Twizel Caftle, Lindisfarn Castle and Abbey, Caftles of Bamborough, Dunftanborough, Alnwick, Warkworth, Mitford, Bothall, Widdrington, Ogle, &c. as alfo the abbies of Huln, Alnwick, Brinkburn, Newminfter, Tynemouth, &c. Some few of these caftles are yet maintained in good order and repair, particularly that of Alnwick, the noble feat of the Duke of Northumberland.
Annexed to the account which we here find of the town of Berwick, is a paper from the manufcripts of Mr. Gale, containing Conjectures on the Rife of Burroughs, from which we
may extract a few lines: I cannot pereive, fays the Author, that the name Burrough, or Burgh, was inftituted to denote any kind of eminence in the place fo called, beyond others, fo as to mean a fort or caftle, &c. and that it fignifies no more than houfe, houfes, or a town, a fettlement where one or more families dwelt. Burrough was the habitation, and bour was the inhabitant; hence neighbour, i. e. a nigh bour, or one that lived in a burrough not far off.'We appropriate the name, he fays, to the under-ground lodgings of animals, as to the holes of foxes, rabbits, &c. from whence I infer, that when it was first applied to human habitations, it fignified the very fame, and confequently that the inhabitants of this land, when the name was given, dwelt chiefly under-ground, and lived not in houfes raised from the ground, but in holes dug in it; which fenfe of the word feems ftill to obtain as to the dead, though it has loft its native idea as to the living; for hence we may call putting a body into a hole under ground, to bury or burrough it, a barrow or burrough being a place dug for that purpose.-Our original burroughs, in the primitive fimplicity, were but as fo many human warrens, confifting of a set of under-ground Caverns.'
This Writer adds many confiderations to fupport his ingenious conjecture; but when he fays farther, It is not unlikely that the vast and various caverns under ground, fuch as thofe of the Peak, &c. may not be all the works of nature, but in great meafure the effects of under-ground architecture,' here we ap prehend he tranfgreffes the bounds of probability. As they look, it is added, like the palaces of fome old giants, fo they might be the Windfors and Hampton Courts of those times, when under-ground lodgings were in fafhion.' This is quite romantic!
Mr. Hutchinfon is rather long in his detail of ecclefiaftical history, particularly in his account of Holy-ifland, or Lindiffarn, and of the feveral Bishops, in their order. He dwells much on the miracles of St. Cuthbert, during his life and after his death. He fometimes offers a hint of their being legendary tales; but in general he recounts the idle ftories as if he gave them credit, and imagined they were to be regarded with religious reverence.
Alnwick Caftie, and the family of the Percys, is a fubject on which our Author defcants through many pages, not entirely, perhaps, without fome appearance of adulation, efpecially when he finishes the whole, by inferting an oration spoken at Guildhall, Weftminfter, by the Rev. Mr. Bennett, in the year 1776, on placing the picture of Earl Percy in the councilchamber.
Soon after a particular defcription of the fine feat of Seaton Delaval, and other places belonging to the family of that name,
we are brought to Monk's ftone, the remains of an old cross, which Mr. Hutchinfon conjectures, and probably with juftice, is no more than an ancient boundary mark, but others think differently. The following extraordinary ftory concerning it. is related by Mr. Grofe, and here tranfcribed by our Author: • A monk of this monastery (i. e. near Tynemouth) ftrolling. abroad, came to the houfe of Mr. Delaval, an ancestor of the ancient family of that name, who was then abfent on a hunting party, but was expected back to dinner. Among the many dishes preparing in the kitchen, was a pig, ordered purposely for Mr. Delaval's own eating. This alone fuiting the liquorifh palate of the monk, and though admonished, and informed for. whom it was intended, he cut off the head, reckoned by epicures the most delicious part of the animal, and putting it intoa bag, made the best of his way towards the monaftery. Delaval, at his return, being informed of the tranfaction, which he looked on as a perfonal infult, and being young and fiery, remounted his horse, and set out in fearch of the offender; when overtaking him about a mile east of Preston, he fo belaboured him with his ftaff, called a hunting-gad, that he was hardly able to crawl to his cell. The monk dying within a year and a day, although, as the ftory goes, the beating was not the cause of his death, his brethren made it a handle to charge Delaval with the murder, who, before he could get abfolved, was obliged to make over to the monaftery, as an expiation of this deed, the manor of Elfig, in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, with several other valuable eftates; and by way of amende honorable, to fet up an obelisk on the fpot where he properly corrected the monk.' Mr. Grofe thinks the ftory defective, efpecially as it was contrary to rule for a monk to be found alone fo far distant from his monaftery. He fuppofes the perfon might be a lay-brother, or fervant of the house. However, he adds, it fhews how dangerous it was to injure the meanest retainer to a religious house; a peril very ludicrously, though juftly expreffed, in the old English adage which I have fomewhere met with: "If perchaunce one offende a Freere's dog, freight clameth the whole brotherhood, an herefy, an berefy!"
Mr. Hutchinfon, in his amufing defeription of the ruins of the abbey and priory at, or near, Tynemouth, adds fome paffages from P. Monier's Hiftory of Painting, touching the original. ufe of paintings and fculptures in the Chriftian churches, which, as far as we can judge, exprefs his own fentiments on the fubject. In one of thefe paffages it is faid, Images in the Chriftian religion began from the time of Jefus Chrift: the first that was made was by a lady, whereof there is made mention in St. Luke, chap. viii. ver. 46. After which follows an account of a brazen image which this fame lady.erected in the city of Ce