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formation are pleaded in behalf of farther changes; and that the moderation of some among us would lead them to attempt to silence clamour, by making concessions in points of indifference. But it should be remembered, we are told, that points actually indifferent are never the objects of clamour; whatever its pretensions may be, it always really means something more. Indeed it hath now spoken out, the Doctor says; and it is become evident, that the principles on which the Reformation formerly proceeded, plead now with equal force against the alterations contended for. The great truths of the gospel were the objects then, and are so now. Moderation, pretended with respect to these, should be called by another name.
Such is the spirit that breathes through this performance. We have heard of clergymen who were fierce for moderation ; but Dr. Bagot is fierce, very fierce, indeed, against it. It may be proper, however, to acquaint him, that some of the brightest ornaments of the church, in the highest stations too, for whose learning, abilities, and virtues, our Author professes the greatest regard, make no scruple of declaring that both our articles and liturgy stand much in need of reformation. Dr. Bagot may call the moderation of such persons by whatever name he pleases; in our opinion, it does them great honour. We have an extensive acquaintance among the clergy, and have the satisfaction to know, that almost all of them, how much soever they may differ in other matters, agree in this, that a reformation is earnestly to be wished for. There are, no doubt, several reasons which may be assigned for that indifference to religion, so visible to every eye, and for the wide spread of infidelity; but he must be little acquainted with the spirit of the present times, who does not see that both the one and the other are, in some considerable degree, owing to the gross absurdity and unintelligible jargon of some of those articles of our church, to which an unfeigned affent is required by all those who minister in it. As men generally take their notions of Christianity, not from the Scriptures, but from creeds, formularies, and confeffions of faith; if the doctrines contained in our articles, taken in their plain and obvious sense, are the genuine doctrines of Christianity, is it to be wondered at that the number of unbelievers is so great?.
Art. V. Exercises in Elocution ; felected from various Authors, and
arranged under proper Heads : Intended as a Sequel to a Work entitled, The Speaker. By William Enfield, LL. D. Lecturer on the Belles Lettres in the Academy at Warrington. 8vo. Boards. 12mo. (For the Use of Schools.) 35. 6 d. bound. Johnfon. 1780. HE nature and design of this publication will best appear from Dr. Enfield's prefatory advertisement;
• The compilation presented to the Public under the title of The Speaker having met with a favourable reception, the Editor has been induced to make a second collection on the same plan, with the immediare design of affording further affistance in youth in acquiring the habit of reading and speaking with propriety. In this view of the publication alone, he apprehends that a neru Set of Exercises will not be unacceptable either to teachers or pupils. But besides this, it bas been his intention, in extending this miscellany, to collect, and digelt under distinct heads, a large number of such passages from the most approved literary productions of our own country, as mighe serve to lead young persons into fume acquaintance with the most valuable writers, and affiit them in forming a talte for the beauties of fine writing. He has also kept in view the fill more important object, of providing them with useful lessons of instruction, and impressing upon their minds che sentiments of honour and virtue. If cheie ends should, in any degree, be answered, the Editor will think his labour happily bestou ed."
The acknowledged character of the ingenious Editor of this very useful and judicious compilation, renders it needless to fay, that the selection is made with great judgment and taste. This volume is valuable, not only for the elegance, but for the quan. tity also of the matter which it contains, consisting of upwards of four hundred pages: a consideration as times now aré, especially in a work likely to be generally adopted as a school-book, by no means to be despised.
