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Ptolemy, by Philip and Antiochus ; the wicked carts by which those Princes attempted to share between themselves the dominions of the infant King; and the manner in which * the former of them invaded Ægypt, Samos, and Caria, and the latter Cæle-Syria, and Phoenicia. We then thall make a recapitulation of all that was tranfacted by the Carthaginians and Romans, in Spain, Sicily, and Africa: and from thence hall again remove the History to Greece,

now became the scene of new disorders. And having first run through the naval battles of Attalus band the



Rhodians, against King Philip, we shall next describe the war that followed, between the Romans and this Prince ; together with the causes, circumstances, and conclusion of it.

After there events, we shall relate in what manner the Ætolians, urged by their resentment, called Antiochus from

Asia, and gave occafion to the war between the Achæans and the Romans. And having explained the causes of that

war, and seen the entrance of Antiochus into Europe, we

Thall then shew the manner in which he fled back again into Greece; and afterwards, when he had suffered an entire

defeat, was forced to abandon all the country on this fide of Mount Taurus. Next will follow, the victories by which

the Romans gave an effectual check to the insolence of the Gauls; secured to themfelves the sovereignty of the citerior Asia; and delivered the people of that country from being again exposed to the violence and savage fury of those Barba

We shall then give some account of the misfortunes in which the Ætolians and Cephallenians were involved; and of the war which Eumenes sustained against Prusias, and the Gauls of Greece: together with that of Ariarathes against Pharnaces. And after fome discourse concerning the union, and form of government, of the confederate cities of Peloponnesus, which will be attended also with some remarks upon the growth, and flourishing condition of the Republic of the Rhodians, we shall, in the last place, take a short view of all that has been before related; and

conclude the whole with the expedition of Antiochus Epiphanes into Ægypt, and the war with Perfeus, which was followed by the entire subversion of the Macedonian Em

Such was the plan of that noble pile, whose ruins we are now contemplating; the destruction of which we can never fufficiently lament. But our Historian did not content himfelf with a bare recital of these facts: considering, that this alone was not sufficient to give his readers a perfect idea'


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of the nations conquering, or conquered, he not only enriched his work with occafional reflections, but added likewise a distinct enquiry into the lives, characters, and designs of the principal men that were concerned in the transactions of those times: For, says he, “it ought never to be sup

posed, either by those who preside in Itates, or those who are willing to decide with truth concerning the manner in • which they are administered, that the fole end of making 6 war is victory.'

: Thus much, we imagine, will be fufficient to give our Readers a general idea of this history. We shall, therefore, pass on to the celebrated battle of Cannæ, and there fix our attention; it being the moft Itriking object which this Author has presented to our view.

It being Varro's turn to command, this General put áll " the troops in motion by break of day. He ordered those of < the greater camp to pass the river; and as they gained the

other side, drew them up in order of battle; joining also to « them, in the same line, the troops of the little camp. Their « faces were all turned towards the south. He placed the Ro• man cavalry on the right wing, clofe upon the river: and • next to these the infantry, extending in one single line,"

But the Cohorts were drawn up behind each other in much & closer order than was usual among the Romans; and their < files fo doubled, as to give the whole line a greater depth.

The cavalry of the allies closed the line upon the left. And 6 at some distance, in the front of the whole army, stood the

light-armed troops. The whole number of the forces, with “the allies included, were eighty thousand foot; and fome6 what more than fix thousand horse.

At the same time Annibal, having first fent over the Balearic slingers, and the light-armed troops, to take their post in front, passed the river in two places with the rest of

the army, and ranged them in order of battle. The Spanish < and Gallic horse were posted on the left, close upon the bank

of the river, and opposite to the Roman cayalry. Next to these, upon the same line, he placed, first, one half of the <heavy-armed Africans; then the Gauls and Spaniards; after

these, the rest of the Africans ; and closed his whole line 6 upon the right with the Numidian cavalry. When he had "thus ranged all his forces in'one fingle line, he advanced to.

wards the enemy, being followed only by the Gauls and Spaniards of the center. Thus he detached these troops from the line in which they had stood together with the reft; and as he advanced, he formed them also into the figure



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of a crescent; at the fame time spreading wide their ranks, and leaving to thiş figure but a very inconsiderable depth.

His intention was to begin the adion with the Gauls and • Spaniards; and to support it afterwards by the Africans, who

were armed after the Roman manner, from the spoils that had been taken in the former battles. The Gauls and Spaniards wore the same kind of buckler; but their swords were different. For those of the latter

formed as

well • to push with as to Atrike; whereas the Gauls.could only use their swords to make a falling stroke, and at a certain distance. These troops were ranged together in alternate cohorts: and as the Gauls were naked, and the Spaniards all cloathed with vests of linen, bordered with purple, after 6 the fashion of their country, their, appearance was both

strange and terrible. The Carthaginian cavalry amounted 6 in the whole to about ten thousand : : and the number of

their infantry was fomewhat more than forty thousand, with

the Gauls included. The right of the Roman 'army was 6.conducted byÆmilius ; the left by Varro; and the center by Regulus and Servilius, the consuls of the former year. Or the side of the Carthaginians, Afdrubal had the care of the left; Hanno, of the right; and Annibal himself, with his. • brother Mago, commanded in the center. Both armies

were alike secure from being incommoded by the rising sun ; • for the one was * turned towards the south, as we have already mentioned, and the other towards the north.

