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acting, &c. This difficulty M. MARAT has attempted to furmount by a method of proceeding which has the appearance of being equally fimple and ingenious, and of which we formerly gave fome account. He has, by this method, endeavoured to render visible the principle of heat, difengaged from the in Aammable principle, at the very moment that it efcapes with violence from the combuftible bodies with which it was come) bined. M. MARAT has not only thus undertaken to afcertain, the existence of the igneous, fluid; he proceeds ftill farther in the work before us: he examines its effential properties, and compares it with thofe fluids to which it has the greatest affinity. The refult of his refearches and experiments here is, that the igneous matter (or the fluid which produces what we call fire) is a fubftance, effentially different from the electrical matter, and from luminous matter, or light, with both of which it has been confounded; and our Author, moreover proves, that the prin ciple of heat is not in the rays of the fun. According to him, heat and fire are produced by the more or lefs rapid motion of the igneous matter, which is a feparate fluid; and he not only examines the nature of this motion, but even undertakes to render it vifible to the eye of an attentive obferver. He afterwards confiders the quantity of the igneous fluid that is dif-, fufed through the univerfe, fhews the neceffity of the concur rence of the air in order to its deflagration; proving, however, at the fame time, that the air does not ferve as an aliment to fire, as the philofophers hitherto, have almoft unanimously af ferted. Thefe difcuffions are followed by a feries of experiments, on the expanfive force of the igneous fluid, its fphere of activity, its manner of acting, and the different ftates and modifications: through which thofe bodies pafs, that are fubjected to its action. The Article, relative to the aliment of fire, is curious: but lefs remarkable,, perhaps, for its perfpicuity, than the other parts of this ingenious work. In treating of the degree of heat of, which different bodies are fufceptible, M. MARAT proves, that flame is moft ardent, and always the more ardent in propor tion as it is purer and lighter, fo that rectified spirit of wine, which is looked upon as fcarcely poffeffing any heat, is in the firft rank of hot bodies. This is true, but not new, or contrary to the commonly received opinion, as our Author obferves. At leaft, any lady, while fhe boils her teakettle, may perceive that M. MARAT is in the right. From the ardour or heat of flame, this ingenious Physician (in the double fenfe of that word) proceeds to confider the caufes of the,

See, in the Appendix to our 628 volume, 1780, the account given s of a preceding work of our Author, entitled, Discoveries concerning Fire, Electricity, and Light




refrigeration or cooling of bodies, of the inflammability of combuftibles, of the colours of fire, and of the form of flame. All these difcuffions render this work fingularly curious and inftructive; and the novelty of our Author's opinions cannot fail of rendering it ftill more entertaining.

IV. Hiftoire Generale et Particuliere de la Grece, &c. i. e. A General and Particular Hiftory of Greece, containing an Account of the Origin, Progrefs, and Decline of Laws, Science, Arts, Literature, and Philofophy in that Country. To which are prefixed, a Geographical Defcription of its various Provinces, and a Series of Differtations on its Chronology, Mythology, Measures, &c. as also a Parallel between its ancient and modern Inhabitants. By M. CouSIN DESPREAUX, Member of the Academy of Sciences, Arts and Belles Lettres of Rouen, &c. 16 Vols. in 12mo. Price 2 Livres 10 Sols (i. e. about 2 Shillings) each Volume.-The first four volumes of this confiderable work are juft publifhed; the three following are to be published in the course of the prefent year; and we propofe giving our Readers farther information with respect to their merit and contents on another occafion.

V. Memoires de Mathematique et de Phyfique, &c. i. e. Memoirs, relative to Mathematics and Natural Philofophy, prefented to the Royal Academy of Sciences by learned Foreigners. Vol. IX. 4to. 780 Pages. Paris. 1780. This valuable collection is continued with fuccefs, and the Academy has rendered it ftill more acceptable to the Public by a new regulation, that commences with the volume before us, which confifts in augmenting it with the Differtations that have obtained the prizes proposed by the Academy. This 9th volume contains 33 Memoirs: the learned and elaborate treatife of Profeffor Van Swinden of Franeker occupied the principal part of the preceding volume; and a confiderable proportion of the present one is taken up by a Memoir of Monf. Coulomb, who treated the same subject, shared the prize with the Dutch Profeffor, and, by a most interesting series of obfervations and experiments, opens new points of view with refpect to the causes of the phenomena of the loadstone, explains the principle of the diurnal variations of the magnetic needle, and indicates the means of greatly improving the mariner's compafs.-The other Memoirs in this volume are as follows:

