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A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Scimces ; compre
bending all the branches of useful knowlege, with accurate de fcriptions as well of the various machines; inftruments, tòals; figures, and schemes necessary for illustrating thein, as of the claffes, kinds, preparations, whether animals, vegetables, mis nerals, foffils, or fluids. Together with the kingdoms, provinces, cities, towns, and other remarkable places in the known world. Illufirated by above three hundred copper-plates, en graved by Mr. Jefferys, Geographer and Engraver to the Prince of Wales. The whole extracted from the best Authors in all languages. By á Society of Gentlemen. 8vo. 4 vols. 2 l. 5 s. or, bound in eight yolumes; 21. 8 s. Owen. 10 whom, and in what manner, Dictionaries of Arts
and Sciences may be useful, has been explained upon a former occasion *. Harris may not improperly be placed among the earliest Lexicographers, who, in our country, carried a scheme of this kind into actual execution. His plan was improved in the Cyclopædia ; and several modern refinements, in the mechanic and other arts, as well as some late discoveries in philosophy, furnished materials for another compilation of the fame kind, printed but a few years ago, by Hinton, under the title of, 1 Now and Universal Dictionary of Arts, &c. No Author was mentioned in the title, or advertisements; but it appears, from the dedication, that the Compiler's name was Barroiv. To á conlciousness of some imperfections, and deficiencies, may be attributed the fupplemental volumes to Chambers; nor is it quite improbable, but that to some hints in the Review: t, the Pamic are obliged for an additional volume to Mir, Harrow's perforinance.
These afiltarces, which cannot be dected very inconfi. derable, were all at the commend of the Compilers of the work now under our inspection; in 'rk, they have acknota Sered the free use of them: (Dutionaries, Tanctione, Merroirs, Systems, Commentario, de tous, and even fays, Elements, and Granma intrec neribute ! their several quotas--towards' Crew cutive: ia which, however, they are fo treat and dow-LOUNAS in order to fit them for their roi de bucs, it would lec both tedious and useless to rear to this is $2 erity
* See Review, Vol. X. p. 57. Chi
and • occafion. Yet would such references have been no more than honest, and candid, especially where whole articles are literally copied ; nor could the occasional insertion of the words, Chambers and Barrotu, have greatly fwelled the size of these volumes.
Though literary property has not the same legal securities that defend our civil possessions; though at the Old Bailey it would be looked upon as a higher crime to have stolen a handkerchief, value Sixpence, than to have robbed an Author of his whole stock in trade, his thoughts and language; yet, in point of striet equity, it is apprehended, no good reason can be given, why the labours of the head should not be as inviolable as the work of the hands.
However laudable the purpose of facilitating the avenues to knowlege, and rendering the purchase of it easy, this ought not to be attempted by means inconsistent with juftice: plagiarism of any fort, we conceive to fall under the predicament of injustice; and of this crime the Society of Gentlemen who put together this compilation stand indicted, in our court of judicature. The evidence against them we fhall day before our Readers, and leave it to them to pass fentence.
Bat, perhaps, prescription may be pleaded in bar of our indictment: it has been customary, say they, for all Lexicographers to filch from each other; and they may possibly farther infift, that the nature of such an undertaking, muft, of necellity, render such filching unavoidable. To which we rejoin, that no custom or prescription ought to be admitted in vindication of a practice in itself unjust; and though it may be allowed, supposing the same originals to have been consulted, that a hmilarity of expreffion will follow; yet a fameness is not necefsarily implied: and when even errors are copied, it argues no lefs want of judgment than want of honesty. --Our defendants have, indeed, sometimes endeavoured to disguise their thefts; but, by so doing, they have fallen into frequent absurdities.
But, to our evidence: in which we shall proceed alphabetically, in conformity to the nature of the prosecution, though not to the practice of other courts.
Whoever will be at the pains of comparing the account given of AMALGAMATION, in this New Dictionary, with that given by Barrow, who himself has confessedly borrowed from Boerhaave, will readily perceive, that the former is much indebted to the latter ; but what chemist, or mineralist, before these gentlemen, ever talked of melted mercury? This we venture to rank among their transformations, .
AMPLITUDE, in astronomy, is defined by the new Lexicographers, an arch of the horizon, intercepted between the
east and west, and the center of the fun, or a planet at its • rising and setting ; thus far they agree almoft literally with the Cyclopaedia: to which they add, and so is either north
and south, or ortive and occasive. True, indeed, the amplitudes are sometimes called northern and southern, as they happen to fall in the northern 'or southern quarters of the horizon but as it is here expreffed, would not any person unacquainted with astronomy, be inclined to think north and fouth intended as fynonymous to ortive and occasive ?
BORAX, is injudiciaudy called a mineral*, instead of a native falt: the hiftory of it given in this work is extreniely defeative ; its uses are too vaguely described, and a manifest error is go pied from the Supplement to the Cyclopædia; wherein it is said to be used for making Glauber's falt; whereas, in reality; all that ought, with any sort of propriety, to have been men
tioned on this head, is; that there is a poßibility of producing a falt like Glauber's from it.
Mariners COMPASS, is a close copy from Barrow: the same may, in a great meafure, be said of DROWNING, only that the latter of thefe articles is more than a little deformed, by our Gentlemen's attempting to conceal the plagiarism.
