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"To explain Feeling as a mode of Motion has generally been pronounced absurd. I am not aware that anyone has endeavored to explain Motion as a mode of Feeling; yet this is the conclusion which forces itself on my mind and which seems to reconcile all the difficulties which have been raised."
“We have good reason for asserting that the Motion which is contrasted with Feeling is, strictly speaking, only one mode of Feeling contrasted with all other modes and made to represent the objective or physical aspect of phenomena."
" While the logical disparity between Object and Subject, or Motion and Feeling, is wide and irremovable, the real parity lies in their both being modes of Feeling. . . . Does it not follow that Feeling is the much sought Thing in itself-the ultimate of search? All things can be reduced to it; but it can be reduced to nothing more general."* To be sure.
This is a contrivance for “reconciling the difficulties that have been raised” which never occurred to us. The obstacle which has stopped the triumphant hosts of Empiricism is turned by inverting an identical proposition. "Feeling is Motion :" that is an absurdity, and has generally been pronounced so, and is abandoned as absurd by Mr. Lewes. “Motion is Feeling :” that is a luminous truth dispelling the supreme mystery of Subject and Object, and with it all the minor mystifications of the universe; for Feeling is the Great Dingansicht, the ultimate of search whereinto all things are reducible, so that having got it we have got the Not-it too, the objective aspects of the Infinite and Indestructible Plenum.
But as we rub our bewildered eyes over the beautiful boon which Mr. Lewes has laid in our hand, lost in wonder for the efficacy of one small identical proposition, it occurs to us that this is not what was nominated in the bond, this is not the article which we expected to receive and which Mr. Lewes contracted to deliver. Not only is it not the great empirical generalization that all changes are modes of motion, but more particularly it is not the constitution of the science of Psycholoyy on physiological data ; on the contrary, it is the constitution of Physiology on psychological data ; and of Biology, and Physics, and Cosmology; no longer the evolution of Conscious. ness out of the Plenum, but the evolution of the Plenum out of Consciousness. In other words this is Idealism, and Idealism of an aggravated type. The ultimate reality, the absolute being, is Feelings; not Feelings inhering in a Substance which feels and elicited by substances which are felt, but simply Feelings themselves clinging and clustered together, whose aggregate constitutes the substance of Self, whose contrasted modes constitute the substances of the Not-self, so that it is the Feelings which feel and the Feelings which are felt. How this Idealism is converted into Reasoned Realism, how Mr. Lewes contrives to get an external Plenum out of the objective aspects of his conciousness the reader will find set forth in the Problems of Life and Mind; suffice it to say here that the Demiurgus of this most extraordinary of all possible universes is our irrepressible old friend Petitio Principië; this time so perfectly naked as to have brought ingenuous blushes into the seasoned countenance of the Westminster Review itself; whose pudeur no one ever had occasion to suspect before.
* Prob. VI. The Absolute in Feeling and Motion.
Philosophy began with Idealism. Certain of sensations but doubtful of their truthfulness it set itself to discover the reality and the causes of the phenomena given in sensation. Bafiled in that search it turned to the observation of phenomena themselves. Observing them, it resolved that the reality and the cause are the phenomena ; then that the phenomena are the sensations; ending where it began, by identifying the ultimate with the initial reality. From Feeling to the Absolute; from the Absolute to the Phenomenal; from Phenomena to Feeling. So Philosophy is the dove let loose upon the waste of waters to find no resting place for its weary feet but the ark from whence it flew. This, and not its Reasoned Realism, is the significant thing in Problems of Life and Mind. To Mr. Lewes belongs the honor of completing an era and closing the circle of philosophic thought.
ARTICLE II.—THE VALUE OF CLASSICAL STUDIES.*
We have met to-night to witness the award of two prizes offered by your liberal and learned townsman, Dr. Whitsitt, for excellence in Greek. This air is still and pure. No electric flashes of passion disturb it; no murky vapors of prejudice poison it. Only the chaste ardors of a few expectant youths give it a healthful warmth, while the serene and approving countenances of these friends and exemplars of learning fill it with the spirit of sweetness and repose. I rejoice to be here. With my first word, I welcome you all, the young and the old, the learned and the unlearned, to this restful scene, and this ennobling occasion. Sweet learning has here her hour; culture spreads these viands; the genius of aspiration for things pure and noble, a genius as ancient as man, as youthful as the child of to-day, a genius whose fires lighted up the Hellespont and the Ægean thirty centuries ago, and to-night, here in this secluded canton of a world not then dreamed of, burns with a warmth and radiance unsubdued, and
_"shall burn unquenchably,
Until the eternal doom shall be," presides over this banquet.
