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principles; and considering the acid as the ingredient to which the alr owes its purity, or wholesomeness, and phlogiston as the cause of its noxious property; he further fupposes, that if a body should be found, which will attract the acid more powerfully than the phlogiston does; a decomposition of the air will follow: and the phlogiston being thus let loose will produce all the deleterious effects of phlogisticated or noxious air. He proceeds to suppose that humidity, or water, in consequence of the attraction which it has to acids, is always robbing the air of more or less of its acid : thereby letting loose a proportional quantity of the phlogiston, or noxious principle, from its combination with the other constituent parts of air. With respect to this hypothesis, we fall only observe, that those who are moft conversant in the late discoveries relating to air will most readily perceive its imperfections, which are too numerous and obvious to require the being pointed out by us.


Art. IX. QrEIOAOTIA: Or the Do&rine of Nature, comprehended in the

Origin and Progreffion of Human Life; the Vital and Animal Funktions ; Diseases of Body and Mind, and Remedies Prophyla&tic and Therapeutic. By Thomas Frewed, M. D. of Lewes in Sussex. 8vo. 6 s. Bew. 1780.

HY, and when, this book was written, and why it is.

now published, are questions which we suppose will naturally present themselves to the Reader, before he has proceeded through the first two or three sheets of it: but he will not find any satisfaction on these heads, should he even, like us, peruse it to the end. We expected to meet with some information on these points; at least respecting the Author's or Editor's motives for publishing this, work, from two introductory ada dreffes prefixed to it, but were disappointed. To the first of thefe, which might in plain Englich have properly been called a Preface, the Author bas prefixed the pompous Latin title of Epistola Authoris ad Amicos fuos in Re Medicâ honorandos ; though it is written in plain English, and does not bear any marks of being more applicable to his learned medical friends in particular, than to the world at large ; except indeed at the close of it, where he reminds us of them, and again addresses them in Latin; and, after a few quotations in that language, takes his leave with a--Qui fum, viri dile&tiffimi, servULUS VESTER HUMILLIMUS. To the second, which we will venture to call an Introduction, and which only contains a few observations on the medical characters and conduct of Hippocrates, Sydenham, and Boerhaave, the Author has prefixed the Greek title of ΠΡΟΛΕΓΟΜΕΝΑ. .

Proceeding to the work itself, we first find much old-fashioned Phyfiology under articles intitled, Progress of Human Nature 7

considered considered from its first Principles ; Animal Nature shown by E** periments; Solids and Fluids of Animals how compounded ; Di-, gestion and. Chylification ; Sanguification ; Nutrition ; Secretion; the Blood, and its Circulation ; Saliva ; the Bile and Pancreatic Juice; Fermentation and Putrefaction; and Passions of the Mind.' Under these different heads - strange as it may appear--not the faintest trace is to be perceived of any modern observation or discovery, relative to any one of the articles.

The remaining and principal part of the work consists of observations on various disorders; which are in general fuch, both with respect to the manner and the matter of them, as might be supposed to have been entered down in his common-place book, by'a medical student, fifty years ago, for his private use; and without much regard to method, or the arrangement of his ideas. If we except the short mention of two or three modern names, we should suppose this work to have been written at least so far back as the time of Boerhaave; whose name and doctrines most frequently occur in it.

Under the articles, small-pox, fevers, and some others, we did expect that fome notice would have been taken, though only in a note, of modern improvements; but nothing of this kind appears : and the Author's materia medica, and his formula, are just as antiquated as every other part of the performance.

To justify as well as exemplify these observations, we hall give a short extract from that part of the work in which the Author treats of fevers. The elderly medical Reader, we are persuaded, will fancy himself transported back half a century at least; and will readily recognize the medical language held in the days of his youth. He will scarce believe that he is per‘ufing a production of the year 1780.