The article DYING, will, we apprehend, appear upon examination, to be the actual property of the Cyclopaedia. Abundance of transposition, and a few diversifications of expreffion, may render the fraud somewhat less obvious; but with what judgment these artifices are employed, the fole lowing will evince. Under, Dying of Silks, the Cyclopoedia says, “Red Crimson is dyed with pure cochineal mefticht,
The method of pracuring and preparing this falt is pretty fully described in the Review, Vol. XII. p. 93.
it For the information of such of our Readers as may be as little acquainted with this dying ingredient as these gentiemen-book-makers, it may not be amils to observe, that there are two sorts of
cochineel, the finer called mestique, the other termed wild cochia • neel. The first is gathered from such plants of the Opuntia, asi
are prepared and managed properly, on purpose for the production • of the arjinal; the other is found wild on the wild plant, and is • much inferior to the meftique in value. The mistique has its name
from the name of the place where it is propagated in the greatest ' quantity, Meftique, in the Bay of Honduras. As to the other, it ' is not yet determined, whether it be another species of the animal, whether the same species in a less thriving condition.'
Suppy to Cyclop. From Reaumur's Hiß. of Infects,
adding galls, turmeric, arsenic, and tartar, all put toge
ther in a copper of fair water, almoft boiling.' The new Compilers chuse to direct this process otherwise : Red Crim
fon,' say they, is given with pure cochineel, maftic, adding * galls, turmeric, arsenic, and tartar, all mixed in a copper of • fair water, almost boiling.' Whát confidence is to be placed in instructors so palpably ignorant of the subject they pretend to teach?
Epic Poem, and FRICTION, belong to Barrow; GILDING to the Cyclopaedia: whether these gentlemen have rendered this art more intelligible, by telling
us, that gilding with liquid gold; or, as it is expressed in other Dictionaries, gilding metals by fire, is performed by gold reduced to a calx, and amalgao
mated with mercury,' we leave to be determined by gilders. However, their deficiency in the technical terms, used in this branch of business, makes it fomewhat suspicious, that they have not been very conversant with the operation.
The furnaces and instruments for making, the methods of blowing, cafting, grinding, polishing, and painting GLASS, are all verbally taken from Barrow: fo likewise is what is contained under the word HELIOSTATA *. Nor do we think it more than common justice to restore all the merit of the article Hero to the Cyclopædia.
Upon the subjects IcthyOCOLLA, and Iron, our Lexico graphers have chose to adhere, and that very closely, to Mr. Barrow. Their Readers, we apprehend, will not take it amiss to be advertised of a correction very necessary to be made in the fourth column, line 5, of the latter article; where, instead of Crystals in Spars, they will read Crystals and
Spars”. It may, poffibly, be only a typographical mistake, but it is too material to be over-looked.
LANGUAGE, a topic surely capable of variety, and LENS, the former fomewhat abbreviated, and the latter a little tranfposed, are copied from the Cyclopoedia. To LATITUDE, and LONGITUDE, Barrow seems considerably to have contributed; and to him, also, we conceive, ought juftly to be ascribed what is found here under the title Magnet.
The Supplement to the Cyclopædia appears to have fupplied the article MESENTERIC Fever. To whom we ought, with propriety, to attribute the account here given of the NEWTONIAN Philosophy, may admit of some doubt; our new
An instrument invented by S'Gravesande, and designed to con fine the rays of the fun, in a horizontal direction, across a dark chamber.
Compilers have agreed almoft literally with Barrow, who has acknowleged, in this refpect, his obligation to Harris.
OLIBANUM is a faithful transcript from Barrow; even his little inaccuracy, of not distinguishing the particular species of frankincense to which this drug is properly referable, these gentlemen have not thought fit to correct.
PLOTTING among Surveyors, may be juftly claimed by the Cyclopædia; so also may the article Punch.-It is poflible: there may be among our Readers, fome who may think with us, that this liquor, taken in a moderate dole, is falubrious, as well as exhilarating: to fuch it may not be disagreeable to know the directions of both writers on this subject; whereby they willalso have the further advantage of being instructed in the art of literary transmutation, in cale any of them should be inclined to commence second-hand authors. Thus it stands in the Cyclopaedia.
Punch is also a name of a sort of compound drink, frequent in England, and particularly about the maritime parts thereof, though little known elsewhere.
Its basis is a spring-water, which being rendered cooler, • brisker, and more acid, with lemon-juice, and sweetened
again to the palate with fine sugar, makes what they call sherbet; to which a proper quantity of a spirituous liquor, as brandy, rum, or arrack, being fuperadded, the liquor commences punch.
Several Authors condemn the use of punch, as prejudicial "to the brain and nervous system.--Dr. Cheyne inhits, that
there is but one wholesome ingredient in it, which fome nisu ' begin to leave out, viz. the mere water.
“The proportion of the ingredients are various; usually the brandy and water are in equal * quantities.---Some, instead
of lemon juice, use lime-juice, which makes what they call « punch-royal; this is found less liable to affect the head,
as well as more grateful to the stomach.
• Some also make milk-punch, by adding near as much 6 milk to the sherbet as there is water, which tempers the 6 acrimony of the lemon; others prefer tea-punch, made of green tea, instead of water, and drank hot.
Lastly, what they call punch for chamber-maids, is made • without any water, of lime-juice, Tharpened with a little
* It mut have been a long time since the ingredients of purch were thus proportioned. Our Grandmothers uled to say,
Two of sour, and one of sweet,
One of strong, and two of weak. REVIEW, Des. 1756.