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differs hardly in any respect from that of a found one, excepting that it has a somewhat scalded appearance: when boiled, it dila folves, and forms a fediment at the bottom of the vessel relembling mud. In those few instances in which sheep have survived this malady, the liver is always found fcirrhous. There is one circumstance respecting this complaint, which, as it may not be generally known, deserves to be noticed. The Aleth of rotten teep, if the taint be not of long standing, is remarkably florid, and the fat most delicately white. The fat, however, may easily be distinguished from that of a sound sheep, by its having a more curdly appearance. Nay, such is the effect of this fingular direase, that even ram's desh, which is known to be in general coarfer, and the fat yellower than of other sheep, will, when tainted with the Rot, rival in appearance the finest wedder mutton.

An accurate history of this destructive disorder, which poffibly is to be obtained only by repeated and skilful dilections in the different stages of its progress, is much wanted.

From several Papers on the rheum palmatum, or true rhuburb, it appears that it may be cultivated in this climate with very little difficulty. Such directions are here given for the management of this valuable drug, as will, we apprehend, enable any one both to cultivate and cure it with success.

The Proposal for the further improvement of agriculture by a Member of the Bath Society, which is added in the Appendix, is a very well written and ingenious essay ;- but the length to which this article is already extended, prevents us from paying that attention to it which it merits.

We cannot, however, conclude without congratulating the friends of agriculture, not only on the present publication, but on the prospect of its being continued under the auspices of the truly respectable and intelligent Society that has superintended it hitherto. As they express themselves defirous of information, from whatever quarter it may come, it is to be hoped that whoever has any thing to throw into the common stock of agricultural knowledge, will communicate it to the Society at Bath, by them to be admitted into some future volume of their trans. actions.

Art. VII. Strictures upon Agriculture Societies, with a Proposal for

One upon a new Plan. 8vo. I s. 6d. Evans. 1780.
HE plan that has been generally adopted by Agriculture

Societies for the purposes of awakening a spirit of rural improvement, and of exciting industry in the husbandman, has been to offer premiums for the best conducted experiments. But, rational as this scheme appears to be in speculation, experience


has not yet, except in some few instances, confirmed its utility. It seldom happens, that even those who obtain a premium continue their exertions when no longer stimulated by the prospect of an immediate reward. The fact is, that most new experiments in agriculture require an increase of labour or expence, befide a degree of accuracy and attention which few are capable of bestowing, and which would too frequently interfere with other more important concerns. Before any novelty in rural æconomics can be an object of general attention, its advantages must be obvious, its execution simple, and the profits it holds out to us not very remote. Hence it is evident, that some. thing more is wanted, before agriculture can receive much additional improvement, than merely to exercise the ingenuity of the experimental agriculturist. Sensible of this, the present Writer, in imitation of the Dublin Society, and in conformity to that of Bath, proposes, that agriculture societies should be provided with two farms, the one appropriated to ploughing, the other to breeding. By this method the objects of his proposed societies would be recommended to the public approbation as established, approved practice, rather than as mere experiments. His plan, which the limits of this article will not permit us to enter into in detail, is plausible and ingenious. There is, however, one part of it which we think merits particular notice : no one who ever possessed any domestic animal befide a dog and cat, but will wish to see it carried into execution.

• The importance of live-stock, both to the proprietors and the public, suggests to me another inftitution, which, if it could be annexed to this breeding farm, would apparently render the whole plan complete ; I mean the institution of a veterinarian school or academy, where pupils should be instructed medically and systematically in the knowledge and cure of the diseases of domeftic animals, by men of experience and abilities in their profession. Whoever considers the value of such animals, the many diseases they are subject to, and the deplorable ignorance of those to whom they are committed under them, muft certainly allow that such an inftitution would be a moft o seful and important acquisition to the public. It is not perhaps unreasonable nor uncandid to suppose, that it is an equal chance in any case, whether the generality of our farriers, cowleeches, &c. do good or harm. If they have no clear, rational principles to direct them in their practice-as, in general, they certainly have not--the event is at beli but fortuitous. Nay, there are many diseases, and particularly of that most valuable animal, the sheep, which few or none of them even pretend to know or cure. And what an immense advantage would it be to the proprietor and the public, if a certain and effectual semedy could be found out for even one particular disvase, which this animal is occasionally subject to! I mean the Rot. For this fatal and lurking malady, in some unfavourable years, destroys almost half the sheep in this island, and renders many, not absolutely destroyod, of no real value to the owner. What a piry, nay what a thame it is, that we do not pay greater attention to the lives of those animals which constitute lo great a part of our necessary food, and afford i he materials for our moft valuable inanufactures. It is not certainly because we are either ignorant of their value, or indifferent to their welfare, but the want of competent knowledge in their diseases. If therefore persons of abilities and experience would undertake the treatment of their disease, there is no doubt but their merit and services would be honoured with adequate encouragement and reward. For a farmer, who considers the healih of his live-stock as next in importance to that of his own and family's, will undoubtedly look upon him with proportionable esteem who can successfully treat the diseases of the former. The greateft difficulty in the beginning of

that folded

such an inftitution, would be to find proper masters or professors ; I but when once this was surmounted, there is no doubt but the pian