The action was begun by the light-armed troops, that were posted before the armies, In the first confict, the fuccess was on both fides equal. But when the Spanish and

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Turned lawards,] If the translator had been a military man, he would have said faced, or fronted, to the south; and allo a little above, instead of spreading wide their ranks, he would have wrote opening their files. In the room of, pitched battle, he always says, fet battle. Mr. Hampton's un-military expreffions are very frequent throughout the whole work. Now though it may be urged, that the generality of his readers are as little acquainted with military terms as himself, yet there is an indispensible propriety in the use of technical words, to which every Auchór should conform, who treats of those arts and sciences to which they are appropriated : particularly when, as in this case, those terms are as inielligible to all readers as any other. A man who takes upon himself to describe a battle, ought undoubtedly to write like a soldier. We should have been less inclined to this piece of criticism, had not our

Translator, in his Preface, thought fit to laugh at M. Folard, for asserting, that none but a soldier could describe a battle properly.

6 Gallic

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«Gallio cavalry, advanging from the left wing of the Cartha

ginians, approached near the Romans, the contest that enco

sued between them was then, indeed, most warm and veher ) "ment; and such as resembled rather the combats of Barba

rians, than a battle fought by disciplined and experienced troops. For, instead of falling back, and returning again often to the charge, as the custom was in such engagements,

they were now scarcely joined, when, leaping from their "horses, each man seized his enemy. But after some time; " the victory turned wholly to the side of the Carthaginians. « The greater part of the Romans were destroyed in the

place *, after a moft brave and obftinate contention : and the rest being closely followed t, as they Aed along the river, were all slaughtered likewise, without being able to obtain any mercy.

About the same time when this combat was decided, the » « light-armed troops on both sides retired back again to their

reípective armies, and the heavy infantry advanced to action. » “ The Gauls and Spaniards stood for fome time firm against <the enemy. But being at last forced to yield to the weight % of the Roman legions, they retreated backwards, and thus

opened the figure of the crescent, in which they had been « formed. The Romans followed with alacrity and eager?

ness, and without much difficulty forced their way through • the ranks of the enemy, which were loose and thin; where

as themselves, on the contrary, had drawn away many cos

horts from the wings, to strengthen their center, in which, « at this time, all the stress of the battle day. For the action

was not begun by the whole line at once, but fingly by tha *

center: because the Gauls and Spaniards, as they formed « themselves into the figure of a crescent, had advanced far • beyond the wings of their own army, and offered only the convex of

of the crescent to the enemy. The Romans thereforęftill pushing forwards, through the middle of these ! ranks, which still gave way before them, were at last so far ;

advanced within the center, that they saw on either side the beavy armed Africans stand ready to enclose them. Nor

did these troops long neglect the occasion, which of itself . moft clearly pointed out the measures that were now proper ! to be taken. For I turning suddenly, the one part of them from the right to the left, and the other from the left to the

In sbe place.) Armies do not fight in a place, but upon a field + Troops never follow, but pursue. Turning] Inftead of facing.

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“ right, they fell with fury upon both the Aanks of the Ro « mans.s. And thus the event happened which Annibal had

chiefly in view. For this General had foreseen, that the • Romans, in pursuing the Gauls and Spaniards, must at Taft

inevitably be enclofed between the Africans. By this means " they were now forced to break their phalanx, and to defend • themselves, either singly, or in separate parties, against the • enemies that were attacking them in Aank. Wong

* Æmilius, who at firft was posted on the right, and had • efcaped from the general slaughter of the Roman cavalry,

perceiving that the fortune of the battle was now to be de& cided by the infantry alone, and being earnestly solicitous,

that bis actions should in no respect fall short of those af

furances which he had given when he harangued the army, « drove his horse into the very middle of the combatants ;

killing and dispersing every thing in his way, and employ

ing all his efforts to animate the soldiers that were near « him. Annibal did the same on his part: for he had se« mained still in the center, from the beginning of the en• gagement.

The Numidians of the right wing had charged the cavala ! ry of the allies upon the left. And though, by reason of ? their peculiar way of fighting, no great loss was fuftained ļ on either side ; yet as they still, from time to time, returned ? again to the attack, they by that means held their troops fo ļ constantly employed, that they had no leisure to aflift the ! restor' But when the cavalry of the left, that was led by Ar« drubal, and which now bad finished the destruction of al ! most all the Roman cavalry that Aed along the river, came I found and joined the Numidians, the cavalry of the allies ? were at once seized with ferror, and not waiting to receive " the charge, immediately turned their backs and Aed: Upon « this occasion, Asdrubal bethought himselfs of an expedient 6 which, indeed, denoted his great prudence, and his fill in ļ war, Observing, that the Numidians were considerable in

their numbers; and knowing also, that these troops were

then molt terrible, whenever they were engaged againsta • Aging enemy; he ordered them to pursue thote that Hed;

and at the same time led his own cavalry to the affiftanée of ! che African infantry. He fel upon the Roman legions in ! their rear; and having divided his cavalry into fitde troops,

fent them into the midst of the action, in many different

parts at once. By this wife measure, he gave new strength I and courage to the Africans while the Romans, on the ! contrary, began to lose all hope. It was at this time that


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