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These resolutions were
“ 1. Resolved, That the articles of the confederation ought to be so corrected and enlarged, as to accomplish the objects proposed by their institution, namely, common defense, security of liberty, and general welfare.
“ 2. Resolved, Therefore, that the right of suffrage, in the national legislature, ought to be proportioned to the quotas of contribution, or to the number of free inhabitants, as the one or the other
may seem best, in different cases.
3. Resolved, That the national legislature ought to consist of two branches.
" 4. Resolved, That the members of the first branch of the national legislature ought to be elected by the people of the several states, every
for the term of to be of the age of years at least ; to receive liberal stipends, by which they may be compensated for the devotion of their time to public service ; to be ineligible to any office established by a particular state, or under the authority of the United States, (except those peculiarly belonging to the functions of the first branch,) during the term of service, and for the space of
after its expiration; to be incapable of re-election for the space of after the expiration of their term of service; and to be subject to recall.
65. Resolved, That the members of the second branch of the national legislature ought to be elected by those of the first, out of a proper number of persons nominated by the individual legislatures ; to be of the age of years, at least ; to hold their offices for a term sufficient to ensure their independency; to receive liberal stipends, by which they may be compensated for the devotion of their time to the public service; and to be ineligible to any office established by a particular state, or under the authority of the United States, (except those peculiarly belonging to the functions of the second branch,) during the term of service; and for the space of
after the expiration thereof. “6. Resolved, That each branch ought to possess the right of originating acts; that the national legislature ought to be em
powered to enjoy the legislative right vested in congress, by the confederation ; and moreover to legislate in all cases to which the separate states are incompetent, or in which the harmony of the United States may be interrupted by the exercise of individual legislation ; to negative all laws passed by the several states, contravening in the opinion of the national legislature, the articles of union, or any treaty subsisting under the authority of the union; and to call forth the force of the union against any member of the union failing to fulfil its duty under the articles thereof.
“7. Resolved, That a national executive be institued, to be chosen by the national legislature for the term of years, to receive punctually, at stated times, a fixed compensation for the services rendered, in which no increase or diminution shall be made, so as to affect the magistracy existing at the time of the increase or diminution ; to be ineligible a second time ; and that, besides a general authority to execute the national laws, it ought to enjoy the executive rights vested in congress by the confederation.
“ 8. Resolved, That the executive, and a convenient number of the national judiciary, ought to compose a council of revision, with authority to examine every act of the national legislature, before it shall operate, and every act of a particular legislature before a negative thereon shall be final; and that the dissent of the said council shall amount to a rejection, unless the act of the national legislature be again passed, or that of a particular legislature be again negatived by
of the members of each branch.
“9. Resolved, That a national judiciary be established to hold their offices during good behavior, and to receive punctually, at stated times, fixed compensation for their services, in which no increase or diminution shall be made, so as to affect the persons actually in office at the time of such increase or diminution. That the jurisdiction of the inferior tribunals, shall be, to hear and determine, in the first instance, and of the supreme tribunal to hear and determine, in the dernier resort, all piracies
and felonies on the high seas ; captures from an enemy ; cases in which foreigners, or citizens of other states, applying to such ju. risdictions, may be interested, or which respect the collection of the national revenue ; impeachments of any national officer; and questions which involve the national peace or harmony.
“ 10. Resolved, That provision ought to be made for the admission of states, lawfully arising within the limits of the United States, whether from a voluntary junction of government and territory, or otherwise, with the consent of a number of voices in the national legislature less than the whole.
“11. Resolved, That a republican government, and the territory of each state, (except in the instance of a voluntary junction of government and territory,) ought to be guarantied by the United States to each state.
“ 12. Resolved, That provision ought to be made for the continuance of a congress, and their authorities and privileges, until a given day, after the reform of the articles of union shall be adopted, and for the completion of all their engagements.
“13. Resolved, That provision ought to be made for the amendment of the articles of union, whensoever it shall seem necessary; and that the assent of the national legislature ought not to be required thereto.
