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others against doing the same. He computes the resiftance of the canes, in a mill worked by four mules, at about nineteen thousand. pounds weight, and remarks that after half an hour's work, the mules are all on a sweat, and obliged to be changed every two hours; and that such a mill, in order to be equal to a good one. that goes by water, ought to do double the work in the same time..... He much doubts the success of one to go by fire that was made in London some years since, and sent to Jamaica. Art. 21.
Aftronomical Observations on the Periodical Star in the Whales Neck (a). By Mr. William Herschel of Bath. These Observations verify what we have been told concerning this star. Mr. H. also observes, that of the two stars in the Whale marked Alpha, and Beta, the latter is considerably larger than the former; and affords a proof of the change in the (apparent) magnitude of the fixed stars; as we can hardly suppose Bayer should have made a mistake in the magnitude of the two first stars of this conftellation. Art. 24. The principal Properties of the Engine for turning Ovals,
in Wood, or Metal, and of the Instrument for drawing Ovals upon Paper, demonstrated. By the Rev. Mr. Ludlam, Vicar of Norton, near Leicester.
At p. 380. I. 17. for h. read b. And the whole might have been done without introducing Algebra in the last leaf, for even the maximum angle, made by the two tangents of the ellipsis and its circumscribing circle at their common ordinate rightly applied, admits of an elegant geometrical determination, but Mr. L. has neither given the inveitigation nor demonstration, but only the bare affertion, that it is so and so. No not even in the addenda in the last page of the Vol. though a demonstration may be made out from thence. Art. 25. Of Cubic Equations, and infinite Series. By Charles
Huston, LL. D. F R. S. This is the Paper mentioned by Baron Maseres in Art. 5. The . infinite series that express the roots of thele equations, are found by applying Newton's binomial Theorem, to evolve the surds in Cardan's formulæ. And the series here summed are such as arise from the expansion of cubic roots, and consequently have their fums expressed by compound cubical surd quantities, of which there are a great variety. Art. 29. ftronomical Observations relating to the Mountains of
the Moon. By Mr. Herschel, of Bah. The telescope used in these Observations was a Newtonian reflector, of o feet 8 inches focal length, to wbich a micrometer was adapted, conlisting of two parallel hairs, one of which was moveable by means of a fine screw. The value of the parts shewn by the Index, was determined by a trigonometrical observation of a known object at a known distance, and was verified by seve
ral trials. The magnifying power used was 222 times, and was allo determined by experiment. By these'observations, no mountain that Mr. Herschel tried in the moon, was so high as two miles; though the observations appear to be faithfully related, and well chosen ; which is contrary to Galileo, Hevelinus, and all other astronomers fince their time. Art. 32. An Investigation of the Principles of progressive and ro
tatory motion. By the Rev. St. Vince, A. M. of Sidney College, Cambridge:
This seems to be the production of a very young man, unskilled and inexperienced in these matters, who, when time has ripened his judgment, may alter his opinion; for he appears to have blamed Mesf. J. and D. Bernoulli very unjustly, since he has done nothing but what they had done before, in the most fimple and satisfactory manner. He says that they have assumed in their investigations, principles not more self-evident than the propositions they are intended to demonstrate ; and what must we say then to his first proposition, where the demonstration of what he calls the property of the lever, assumed as a principle ; and that of the point he has determined, being the centre of percussion, or oscillation, are far more difficult than his propofition itfelf; and this justifies them for investigating these things first, and making that the foundation of their theory of the spontaneous centre of rotation; he has moreover borrowed the idea of a body being reduced to a plane in his oth propofition from M. J. Bernoulli. As to the 8th proposition, there can be no such motion as that which is there described, communicated to a streight lever by impulse of a body striking it; but by means of a string faftened at D. and pulling it in the direction DF.; and the lines DF, DH, FH must represent the abfolute velocity of D, at that instant in those directions respectively, and not such velocities as are the measure of forces, properly so called, as Mr. V. seems to represent the matter; if they do, the whole resolution will be false.
