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fer fuch glorious monuments of his fame to remain among you; and yet refuse his body a resting-place within your empire ? And is there to be found a Roman, capable of voting the expulsion of such a fellow-citizen ; whom expelled, every city of the world would contend to adopt? Yes, blessed, I pronounce, shall that nation be, which re. ceives and cherishes him! Accursed your own, if you reject him ! Thrice accursed, I say, in his loss! But, I can no more-tears choke the powers of utterance; and the brave Milo forbids such an unmaniy deploration.
My tears subfide. Let me now, my Lords, demand your free, unbiassed determinations. Milo likewise calls opon you, to deliver your genuine, your unconstrained opinions. What you think, boldly speak. Believe me, my Lords, a sentence delivered with firmness, and founded upon the principles of juftice and truth, will be the most acceptable to our great Consul; to him, who, in framing this court, selected you, because of your superior wisdom, virtue, and for titude,
On this paragraph we might remark-the inaccuracy of calling death an obječt of punishment--the insignificant tautology by which the claute, Sit hic, &c.' is rendered the misinterpretation of the Author's meaning in the version of, erit dignior locus
-the ludicrous absurdity of rendering grata gentibus, the admiration of the universe--the quaintness of the phrase, compunctions of distress—and lastly, the severity of giving the clause, deprecante me? an air of parade and vanity, which is unjust to Ciçero, even in that point which is confeffedly his foible; Who the advocatę ?' CICERO HIMSELF.
In this oration in behalf of Milo, the Translator has fritter'd into a great number of short sentences a paragraph in which Cicero puts into the mouth of Milo a detail of the actions of Clodius, in a sentence, which is an admirable specimen of continuity of construction, and length of period, without obscurity: for doing which he alligns the following curious reason :
The delivery of any oration is certainly greatly obstructed by the insertion of a sentence of greater compass, than can be easily uttered without a renewal of the breath ; or, at farthest, the continuance of two suspirations.' How admirably must the man, who, for so excellent a reason, thinks long sentences a defect in oratory, be qualified to translate the diffuse and luxuriant periods, with which Cicero's writings every where abound !
We must not take leave of our Translator without acknowledging, that, with whatever other fauit he may be chargeable, he is perfectly free from the common one of translators-partiality in favour of his Author. One of the principal objects of his Notes, is to bring the public virtue of Cicero into discredit, and to cast reflections upon his principles and character.
While. Capt. R. acknowledges that Cicero was not deficient of genius, argument, or of the true principles of reason
ing,' he asserts, that'he often debased his powers, or was so utterly forsaken by them, as to excite our astonishment, that a learned and judicious assembly should fuffer him to proceed.'In the affair of Catiline, in which Cicero discovers fo much public spirit, the Translator ungenerously infinuates, that he himself nursed it to a certain degree of forwardness, in order to answer his own purposes.'-- He even surmises, that the vanity of Cicero was something more than simply a foible, and says, that
posterity have doubted, whether the extravagant encomiums he paffed upon himself, were not the suggestions of political genius.'
Whence all this spleen against a character, which good men have so generally agreed to admire? The cause is fufficiently explained in other parts of these Notes. -Cicero thought that Cæsar had invaded the liberties of his country, and raised himfeļf by his policy, no less than by his prowess, to unlawful dominion. His Translator thinks, that Cæsar employed his more than human powers, during his administration, in a series of actions, planned and uniformly executed, for the honour and advantage of the public;' that he was unconscious of any personal elevation, except what was immediately derived from his fellow-citizens and reverberated to them, leaving him, in office only, their superior;' and that a ray of divinity encompassed the person, and dignified every act of Cæsar.'----Cicero thought the act of putting Cæsar to death fo glorious, that he challenges all mankind to produce an act of greater merit.