“14. Resolved, That the legislative, executive, and judiciary powers within the several states ought to be bound by oath to support the articles of union.
“ 15. Resolved, That the amendments, which shall be offered to the confederation by the convention, ought, at a proper time or times, after the approbation of congress, to be submitted to an assembly or assemblies of representatives, recommended by the several legislatures, to be expressly chosen by the people to consider and decide thereon."
These resolutions of Mr. Randolph, called the Virginia plan, were debated and amended, until the 15th of June, when Mr. Patterson of New Jersey, offered to the convention the following propositions as amendments to the articles of confederation.
"1. Resolved, that the articles of confederation ought to be revised, corrected, and enlarged, as to render the federal constitution adequate to the exigencies of government, and the preservation of the union.
“ 2. Resolved, That in addition to the powers vested in the United States in congress, by the present existing articles of confederation, they be authorized to pass acts for raising a revenue, by levying a duty or duties on all goods and merchandize of foreign growth or manufacture, imported into any part of the United States-by stamps on paper, vellum, or parchment, and by a postage on all letters and packages passing through the general post office—to be applied to such federal purposes as they shall deem proper and expedient ; to make rules and regulations for the collection thereof; and the same from time to time to alter and amend, in such manner as they shall think proper. To pass acts for the regulation of trade and commerce, as well with foreign nations as with each other ; provided, that all punishments, fines, forfeitures, and penalties, to be incurred for contravening such rules and regulations, shall be adjudged by the common law judiciary of the states in which any offense contrary to the true intent and meaning of such rules and regulations shall be committed or perpetrated ; with liberty of commencing, in the first instance, all suits or prosecutions for that purpose, in the superior common law judiciary of such state ; subject, nevertheless, to an appeal for the correction of all errors, both in law and fact, in rendering judgment, to the judiciary of the United States.
"3. Resolved, That whenever requisitions shall be necessary, instead of the present rule, the United States in congress be authorized to make such requisitions in proportion to the whole number of white and other free citizens and inhabitants of
every age, sex, and condition, including those bound to servitude for a term of years, and three fifths of all other persons not conprehended in the foregoing description, except Indians not paying taxes; that if such requisitions be not complied with in the time to be specified therein, to direct the collection thereof in the noncomplying states ; and for that purpose to devise and pass acts
directing and authorizing the same ; provided, that none of the powers hereby vested in the United States in congress, shall be exercised without the consent of at least states; and in that proportion, if the number of confederated states should be hereafter increased or diminished.
" 4. Resolved, That the United States in congress, be authorized to elect a federal executive to consist of
persons, to • continue in office for the term of years; to receive punc
tually at stated times, a fixed compensation for the services by them rendered, in which no increase or diminution shall be made, so as to affect the persons composing the executive at the time of such increase or diminution ; to be paid out of the federal treasury ; to be incapable of holding any other office or appointment during their time of service, and for ter; to be ineligible a second time, and removeable on impeachment and conviction for malpractices or neglect of duty, by congress, on application by a majority of the executives of the several states. That the executive, besides a general authority to execute the federal acts, ought to appoint all federal officers not otherwise provided for, and to direct all military operations ; provided, that none of the persons composing the federal executive shall, on any occasion, take command of any troops, so as personally to conduct any military enterprise as general or in any other capacity.
“5. Resolved, That a federal judiciary be established, to consist of a supreme tribunal, the judges of which to be appointed by the executive, and to hold their offices during good behavior ; to receive punctually, at stated times, a fixed compensation for their services, in which no increase or diminution shall be made, so as to affect the persons actually in office at the time of such increase or diminution. That the judiciary, so established, shall have authority to hear and determine, in the first instance, on all impeachments of federal officers; and by way of appeal, in the dernier resort, in all cases touching the rights and privileges of ambassadors ; in all cases of captures from an enemy ; in all cases of piracies and felonies on the high seas ; in all cases in which for