ART. VI. Letters and Papers on Agriculture, Planting, &c. Selected from
the Correspondence-Book of the Society initiuied at Bach, for the Encouragement of Agriculture, Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, within the Counties of Somerset, Wilis, Gloucester, and Dorset, and the City and County of Bristol. To which is added, An Appendix; containing a Proposal for the further Improvement of Agriculture; By a Member of the Society: and a Translation of Monf. Hirzel's Letter to Dr. Tissot, in Answer to Mons. Linguer's Treatise on Bread-Corn and Bread; By another Member of the Society. 8vo. 5s. Boards. Bath, Crutwell. London, Dilly. 1780. HOUGH the Society at Bath (for an account of whose
Orderssee purposely established for the encouragement of agriculture, &c. in Somersetshire, and the counties adjacent, yet the kingdom at large is likely to reap considerable advantage from its institution; it being their intention occasionally to lay before the Public such communications, of which the present volume is a specimen, as they shall judge likely to prove of general utility.
The publication before us consists of at least fixty articles ; not all, indeed, of equal importance, yet there are few, if any, totally barren of information. It would much exceed our limits, were we to attempt to take notice of every individual paRev. June 1781.
per of merit and ingenuity contained in this collection. We Thall confine ourselves, therefore, to such matters as are either strikingly important, or that have come more immediately under our own observation.
The first letter wbich offers itself to us, is on the rise, progress, and mode of setting wheat in Norfolk.
The setting of wheat seems to have been first suggested by planting grains in a garden from mere curiosity, by persons who had no thought or opportunity of extending it to a lucrative purpose ; and I do not remember its being attempted on a larger scale, till a Farmer near Norwich began it about twelve years since, upon less than one acre of land. For two or three years only a few followed his example; and these were generally the butt of their neighbours' merriment for adopting fo lingular a practice. They had, however, confiderably better and larger crops than their neighbours: this, together with the saving in seed, engaged more to follow them; while some ingenious persons, observing its great advantage, recommended, and published, its utility in the Norwich papers. Thefe recommendations had their effect; the curiosity and enquiry of the Norfolk Farmers (particularly round Norwich) were excited, and they found sufficient reason to make general experiments. Among the rest was one of the largest occupiers of land in this county, who fet fifty-seven acres in one year. His success, from the visible fuperiority of his crop both in quantity and quality, was fo great, that the following autumn he fet three hundred acres, and has continued the practice ever since. This noble experiment established the practice, and was the means of introducing it generally among the intelligent Farmers in a very large district of land; there being few who now fow any wheat, if they can procure hands to set it. It has been generally observed, that although the fet crops appear very thin during the autumn and winter, the plants tiller and spread prodigiously in the spring. The ears are in. disputably larger, without any dwarfish or small corn; the grain is of a larger fathom, and specifically heavier per bushel, than when fown.
The lands on which this method is particularly prosperous are, either after a clover stubble, or on which trefoil and grass-feed were sown the spring before the last, and on which cattle have from time to time paltured during the summer.
These grounds, after the usual manuring, are once turned over by the plough in an extended flag, or turf, at ten inches wide; along which a man, who is called a dibler, with two setting irons, fomewhat bigger than ram-rods, but considerably bigger at the lower end, and pointed at the extremity, steps backwards along the turf, and makes the holes about four inches asunder every way, and an inch deep. Into these holes the droppers (women, boys, and girls; drop two grains, which is quite fufficient. After this, a gate, buthed with thorns, is drawn by one horse over the land, and closes up the holes. By this mode, three pecks of grain is sufficient for an acre ; and being immediately buried, it is equally removed from vermin, or the power of frost. The regularity of its rising gives the beit opportunity of keeping it clear from weeds, by weeding or hand-hoeing.
In a word, this practice is replete with greater utility than any that has been made in the agricultural art. In a parochial view, it merits the highest attention, as it tends greatly to leffen the rates, by employing the aged and children, at a season too when they have little else to do. It saves to the Farmer, and to the Pablic, fix pecks of feed wheat in every acre, which, if nationally adopted (without confidering the superior produce), would afford bread for more than half a million of people t.
Too much cannot be said in praise of this most valuable improvement in husbandry. One circumstance, however, should have been noted with respect to the method bere recommended, which is not taken notice of either in this or any of the other papers on this subject - namely, that where the soil is clay, care should be taken to get the business over before the land becomes too wet by the heavy rains that not unusually fall at the latter end of the year. From not being aware of this, a friend of ours, who tried this method, found himself under the neceflity of laying it aside till the following season.