The remedies which we are to give, to aslift the secretion, and preparation of the morbid matter, are the moistening things in general ; such as a sufficient quantity of warm and weak Auids: as the common barley-water, and teas made of fage, mint, baum, &c. and the milder alexipharmic roots: with these, also, are to be given the gentle resolvents, such as are able to break the thick and tough consistence of the humours: of this kind are the temperate alexipharmic roots, especially, as they are also endowed with a diuretic virtue ; such are the roots of Enula campana, Anagallis, Petafites, &c. Scordium is also, by foine, greatly recommended in this intention. These may be conveniently given in decoctions, or infusions, with powders, composed of the abftersive and digestive falts, such as Tartarum Vi. triolatum, &c. mixed with such things as have a power of obtunding, and incrassating, the acrid, and thin fulphureous saline humours: such are the absorbent powders of oifter-Sells, crab's claws, &c. These should be first sated with leinon-juice; and


then, mixed with a little nitre, and the before mentioned falts, they make an excellent medicine. These may be given every three, four, or six hours, as the urgency of symptoms requires; and a draught of the above mentioned decoction given after them. Emulsions of sweet almonds, and the cooling feeds, are also very proper between whiles.'

To give one regular example of the Author's formulæ ;-here follows a prescription given under the head, Angina; which bears all the marks of antiquity on the face of it:

Potus optimus eft sequens : R. Rad. Apii. Lapath. acut. Acetofa, Graminis, āā 3j Fol. Acetose. Agrimon. Becabungæ ãā M. ij. Semin. quatuor. frigid, major. āā 3] Coq. in Aq. com. colat. pint. iij. Adde Nitri 3ij. Rob. Sambuc. 3iij. M. De quo Æger fingul. boris capiat uncias tres vel quatuor.'

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Art. X. The Hiftory of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

By Edward Gibbon, Esq. Vols. II. and lii. 4to. 2 Guineas,
Boards. Cadell. 1781.
UCH of our Readers as have perused the first volume of this

History with that attention which it deserves, must have waited, with a pleasing impatience, for the publication of the volumes now before us. Their expectations, we wilt venture to say, with perfect confidence, will not be disappointed. It is difficult, indeed, to determine, which is most deserving of praise, the Author's diligence in collecting his materials, his judgment in selecting them, or his accuracy in digesting them in their proper order. Though the materials for this part of his work are much better than those for the preceding part, yet he is often obliged to collect scattered and imperfect hints from a great variety of sources, some of which are not of the purest kind; notwithstanding this, the narrative he forms from them is of so clear, distinct, and satisfactory a nature, as to do great honour to his discernment and penetration.

Much of the ground before him is indeed very tender ground; accordingly, he treads it with due circumspection, and with measured steps ; amidst the perplexity which is often produced by discordant authorities, he fhews that temperate reserve and prudent caution which the delicacy of the subject requires, and yet seldom leaves his readers at a loss to discover his real sentiments.- In a word, when we consider the choice and the ara rangement of his materials, the perspicuity and elegance of his narration, the extent of his erudition, and his political fagacity, we cannot but think him juftly entitled to a distinguished rank among the most eminent Historians of ancient or modern times.

In regard to his style, it appears to us to flow more easily in the 2d and 3d volumes of his work than it did in the first, and


to be more uniformly elegant. An attentive Reader, however, will fometimes have occafion to observe, that Mr. Gibbon's familiar acquaintance with the French language has led him, through inadvertence, we imagine, to use certain words in a different sense from that in which they are ever used by approved writers. This is particularly observable in the word--actual, which occurs several times in the sense of the French wordactuel, when it fignifies - present.---Thus, p. 12. chap. 17. vol. 2d - In the actual state of the city,' &c. in French, l'etat attuel in support of the actual government, p. 24. ch. 17. and in several other places. In the same chapter, likewise, our Author makes use of the word-faculties, in a sense in which it is very feldom, if ever, used; • so heavy an expence surpassed the faculties of the magiftrates themselves.' Here too, we apprehend, he has been betrayed into this use of the word faculties by his acquaintance with the French language-Chacun a été taxé selon fes facultés.