Three on the Cultivation and Manufacture of Indigo, by Meffrs. Quatremer, D'Orval, and Bergman, which are full of curious researches, chemical and economical-Three on Fixed Air, by Monf. Bucquer and the Duke de Chaulnes, in which, among other things, feveral of the experiments and obfervations of Dr. Black are critically reviewed-Ten on a variety of Chemical fubjects by Meffrs. Bayen, Laborie, Bucquet, de Morveau, Veillard,

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Veillard, Monnet, Duhamel, Jars, Antick, and Valmont de Bommare-Five on fubjects of Natural Hiftory, four on different branches of Geometry, and a Memoir of Mr. Geoffroi on Elaftic Bandages.

VI. Entretiens Philofophiques fur la Religion, i, e. Philofophical Converfations concerning Religion. By the Abbé GUIDI. Paris. 1780. 3 Vols. 8vo. This work has confiderable merit: it unites folid argumentation with decent pleafantry, and expofes equally the folly and falfehood of fcepticism and infidelity.

VII. La Chymie Domestique, i. e. Domestic Chemistry. Paris. 8vo. 1780. This chemical effay for the use of families, is, in effect, a very ufeful pocket-companion: it treats of different fubjects, relative to the prefervation of health, such as the temperature and variations of the air, the effects of heat, exhalations, food, baths, the fituation of dwelling-houses, the affiftance proper for perfons that are fuffocated, the methods of difcovering adulterated wines, &c.

VIII. Recherches fur les Initiations Anciennes et Modernes, &C. i. e. Inquiries concerning Ancient and Modern INITIATIONS. By the Abbé ROBIN. 12mo. Paris. 1780.—It is rare to fee an Author difpenfing erudition with a fparing hand on fubjects of this kind. Such is the cafe of the ingenious Author in the work before us; and his discretion and parfimony, in this respect, have been rather carried too far. The subject he treats is curious and important, and deferved to be illuftrated by more ample details of facts, and a more plenteous diftribution both of critical and philofophical elucidation. His work, nevertheless, though it takes in but a curfory view of the subject, fhews plainly, that the Abbé knows more than he says; it offers hints, that may throw a fagacious inquirer upon a new fcent, and lead him to discover new ftreaks of light in the cloudy and dubious regions of mythology. The first Part of these Researches relates to the origin of Initiations, which he places in that remote and early period, when diforders and crimes began to degrade humanity; and it is fcarcely poffible to go farther back than this. The vicious, fays he, were urged by the terror and dejection of guilt to feek interceffors with the Deity among the virtuous and the good; who, retiring into folitude, to avoid the contagion of growing corruption, devoted themselves to a life of contemplation, which led them to various branches of useful knowledge. The periodical return of the seasons, the revolutions of the ftars, the productions of the earth, and the various phenomena of nature, ftudied with attention, rendered them useful guides to men, both in their induftry and in the duties of focial life. Thefe guides invented certain figns to recal to the remembrance of nations the times of their feftivals and rural labours: and hence the origin, according to our Author, of thofe hieroglyphics