At page 94 we meet with a curious account of a peculiar species of grass found at Orcheston in Wiltshire. We remember hearing this grass spoken of some years ago, by a gentleman who lived in that neighbourhood; but as he did not express. himself as being an eye-witness of what he related, we took it for granted that some country wit, skilled in the science of hum-bug, had diverted himself at the expence of his credulity. Marvellous, however, as the account then appeared, corroborated by such a testimony as the present, we can no longer disa credit it.
• This grass is found at Orcheston St. Mary, about nine miles from Salisbury, in a meadow belonging to Lord Rivers, now in the occupation of Farmer Hayward. This meadow, being situated on a small brook, is frequently overflowed, and sometimes continues fo a great part of the winter. It bears the greatest barthen in a wet season.
• When I was there, it was too early in the spring to make any particular observation on the blade, but the Farmer's account is as follows, viz. that it generally grows to the height of about eighteen inches, and then falls, and runs along the ground in knots, to the length of fixteen or eighteen feet, but that he has known instances of its running to the length of twenty-five feet.
* We are farther informed that the expence of setting by hand is now reduced to about 6 s. an acre; and that a drill.plough has been invented, by which one man may set an acre a-day: for particulars we refer to the book.
' † A consideration of the atmost consequence, especially when wheat is dear. We are fully convinced of the utility of this method, and warmly recommend its being generally adopted in the western counties.' Ee 2
. The meadow contains about two acres and a half. It is mowed twice in a season, and the average quantity is generally about twelve loads (tons) of hay the first mowing, and fix the second; though sometimes considerably more. The tylhe of the meadow has been compounded for at nine pounds a year *.
The grass is of a sweet nature; all cattle, and even pigs, eat it very eagerly. When made into hay, it is excellent, and improves beasts greatly. The Farmer says his horses will eat ic in preference to corn mixed with chaff, when both are set before them together.'
It is fingular that a grass, both for quantity and quality of such importance, should never have been more taken notice of, or that no experiments should have been made to propogate it. There can be little doubt but it will thrive in similar foils and fituations. Quere,-Might it not be introduced with great probability of success into water meadows?
The next article we shall take notice of, is an account of the cultivation of Siberian barley.
A small inclosure, containing 3 acres, 1 rood, 2 perches, which had been under turnips the two preceding years, was sown with common barley, excepting one ridge of land in the middle of it, containing 20 perches, which was fown with Siberian barley the same day. The soil was very dry, and much inclining to a gravel.
•* This account appeared to us fo singular, and the crop of grass so very extraordinary, that our Secretary went to Orcheston, to examine more particularly into it. The Farmer, and divers other persons in the village, confirmed the account contained in this letter, of its amazing produce in summers when the meadow had been overflowed in the preceding winter and spring; but when the winter had been. dry, and the meadow not over flowed, the crop of grass was not near so large. There did not appear to be any thing peculiar in the soil; nor were the other plants or weeds growing on it more luxuriant than in many other similar situations. Some of this grass was sent to the Society at Norwich; some ingenious members of which inform us, that they think it is a species of the Agrostis Polymorphia, mentioned by Hudson in his Flora Anglica, of which there are several varieties.
• Camden mentions, in his Britannia, a grass growing near the place where this is found, which he calls trailing Dig’s grafis and says that 6. hogs were fed with it.”
From all the enquiry made, we have not found this species of grass growing in any other part of the kingdom; hence it is posible that. there may, be something in the foil of this meadow peculiarly favourable to its growth.
"We shall not, however, determine on this point, but recommend trials to be made of propogating it, by fowing the seed in other, places subject to be overflowed in the same manner. If it can be propagated generally, it must turn out the most profitabie to the Farmer of any grass yet discovered, and be of great benefit to the community.'