Que enim res, unquam (pro fanete Jupiter !) non modo in hac urbe, fed in omnibus terris eft gesta major ? quæ gloriofior? que commendatior hominum memoriæ fempiternæ ?- Quæ vero tam immemor pofteritas, quæ tam ingratæ literæ reperientur, quæ eorum gloriam non immortalitatis memoria profequantur ?" His Translator, refuting his Author's predi&tion, afferts, that the deed was of ro horrid a nature, that there could have been nothing sufficiently base and baneful to undertake it, except virtue wrenched from its true principle of action;' and that never was any Governor more bafely and atrociously murdered than Julius Cæsar; never was a more moderate, clement, and amiable ruler, dragged from the seat of juftly delegated power, than that great, that godlike hero, Julius Cæsar. Cicero knew, that the deed excited universal joy; and that all good men, as much as they could, were concerned in his death : " aliis conse lium, aliis occafio defuit ; voluntas nemini." His Translator maintains, that the assassination of Cæsar was an act execrated by a great majority of the people, who revered the memory of Cæsar, cursed his assallinators, and adored Antony.-Cicero gloried in ranking himself among the patrons of liberty :- his Trandafor stations himself in another corps, and in writing Notes upon
Cicero, takes upon him to answer the advocates of liberty, and treats the name of patriot with contempt. No wonder the Translator has so little predilection for his Author !
On the whole, we cannot discharge our duty to the Public, without honestly declaring, that, in our judgment, neither the literary taste, nor the political principles of our countrymen are likely to receive any considerable improvement from this work.
Art. II. An Inquiry into the prefent State of Population in England
and Waies ; and the Proportion which the present Number of Inhabitants bears to the Number at former Periods. By William Wales, F. R. S. and Master of the Royal Mathematical School in Chrif's-Hospital. Svo. I s. 6 d. Nourse. 1781.
HE ingenious Author of this Inquiry very justly observes,
that truth ought at all times to be the object of our researches; but that it is a truth, notorious even to a proverb, that it ought not at all times to be made public. The obvious circumstances of nations cannot indeed be concealed from the world at farge; but there are latent circumstances, the discovery of which must be gained by acute inquiries; and if fuch in. quiries thould be pursued on principles doubtful to others, how ever clear they may appear to the person who reasons from them; and lhould bring out conclusions disadvantageous to our country: in such a case we must agree with our Author, that at no time whatsoever could publications which tend to depress the spirit of the nation, be more improperly introduced than now, when we are surrounded by numerous and powerful enemies, through whom we must fight our way, or fink into the moft humiliating state of insignificancy, or perhaps contempt, among the nations of Europe.' Nations, like individuals, ought certainly to proportion their attempts to their abilities, or, according to the homely proverb, to cut their coat according to their cloth. Hence appears the use of political arithmetic, but this use is wholly domestic, as the worst consequences may at times result from furnishing our enemies with fuch materials, as data for calculations which may operate to our prejudice. Mr. Wales, as a patriot, expreffes his apprehension, left publications of this nature, under respectable names, but built on partial or false information, should have an ill tendency; and therefore conceives it to be the duty of every member of society to use his utmost endeavours to stop the effects of such misrepresentations.
This talk Mr. Wales has himself undertaken ; first stating his objections to the computations to which he particularly alludes;
and which are published at the end of Mr. Morgan's Treatise of Annuities and Assurances, by Dr. Price, The loose returns made by the window-surveyors, he clearly shews to be by no means sufficient to support calculations of the number of inhabitants ; and as little dependance can be placed on those founded on the increase or decrease of the excise and customs, owing to the very extensive practice of smuggling.
• Convinced,' says he, as I was, that no dependance could be placed on calculations, founded on either of the two confiderations which have been discussed above, and that a tolerable degree of exactness could be expected only from an actual survey, made on the spot, by persons in no wise interested in this affair, or any others which have the least connection with it, or with any article of the revenue; I began to confider in what way authentic information, of this kind, though of a more limited extent, might be procured. I observed that the advocates for a depopulation suppose that the destruction has fallen chiefly, and of laie years, wholly upon the cottages; and that it was allowed, on all hands, that the principal manusacturing and trading towns have increas?d; and some of them, as Manchester, Leeds, Bira mingham, Sheitield, Liverpool, and Bristol, most amazingly. It was moreover obvious, that many cottages would not be found in large towns where there are no manufacturers; consequently the desolation must have happened chiefly in small country towns and villages; in which places I knew it would be very easy for a person, who lived on the spoi, to inform himself exactly of the present number of houses; and, if he had spent his whole time in the place, to recollect every material alteration which had been made in it for thirty or forty years past.