glyphics and fymbols, that were in ufe among the priests of all countries! Thefe leaders, in order to affociate with them in their labours and functions, only fuch as had merit and capacity adequate to them, appointed ftrict courses of examination and trial; and this must have been the origin of thofe Initiations that are o famous in antiquity.' The Magi, Druids, Brahmins, and Gymnofophifts, lived in fequeftred habitations, and the Egyptian priests fixed their dwellings in deep fubterraneous grottos and caves, acquired a high reputation by their discoveries in aftronomy, chemiftry, and mechanics, by the purity of their doctrine and morals, by their knowledge of the Icience of legiflation; and it was to their myfterious Initiations, that they were indebted, partly, for the fame they poffeffed in fuch a high degree. After preparing the candidates for these revered offices by a long and duftere courfe of trial, in which the moft frightfule and hideous objects were exhibited to their view in fubterraneous and gloomy regions, they were inftructed in the knowledge of fymbols and hieroglyphics, of the existence and unity of God, of the immortality of the human foul, and of the pureft doctrines and precepts of morality. It was in this fchool, according to our Author, that the firft fages and legiflators of antiquity were formed, and it was from thefe myfteries and initiations that the exuberant fancy of the Greeks drew a great part of their mythology; while the fymbols and hieroglyphics, employed in them, gave rife to the most pernicious errors. But, on the other hand, our Author obferves,, that important difcoveries in religion, morality, and feience, and the prefervation of thefe difcoveries from oblivion, were owing to thefe, myfterious initiations. From thefe alfo he deduces, in the fecond Part of his work, the orders of ancient chivalry, whofe branches" produced the inftitution of Free-Mafonry. But here his arguments are more fpecious than folid.


IX. Effai fur l'Art d'imiter les Eaux Minerales; i, e. An Effay on the Art of imitating Mineral Waters, or, concerning the Knowledge of Mineral Waters and the Manner of procuring them in all Times and Places,' by a certain Compofition. By M.. DUCHANOY, Doctor Regent of the Medical Faculty at Paris, &c. 8vo. 402 Pages Paris. 1780. As mineral waters are of great confequence in the art of healing, this publication mult give pleature to the curious in that art; and this more efpecially, as, in fome respects, the imitation, he propofes, furpaffes the original, and his artificial waters are not fubject to the varieties that are obfervable, at different times, in the natural! The detail, into which our Author enters, relative to the different forts of mineral waters, and the ingredients that compofe them in the bowels of the earth, is learned and perfpicuous; his experiments more particularly on fulphurcous waters


are ingenious and decifive; and his work, upon the whole, will be certainly acceptable to the philofopher, the chemist, and the physician.

X. Recherches et Obfervations fur les Loix Feodales. i. e. Inquiries and Obfervations concerning the Feudal Laws, the Condition of the Inhabitants of Towns, and of the Country, in ancient Times, and their Poffeffions and Rights. By M. DOYEN, Advocate. Paris. 8vo. 1781.-This work is full of erudition: and this erudition is employed with judgment. The Author's difcuffion of the divine origin and inftitution of ecclefiaftical tithes, which he flatly denies, is acute and learned.

XI. Obfervations Critiques et Philofophiques fur le Japon et fur les Japonois. i. e. Philofophical and Critical Obfervations on Fa pan and its Inhabitants. 12mo. (Amfterdam and) Paris. 1780. This compiler has gathered together from a confiderable variety of fources, a large quantity of facts and materials, relative to the government, power and opulence, of the Emperor of Japan, the productions of his country, the ftate of agriculture, commerce and manufactures in that distant region; and the character, education, drefs, manners, religion, genius, pleasures, virtues, and vices of the Japanese. There is a kind of enthusiasm in the encomiums he beftows on this people; and a confiderable portion of fatirical malignity in the parallels he draws between them and the Europeans, to the difadvantage of the latter. In fome of these parallels the Author difcovers fometimes want of judgment, fometimes want of knowledge, and, more than once, we have met with contradictions in his accounts of the Japanese government. As to his ftyle, it is flat, and ignoble. It muft be, however, acknowledged, that his work contains a variety of inftructive and entertaining materials.

XII. Memoire fur l'Acier, &c. i. e. A Differtation concerning Steel, its Qualities, and the Methods of forging and tempering it, &c. by J. J. PERRET, Correfpondent of the Royal Academy of Beziers, and Honorary Affociate of the Society of Arts at Geneva. 8vo. Paris. 1779.-This Memoir, or Differtation (the fubject of which was propofed with a prize annexed by the Society of Arts at Geneva, and whofe Author obtained the prize), is fingularly entitled to the peculiar attention of all those claffes of artifts, who either work in fteel, or use inftruments made of that metal.

REV. April 1781.




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