But, perhaps, we ought to make an apology to our Readers, and to our Author, for mentioning such trifes; he must be a faftidious critic, indeed, who can look upon such mistakes (if, after all, they are mistakes) as of any consequence, especially in a work of such superior excellence, which in our next Review we shall consider more particularly.

[To be continued.]


For M ARCH, 1781.

POLITICA L. Art. 10. Letters from Cicero to Catiline the Second. With Corrections and Explanatory Notes. 8vo.

Bew. 1781. Y Catiline the Second is meant the Honourable C. F-X. But

2 S.

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of Ulysses ?

These Letters, by whomsoever written * [and it is not difficult to guess], were originally published in the newspapers ;-with the view of exposing the leaders of OPPOSITION to the icorn and indige

* The paragraph-politicians, in the daily prints, do not scruple to ascribe these Letters to that notable, active, and industrious parti. zan, Mr. G--.-y, the American Convert : whose zeal, like that of converts in general, and of St. Paul in particular, gives him a right to cry out with that Apostle, “ I have laboured more abundantly than they all!"-Whether he can truly add, as St. Paul did “ yet not I, but ihe grace of God which was with me,”-is a circumftance of which we presume not to judge.

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nation of the Public. Thus do the writers on both sides continually employ their pens in abusing the adverse party; but how unavaila ing and how ridiculous the employment:mihe blackening of chimneySweepers! Art. 12.

A Letter to Cicero, Lucius Catiline, or the American Deputy; with Two Letters in Defence of the preseni, and more general, AssocIATION OF PROTESTANTS IN ENGLAND, being neceffary to defend the Principles of their Religion, and effential to establish its Universility. 8vo. Stockdale, &c. 1781.

A zealous friend to the religious and civil liberties of this country, -but a very indifferent writer, -warmly vindicates and recommends Associations, especially the Protestant, as the most probable means of effeéting, among us, • the moit laudable purposes of society. In Letter IV. t he falls, with much asperity, in Mr. Galloway, whom he fagles out, as the de:ected Author of Letters from Cicero to Cutie line : and whom he fcruples not to stigmatise as a traitor, who has quitted one injured country-to injure another.'-He, however, compliments Mr. G. on the score of his literary abilities : a compliment which, we apprehend, the American traitor will be in no hurry to return to theMan of Rofs . Art. 13. A Series of Letters addressed to the greatest Politician

in England : Containing a Description of several Public Characters; a Defence of Sir George Saville, and of Lord Chatham's Pulitical Sentiments, and his Upright, Spirited, and Constirutional System, contrasting it with that first formed by Lord Bute, and since completed by Lord North.' 8vo.

Almon, 1780.

From thirty rambling letters, some of them addressed to various political personages, and some without address, all that can be difa covered is, that the Writer has laboured under a load of confused ideas, without being able to arrange them according to any metod, or to apply them to any regular purpose. If the Reader poffeflies that phare of patience which the discharge of our dary imposes on us, by the time he has perusca a hundred and fixteen pages, he will find the malady of the Writer in fome degree communicated to him, so that he will not readily be able to tell what he has been reading, and must have time to forget his toil, before he can recover his composure. The Writer, however, may find himself easier, now that he has difburdened his head; and if the Printer and Stationer, who have contributed to his relief, are no sufferers by their good offices, the poor Reviewer alone is left to complain. Art. 14. A View of the English Constitution. By the late Baron

de Montesquieu. Being a Translation of the Sixth Chapter of the Eleventh Book of his celebrated Treatise intiiled L'Ejprit des Loix, 8vo. IS. White,

We apprehend there are few students in polinics who have not read the above-mentioned performance of the Baron Montesquieu, either in the original, or through the medium of a translation ; but, as shere

2 s. 6 d.

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+ Which, according to our copy, should have been numbered III, I The signature affixed to some of these letters. REY. March 1781.



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