Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

Page.

of the articles of confederation proposed by Mr. Patterson-Both debated—The

amendments of Mr. Patterson rejected---Large majority agree to form a new

system of government---To be divided into three great departments, legisla-

tive, executive and judicial-Legislative divided into two branches, house of

representatives and senate-Convention divided on the subject of the represent-

ation of the states in the senate-Sketch of the debate on this question---States

equally divided upon it---The subject referred to a large committee---Commit-

tee report a compromise between the large and small states---This finally

adopted by a majority of the convention---Sketch of the powers granted to

congress---General government prohibited from doing certain acts---The

powers of the states restricted---The organization of an executive attended

with great difficulty---Outlines of the first plan adopted by the convention---

This afterwards rejected and a new plan formed and eventually adopted---

Powers given to the executive---Judicial department to consist of a supreme

court and inferior courts---In what cases they have jurisdiction---Constitution

eventually different, in many respects, from what the members first con-

templated---Difference between the articles of confederation and the constitu-

tion-States divided on the subject of importing slaves, and on the subject of

the powers of congress, relative to navigation acts---These differences settled

by mutual concessions---General Washington's influence in the convention---

Constitution considered by state conventions---People greatly divided in some

of the states---Adopted by three states unanimously---By large majorities in

four states---Rhode Island refuses to call a convention---The other five states

much divided---Doubtful for a time whether they would ratify it without pre-

vious amendments---Massachusetts adopts it, and recommends certain amend-

ments---Convention of New Hampshire meet and adjourn---The system

strongly opposed in New York, Virginia and North Carolina, without previous

amendments---Is warmly debated in the conventions of those states---New

Hampshire follows the example of Massachusetts---Virginia and New York

adopt it in the same manner by small majorities---North Carolina refuses her

assent unless amended,

CHAPTER XIX.

States institute forms of government agreeably to the advice of congress--

States of Connecticut and Rhode Island proceed according to their charters--

Massachusetts at first conform to their charter as far as practicable--New

Hampshire, South Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware,

Maryland, and North Carolina, establish new governments in the course of the

year 1776---Those of New Hampshire, South Carolina, and New Jersey, lim-

ited to the continuance of the disputes with Great Britain---General principles

and outlines of these constitutions---New York establishes a government in

1777---Its general features---Constitution of Massachusetts not finally com-

pleted until 1780---Vermont not a part of the union until 1791---Claimed by

New York and New Hampshire--Declares independence in 1777---Outlines

of her constitution, formed in 1786---Constitution of Georgia as established in

1789---After the formation and adoption of the general government, principles

of making constitutions better understood--Pennsylvania, New Hampshire,

South Carolina, and Delaware, revise and alter their systems of government,

CHAPTER XX.

First congress under the new constitution meet at New York, on the 4th of

March, 1789---George Washington chosen president, and John Adams vice-

president---President's inaugural speech, and answers of both houses---Con-

gress lay tonnage and other duties---Give a preference to American shipping---

Establish different departments---Determine the question about the removal

of the heads of these departments---Power of removal vested in the presi-

dent alone---Debate on this subject---The senate about equally divided upon

it---Amendments to the constitution proposed---A national judiciary establish-

Page.

ed---Its powers and jurisdiction---Vessels of North Carolina and Rhode Island

placed on the same footing with those of the United States, until the 15th of

January, 1790---Congress direct the secretary of the treasury to report, at their

next session, a plan for the support of public credit---Request the president to

recommend the observance of a day of public thanksgiving and prayer---Ad-

journ to the first Monday of January, 1790---North Carolina adopts the con-

stitution in November---Speech of the president at the opening of the second

session of congress---He recommends the promotion of such manufactures,

as would render the United States independent on others for essential arti-

cles, the establishment of a good militia system, and adequate provision for

the support of public credit---Financial plan of the secretary of the treas-

ury, submitted to the house in January-Outlines of this plan-Secretary

recommends funding the debt of the United States, and the assumption of the

state debts-This creates great divisions and long debates in congress-Motion

to discriminate between the original holders and the assignees of the domestic

debt negatived-Assumption of the state debts violently opposed-Debates

on this question-Finally carried-Terms of funding the debts-Commission-

ers appointed to settle the accounts between the states, and principles of set-

tlement adopted-Census of the inhabitants to be taken on the first Monday

of August, 1790-Third session commences the first Monday of December,

1790-Vermont and Kentucky admitted into the union-National bank es-

tablished-Strongly opposed as unconstitutional-Cabinet divided on the

question-President decides in favor of its constitutionality-Duties laid on

spirits distilled within the United States-Opposed in congress, and in some

of the states-Speech of the president at the opening of the first session of the

second congress in October, 1791-Ratio of representation settled--Difference

between the houses and the president as to the constitutional rule of apportion-

ment-Gen. St. Clair and his army defeated by the Indians--Opposition to

the internal duties increases-The two great parties in the United States

more distinctly marked-Cabinet divided--An inquiry into the official conduct

of the secretary of the treasury, instituted in the house of representatives-

Charges exhibited against him-Negatived by a large majority-Supreme

court decides, that a state is liable to a suit in favor of individuals-An amend-

ment altering the constitution in this respect proposed and adopted-The

first term of president Washington's administration expires on the 4th of

March, 1793,

317

Page.

CHAPTER XXII.

Political relations with Great Britain under the new government-The president

informally sounds the British government relative to the inexecution of the

treaty, and a commercial intercourse--Discriminating duties in the United

States claim the attention of the British ministry-Referred to the committee

of trade and plantations in September, 1789--Report of the committee on this

subject, and also with regard to the terms of a commercial treaty with the Uni-

ted states-West India trade not to be open to the Americans, nor the princi-

ple admitted that free ships should make free goods-English minister arrives

in the United States--Enters into discussion with the secretary of state on the

subject of the treaty-This discussion broken off, by the new state of things

in Europe--British orders of June 8th, 1793, relative to certain articles of pro-

visions destined to France--American government remonstrates against these

orders-Treaties between Great Britain and Russia, and other powers on this

subject-Similar orders issued by Russia and other nations in Europe - Reasons

given in justification of them --Answers of some of the European neutrals-

Algerine cruizers let loose upon American commerce in the Atlantic, in conse-

quence of a truce between Algiers and Portugal-This truce made by a British

agent--Many American vessels captured, and their crews made slaves--

Speech of the president at the opening of congress in December, 1793--Re-

port of the secretary of state concerning foreign restrictions on American com-

merce--Mr. Jefferson resigns-Mr. Madison's commercial resolutions---New

British orders respecting the West India trade--American vessels bound to the

West Indies taken and condemned---Congress divided as to the mode of resist-

ing these aggressions on neutral rights, and obtaining satisfaction and indem-

nity-- Various plans proposed in the house of representatives- British estab-

lish a new military post at the rapids of the Miami of the lake--Mr. Jay nomi-

nated minister extraordinary to London--Reasons of the president for this

mission--Mr. Jay's instructions--Non-intercourse bill passed by the house,

but rejected in the senate--Congress take measures of defense---Lay additional

internal taxes--Pass acts to prevent the violation of the neutrality and sove-

reignty of the country---Fauchet arrives as successor to Genet---Has orders to

send Genet to France---Requests liberty of the president to take him by force

or stratagem---President refuses his request---Views of the French government

not changed---Mr. Morris recalled from France, and Mr. Munroe appointed

his successor---His instructions,

Page.

« AnteriorContinuar »