Art. XII. Continuation of the Account of Mr. Gibbon's History of
the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, N the twenty-second chapter of this History, we have an
account of the death of Conftantius, of Julian's being declared Emperor by the legions of Gaul, and of his civil adminiftration. The twenty-third chapter contains a view of the motives, the counsels, and the actions of Julian, as far as they are connected, with the history of religion, and in the twentyfourth we have an account of his successful expedition against the Persians, his passage of the Tigris, his retreat, and death.
This part of Mr. Gibbon’s History is extremely curious and interesting. It requires no small ability to do justice to such a character as that of Julian, one of the most fingular, furely, that ever appeared in the world. The manner in which it is treated by our Historian, does great honour, in our opinion, to his im-, partiality. We cannot resist the temptation of laying part of what he says before our readers.
In the thirty-second year of his age, Julian acquired the undisputed possession of the Roman empire. Philosophy had initructed him to compare the advantages of action and retirement; but the elevation of his birth, and the accidents of bis life never allowed him the freedom of choice. He might perhaps fincerely have preferred the groves of the academy, and the society of Athens; but he was contrained, at first by the will, and afterwards by the injustice, of Conftantius, to expose his person and fame to the dangers of Imperial greatness; and to make himself accountable to the world, and to posterity, for the happiness of millions. Julian recollected with terror the obfervation of his master Plato, that the government of our flocks and herds is always committed to beings of a fuperior species; and that the conduct of nations requires and deserves the celeftial powers of the Gods or of the Genii. From this principle he justly concluded, that the man who presumes to reign, should aspire to the perfection of the divine nature; that he should purify his soul from her mortal and terreftrial part; that he should extinguish his appetites, enlighten his understanding, regulate his paffions, and subdue the wild beast, which, according to the lively metaphor of Aristotle, seldom fails to ascend the throne of a despot. The throne of Julian, wbich the death of Conftantius fixed on an independent basis, was the fear of reason, of virtue, and perhaps of vasity. He despised the honours, renounced the pleasures, and discharged with incess fant diligence the duties, of his exalted station; and there were few among his subjects who would have consented to relieve him from the weight of the diadem, had they been obliged to submit their time and their actions to the rigorous laws which their philofophic emperor imposed on himself. One of his most intimate friends, who bad often thared the frugal fimplicity of his table, has remarked, that his light and sparing diet (which was usually of the vegetable kind) left his mind and body always free and active, for the various and important business of an author, a pontiff, a magistrate, a general, and a prince. In one and the same day, he gave audience to several ambassadors, and wrote, or dictared, a great number of letters to his generals, his civil magistrates, his private friends, and the different cities of his dominions. He listened to the memorials which had been received, considered the subject of the peritions, and signified his intentions more rapidly than they could be taken in short-hand by the diligence of his secretaries. He possessed fóch flexibility of thought, and such firmness of attention, that he could employ his hand to write, his ear to liften, and his voice to dictate; and pursue at once three several trains of ideas, with. out hesitation, and without error. While his ministers reposed, the prince flew with agility from one labour to another, and, after a hatty dinner, retired into his library, till the public business, which he had appointed for the evening, fummoned him to interrupt the prosecution of his studies. The supper of the emperor was still less subftantial than the former meal; his sleep was never clouded by the fumes of indigeftion; and except in the short interval of a marriage, which was the effect of policy rather than love, the chalte Julian never shared his bed with a female companion. He was foon awakened by the entrance of freih secrecaries, who had flept the preceding day; and his servants were obliged to wait alternately, while their indefatigable mafter allowed himself scarcely any other refreshment than the change of occupations. The predecessors of Julian, his uncle, his brother, and his coufin, indulged their puerile taite for the games of the circus, under the specious pretence of complying with the inclinations of the people ; and they frequently remained the greatest part of the day, as idle spectators, and as a part of the splendid spectacle, till the ordinary round of twentyfour races was completely finished. On folemn festivals, Julian, who felt and professed an unfashionable dislike to these frivolous amusements, condescended to appear in the circus; and after bestowe ing a careless glance on five or fix of the races, he hastily withdrew, with the impatience of a philosopher, who considered every moment as lost, that was not devoted to the advantage of the public, or the improvement of his own mind. By this avarice of time, he seemed to protract the short duration of his reign; and if the dates were less securely ascertained, we should refuse to believe, that only sixteen mouths elapsed between the death of Conftantius and the departure of his succeffor for the Persian war. The actions of Julian can only be preserved by the care of the historian; but the portion of his voluminous writings, which is still extant, remains as a monument of the application, as well as of the genius, of the emperor. The Misopogon, the Cæsars, several of his orations, and his elaborate work againit the Chriftian religion, were composed in the long nights of the two winters, the former of which he passed at Constantinople, and the latter at Antioch.