would be properly continued and supported, both with success to the practitioners and the public. Those of the medical faculty, from the mode of their educatior, seem beit qualified for fuch an undertaking, and without any reflection upon individuals, some of them might perhaps be employed as profitably to themselves, and as usefully to the public, in the cure of the diseases of domestic animals, as in ihose of the human species. Nay, the propriety and even neceflity of such an inllitution is so obvious, that it is matter of astoniihment that we have never yer put it in practice; and particularly as a similar insti. sution is well known to have been for a considerable time supported with great reputation and success in France. We are but too fond of adopting what we efleem the elegancies of our ingenious and inventive neignbouring rivals.: barlet us in this inftance give a proof of our good ftofe, and good policy, by adopting what is really and effentially useful. It the establishment of luch an academy thould be thought too arduous or too expensive an undertaking for a fociety whose funds arile from voluntary contribucions, and must be applied to other purpoles 100; is not the matter of sufficient importance 10 warrant the interpolation of the legislature ? Affitted by the peblic in fuch a manner as this great national council might think proper and effectual ; cre:y agriculture fociety, or at least every two contiguous socieries, might be enabied to add this important object of rural improvement to the rest of their plan. It cannot, in my humble opinion, be contidered in this manner, as an appendage to other objects of greater importance ; for improvea.ents in the mode of treating the diseases of domestic animals, is certainly of equal, if not greater importance, than improvements in agriculcure; it, at leait, we may be allowed to judge of the fucuse by the palt.'


12 mo.

ART. VI!l. Principia cum Juris Universalis tum præcipue Anglicani. Auciore Cavel Luso J.C.

2 Vols.

6 s. boards. Owen, &c. 1779. Elements of Universal Law; being the lit Volume of the Translation

of the foregoing Work. TE have suspended for some time the task of reviewing

this performance, in expectation that the learned and laborious Author would have completed the design be has un


folded in his Preface, and which he there informs us was have illustrated his Principia Juris Universalis, &c. with examples of our own and former tines, and to evince by experia ence-which is the genuine and peculiar praise of real worthnot only how uniformly they have been recognized in judgment, but how great their utility :' and this, he says, he means to make the business of a future publication. At present, we feel ourselves obliged to consider his work as in a late of immaturity and imperfection: as an immense heap of maxims and observations on the subject of natural and municipal law, extracted from the best writers, with great diligence; but difpofed with little happiness or judgment: and more useful to the compiler, than interesting to a student; who, if he #27 have a common-place-book, had much better have one of his own making than of any other man’s. Indeed, we strongly suspect, that it is no: by piling up maxims and rules under the name of principles, that a science is most successfully taught and inculcated. Lord Bacon, whose practice is alone a precept to inferior understandings, tells us, in the Introduction to his “Maxims of Law,” that he did not think it sufficient " to set down rules like so many short dark oracles : but that it was necessary to attend them with a clear and perspicuous ex position, thewing the reasons whereupon they depend, and the affinity they have with other rules. For want of this,” he adds,“ rules are but as proverbs, and many times plain fallacies.”--And fot want of this, we must add, the present work (for whose Author.we have a real esteem, on account of his learning and generous zeal for the principles of law and liberty) will be found of little utility to the world.

This gentleman appears to have hastened to the press with too much of the gallantry of a young author, and 100 litile consideration of the task he imposed upon himself. Had he delayed his work a few years longer, the order of it might have been more perfect, and his whole defign completed. The first mode of arrangement he adopts is an alphabetical one, like Mr. Ray's Proverbs, and this he has carried through several letters of the alphabet, and then deserted for a more scientific distribution,

etsi (adds he) eousque non male alphabeticus respondiset ordo.'Will Mr. Capel Lotfe gravely assure us, that one half of the alphabet is suitable to legal subjects, and the other unsuitable ? That some letters answer well (to use his own word), and some ill? Or will not his readers guess, for him, that, on finding this plan of arranging his Principia embarrassing and preposterous, he was obliged to abandon it for a better; but at the fame time, being unwilling to lose all the labour he had expended on this childish scheme, he chose the world should have what he had done thus far (ecufque), crude and imperfect as it was. – To cor

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rect is laborious; to expunge is mortifying : labor & mora limce penituit.

That part of the work which comprehends the Elements of the Law of England, is built upon the arrangement of Sir William Blackstone, of whose Commentaries a liberal use is made; though he appears rather aukward in his Latin dress. Mr. Loffi's reasons for publishing first in Latin are given in his Preface, where he contends, that he is supported herein by very ancient authorities, and those some of the greatest ornaments of the law among his own countrymen. That these maxims and sules had generally been expressed in Latin by the ableft men; that, by being uttered with that folemnity, they might the better be imprinted in the mind; and then, that having the insignia of the Roman Toga, as it were, they might not be confined within the limits of our language and empire, formerly both narrow, but as citizens of Rome in the days of her ancient greatness, on whatever region they happen to be caft, might find themselves at home : but chiefly, that, according to their desert, they might be delivered to perpetual memory: as they saw that language to be peculiarly extensive in its reception, least exposed to the probable viciffitudes of human affairs, and one in which they could express their ideas with most conciseness, perspicuity, and force.'

These reasons, however, Mr. Lofft juftly observes, in his English Preface, "are of less weight than they were formerly :' of which, indeed, we want no other argument from him, than his having thought it expedient, after all these high sounding phrases, to give the world a Transation of his Latin work.

The first volume only of the Translation has hitherto appeared. In the second, we apprehend, he will feel rather a ridiculous embarrassment in re-translating into English those parts of Blackstone which he had first translated into Latin.

Even in the Latin work, some of our Law terms appear so ludicrously aukward, that Mr. Loft had subjoined to the second volume an English Gloffary, of which the following is a speci. men: Astio rerum inventarum Egon Action of Trover and Cone conversarum,

verfion. Adnullatio,

A Defeazance. Advocatio,

Advowson, Alligata,

Ligan. Concespitium,

Turbary. Conces 10,

A Grant. Conventio,

A Covenant. Dimissio,

A Lease. There is surely something inconfiftent in this. We are told above, that one of tbe benefits of giving these Principia in Latin,


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