How thankful should we be that such an occasion, so rare and precious, is permitted to us from out the still almost open jaws of a destruction which wasted the fields, swept away the material riches, burned up the very implements and supplies of learning, and soaked the earth with the life-blood of the bravest and best of this generation! How does the story which Æneas,
“Quanquam animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit," poured into the ear of the admiring Trojan queen, come mended and heightened in its thrill and pathos by this later story of scenes fresh in the memories of us all! How ought we to rejoice that our story may still be told around our own hearthstones, in our own native land, and not like Virgil's immortal wanderer's tale, in a foreign realm, after cruel tossings by sea and land!
* An address delivered at Greenville, S. C., on the occasion of the award of the Whitsitt Greek Prizes, December 16, 1876.
This occasion speaks a voice and has a significance which must appeal to the sensibilities of all who love learning. It is a pure tribute to the worth of classical culture. It is the evidence of the value set by this people on things that seem remote from their daily material wants. It is an effort to rekindle the fires, the cheering, unconsuming, enlightening fires of learning, in the places where the baleful, devouring flames of war so lately burned. Heaven's benediction be upon such occasions, such efforts ! They are worthy of any people. They are worthy of South Carolina, of her past, of her present. Let it be said now that our State has never wanted witnesses to the great truths of scholarship, exemplars of its spirit, patrons of its arts, representatives of its high attainments. Though the statement may be challenged beyond our borders, yet I speak my sincere conviction when I say that nowhere in America has there been shown a more sincere devotion to classical, culture on the part of those whose opportunities have permitted its cultivation, than in this state. The familiar line of our statesmen, orators, and divines
The observation of one who even now shall observe the professional mind of the state proves it. If less widely dif. fused, if possessed by fewer, it has votaries as sincere and its influence is as marked and constant in those who claim its companionship, as among any people to whom my acquaintance has extended.
I cannot forget too that on the soil of this state have been fought some of the most significant battles in the long contest between the advocates and detractors of classical studies. Whoever is familiar to any degree with the literature of his country will recall the fact that it was the Hon. Thomas S. Grimke of Charleston, himself an accomplished classical scholar, who in 1827 uttered these startling words :-“I desire to record here emphatically my opinion, founded on the history of my own mind, and the experience of twenty years, that I have derived no substantial improvement from the classics;" and who seven years later declared, "The whole system of education is destined to undergo an American Revolution in a higber and holier sense of the term than that of '76, by the substitution of a complete Christian American education for the strange and anomalous compound of the spirit of ancient, foreign, heathen states of socie. ty, with the genius of modern, American Christian institutions." And whose was the voice that answered and silenced this ominous and powerful outburst? Who, of all the scholars of the land, may be said most effectually to have subdued this portentous rebellion against the authority of the Republic of letters? My heart swells with pride, though not native to this soil, as I speak the name of Hugh Swinton Legaré. In tbat memorable initial article in the “Southern Review," called forth by the philippic of Mr. Grimke, he pours forth the wealth of his learning, the splendor of his diction, and the fervid love of his heart, in glowing defence of classical education. “They who apply,” says he, “this radical, levelling, cui bono test, who estimate genius and taste by their value in exchange, and weigh the results of science in the scales of the money-changer, may be wiser in their generation than the disinterested votaries of knowledge; but they have, assuredly, made no provision in their system for the noblest purposes of our being." “We refer," again he proudly exclaims, “ to that education and to those improvements which draw the broad line between civilized and barbarous nations, which have crowned some chosen spots with glory and immortality, and covered them all over with a magnificence that even in its mutilated and mouldering remains, draws together pilgrims of every tongue and every clime, and which have caused their names to fall like a "breathed spell" upon the ear of the generations that come into existence, long after the tides of conquest and violence have swept over them, and left them desolate and fallen. It is such studies we mean, as make the vast difference in the eyes of a scholar between Athens, their seat and shrine, and even Sparta with all her civil wisdom and military renown, and have (hitherto at least) fixed the gaze and thoughts of all men with curiosity and wonder, upon the barren little peninsula between Mount Citharon and Cape Sunium, and the islands and the shores around it, as they stand out in lonely brightness and dazzling relief, amidst the barbarism of the West on the one hand, and the dark and silent and lifeless wastes of Oriental despotism on the other. We are thus let into that great communion of scholars throughout all ages and all nations,-like that awful communion of saints in the holy church universal,- and feel a sympathy with departed genius and with the enlightened and the gifted minds of other