• The reformation of the Imperial court was one of the first and most necessary acts of the government of Julian. Soon after his entrance into the palace of Constantinople, he had occasion for the service of a barber, An officer, magnificently dressed, immediately prefented himself.
“ It is a barber,” exclaimed the prince, with atfected surprise, “that I want, and not a receiver-general of the finances.” He quesioned the man concerning the profits of his employment; and was informed, that besides a large salary, and fome valuable perquisites, he enjoyed a daily allowance for twenty fervants, and as many horses. A thousand barbers, a thousand cup-bearers, a thouíand cooks, were distributed in the several offices of luxury; and the number of eunuchs could be compared only with the insects of a Summer's day. The monarch who resigned to his subjects the superiority of merit and virtue, was distinguilhed by the opprefiive mignincence of his dress, his table, his buildings, and his train. The ita:ely palaces erected by Corttantine and his fons, were decorated with many cofiy marbles, and ornaments of maffy gold. The most exquisite dainties were procured,:1 gratify
their pride, rather than their taste; birds of the most diftant climates, fish from the most remote seas, fruits out of their natural feason, winter roses, and summer snows. The domestic croud of the palace surpassed the expence of the legions ; yet the smallest part of this costly multitude was subserviene to the use, or even to the fplendor, of the throne. The monarch was digraced, and the peo. ple was injured, by the creation and sale of an infinite number of obscure, and even titular employments; and the most worthless of mankind might purchase the privilege of being maintained, without the necessity of labour, from the public revenue. The waste of an enormous "household, the encrease of fees and perquisites, which were soon claimed as a lawful debt, and the bribes which they ex. torted from those who feared their enmity, or solicited their favour, suddenly enriched these baughty menials. They abused their fortune, without considering their past, or their future, condition ; and their rapine and venality could be equalled only by the extravagance of their disipations. Their fiken robes were embroidered wicke gold, their cables were served with delicacy and profusion; the houses which they built for their own use, would have covered the farm of an ancient consul; and the most honourable citizens were obliged to dismount from their horses, and respectfully to salute an eunuch whom they met on the public highway. The luxury of the palace excited the contempt and indignation of Julian, who usually flepo on the ground, who yielded with reluctance to the indespersable calls of nature ; and who placed his vanity, not in emulating, but in despising the pomp of royalty. By the total extirpation of a mischief which was magnified even beyond its real extent, he was impatient to relieve the dittrels, and to appeare the murmurs, of the people; who support with less uneasiness the weight of taxes, if they are convinced that the fruits of their industry are appropriated to the fervice of the flate. But in the execution of chis ialatary work, Julian is accused of proceeding with too much hatte and inconfiderate severity. By a fingle edi&, he reduced the palace of Constantinople to an immeofe desert, and dismissed with ignominy the whole train of flaves and dependents, without providing any juft, or at leait benevolent, excep ions, for the age, the services, or the poverty, of the faithful domestics of ihe Imperial family. Such indeed was the temper of Julian, who feldom recollected the fundamental maxim of Ariftotle, that true virtue is placed at an equal distance between the oppufice vices. The Iplendid and effeminate dress of the Afiatics, the curis and paint, the collars and bracelets, which had appeared fo nuiculous in the person of Conttantine, were confiftently rejected by his philofophic iucceffor. But with the foppe. ries, Julian affected to renounce the decencies of dress; and seemed to value himself for his negleci vi the laws of cleanliness. In a satirical performance, which was deigned for the pablic eye, the emperor descants with pleasure, and even with pride, on the length of his nails, and the inky black ness of his hands; protests, that although the greatest part of his body was covered with bair, the use of the razor was confined to his head alone; and celebrates, with visible