• In consequence of these confiderations, I addressed the following queries to every acquaintance which I had in the country, as well as to every other person that I could get recommended to.
• 1. The number of houses which there are now in the township, or village.
2. The number of houses there were in it about the year 1750.
3. The number of houses which have been built fince that time, where none stood before.
4. The number of houses which have been suffered to decay, and become uninhabitable fince 1750; in the place of which none have yet been rebuilt.
5. By how many the total number of houses have been leffened by putting two, or more, into one.
• 6. By how many the total number of houses have been increased by feparating large old houses into smaller ones.
7. The number of houses that are assessed to the window.tax. • 8. Whether, in the several surveys that have been made, but especially in 1777, the surveyor returned the number of houses whicki were not assessed, as well as those which were.
Laitly, To take the opinion of two or three fensible persons, who have lived the whole time in the village, &c. whether, since that peo riod, the number of the inhabitants has increased or decreased.'
Mr. Wales gives a humourous account of the obitructions he found to his procuring the number of houses in different places. These occasioned his having recourse to parith-registers, in which
his applications proved more successful. From a number of tables, which must have required much laborious attention in collecting and forming, and for which we must refer our curious Readers to the work itself, we are greatly comforted to find the worthy Writer warranted in forming the following agreeable conclusions : • itt. The number of inhabitants, in London, during the last
5 years, were to the number of inhabitants during 5 years about the time of the Revolution, as 203860,3: to 18283,3. That is, as 10 to 9 nearly.
• ad The number of houses, or families, in certain towns, taken indiscriminately, and in a considerable variety of counties, are now, to the number which was in the same towns in 1750 as 28544 to 23526 : or as 7 to 6 nearly.
3d. The present number of inhabitants in 38 parishes, taken indiscriminately, in different parts of England, according to the regilters of births and burials in these parishes, is to the number which was in the same 38 parishes at the Revolution, as 446115 60 166274: or as 8 to 3 nearly.
• 4th. The present number of inhabitants, in 142 parifnes, taken in the same manner as in the last article, is to che number which were in the same parishes between the years 1740 and 1750, as 12868 to 8779:
: or as so to 7 nearly.
sth. The baptisms in 26 parites, for 10 years immediately before the year 1754, when compared with the baptisms in the fame 26 parishes for 10 years immediately after 1754, gave the proportion between the number of inhabitants in the latter 10 years to the mean number of them in the former 10 years, as 1157,1 to 1180,4.
• 6th. According to the baptisms and burials in the diocese of St. David's, the mean number of the inhabitants, between the years 1700 and 1730, was to the mean number of the inhabitants, between the years 1.730 and 1760, as 1153,3 10 1667,0: or as 2 to 3 nearly; and to the mean number of the inhabitants which were in the said diocese between the years 1760 and 1763, cr 1764, as 1153,3 to 1846,6 : or as 5 to 8 nearly.
Laftly. From actual enumerations, the number of inhabitants in 10 cities, towns, and villages, at a former period, were 10,1214; at a latter they were 158411.
• In every infance the places have been taken indiscriminately; that is, just as I could procure chem; and I have omitted no place which I could procure: it may, therefore, be fairly concluded, that they represent, jultly, the itate of the kingdom in general; and this argument cannot be overturned but by producing a greater number of parithis which tend to prove the contrary; or an equal number of facts of a more certain nature.'
As the vigilant industry of Mr. Wales has furnished him with perhaps as accurate data as the nature of so abstruse a subject will admit, we are encouraged to hold up our dejected heads again, and to exclaim, with the anxious Upholsterer- How then are we ruined? Even the worthy Doctor, whose alarming con