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what nature or kind scever that Spirit is supposed to be. In this fense it can be no proof, that God did not manifest his

prefence by some visible symbols, that no man hath, Jeen, or o can see his proper Spiritual Nature; for in that sense, no man hath feen, or can fee any spiritual Nature at all. 21 • It is further remarkable in this argument, that though the Scriptures teach us, that no man hath jeen God at any time, yet they do also observe that the people did hear the voice of Jehovah, the voice of the living God, of Jehovah their God, to that they had seen, that God dotb talk with man, and Fle liveth.

· These expressions refer to that eminent appearance of the Schechinah, when Jehovah gave his law on Mount Sinai, in " the account of which, how many expressions have we to " the fame purpose? Thus Jehovah commanded the people to ' sanctify themselves, and to be ready the third day, on this ac

count; for on the third day, Fehovah will come down in the sight of all the people. And Mofes brought forth the people out. of the camp, to meet with God. And Mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because Jehovah descended upon it, in Fire.

And Jehovah came down on Mount Sinai, on the top of the Mount, and Jehovah called Moses up to the top of the Mount. ! It is further faid, That Mofes and Aaron, Nadab and Abibu, 6 and seventy of the Elders of Israel, saw the God of Israel.

« The bare expression then, that no man hath Jeen God at any time, can no ways infer; that because God, who is invilible in bis nature, has never been, and never can b

be, a proper object of bodily sense, therefore He has never mania «fefted a peculiar presence in and by fome visible symbols;

such, for instance, as the Schechinah. For the same Scrip«tures do expre/sly teach us, that there is a true, and a pro

per fenfe, in which Jehovah came down in the fight of ma

ny people, and that They had seen, that Jehovah baď talked with them from Heaven.

• This is an observation, I think, of great consequence in « the present question. For in what sense soever the Scriptures « speak of God, as invisible, they teach us to look upon the « symbols of the Schechinah, as a proper manifestation of « some peculiar prelence of Jehovah: For God, the living « God, Jehovah, the God of Ijrael, is said to descend, to appear,

to Thew his glory, to speak to all the people, to be * seen of them, and to be heard by them.'

But then our Author obferves, page 23, That the appearance of the Schechinah is ascribed to Angels, and is often called the Angel of Jehovah. Upon which he makes the following ingenious remark,

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It is the concurrent opinion of the Hebrew and Samaritan < schools, that the word Angel does not only mean a Spirit,

bat Tometimes also call forts of powers, or instruments, & which God Thall be pleased to use and to act by. So that

the elements of the world, Fire and Air, Winds and Storms, in particular vifions, in the language of the Scriptures, are called Angels of the Lord, which do his will

. To make this obfervation more evident, we shall find, that the Scriptures themselves call a Dream, a Vifion, a Voice from Heaven, a Plague, a burning Wind, Angels of God. And whatsosoever God is pleased to do by them, is said to be done by an Angel of the Lord. For what declares God's will, or performs his pleasure, is his Angel. * In particular, the Schechinah, or material Symbol of Glory, and the Oracle from thence, may in this fense be called the Angel of the Lord, and it is actually so called in

Scripture. Thus the Schechinah, which Mofes faw in the Fire, in the Bush, and the Voice of the Oracle, which he

heard from thence, are called the Angel of the Lord. And the Schechinah, which conducted the Ifraelites in a pillar of cloud, and Fire, is also called the Angel of Jehovah.

So that the Appearance and Voice of Jehovah in the midst of the Fire, and the Angel which spake to Moses, on Mount Sinai, are equivalent Expressions. And thus allo, in the language of the Chaldee Paraphrase, the Schechinah of Jehovah, the Mimra de" Adonai; are both of them equivalent to the Voice of Jehovah, or the Voice of

the Angel of the Presence, or the Divine Majesty, and Glory.

This observation, which is not a bare conjecture of Cris ticism, but which is founded on many concurrent and direct

evidences, will, I conceive, take away the force of the objection before mentioned. For it appears, that the Schechinah,

and the Oracle themfelves, may, in a very proper sense, be ory * ftiled the Angel of the Lord; though the true God himself

the only Spirit, or intelligent Agent, who acted upon them, and manifested himself by them: as much, as if they

were acted upon by some other Spirit, whom God sent tu * { represent him in the visible appearance of the Schechinah, " and by the audible Voice of the Oracle. The Fire, and $the Voice, were as properly Angels, in the language of Scripfture, as'any intelligent Beings, or Spirits.'

Hence it should seem to follow, that not Messiah, but that the one and only God'acknowleged by the Jews, spake himself

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to his people; and that the Appearances, the Voice, and material Organs made use of, are called the Angel of Jehovah,

But then our Author fays, It deferves particular observa

tion, that of all the representations of Christ in the Jewish • Dispensation, there is no one represents him more directly,

more fully, and in more important points, than the Sche6 chinah. So that almost all the accounts we have of his per"fon, as the Word made. Flesh, and of the manner of his ap

pearance among us, in the world, are in descriptions alluding to the Schechinah, and in expreflions borrowed from it; with this only difference, that now the Word is made Flesh, God dwells and tabernacles among men, in a much more.

proper, and eminent sense, than he ever dwelt or tabernacled in the Schechinah, or the Glory between the Cheruobim in the most Holy Plice. So that all former appearances

of the Schechinah are to be considered as representations of

God with us, of the iVord made Flesh, and of the manner in (which the Fullness of the Godhead dwelt bodily in the Cbrift.

Thele really and fully answer all that the Schechinah prefi, gured, and was a representation of.'

Mr. Lowman then returns to the Fathers, and observes from Dr. Bull, that they considered a proper order of action, ' whereby some actions were to be ascribed more immediately

to the Father, and other actions to the Son. Thus they al« ferted, that the appearances were to be ascribed to the Son, • and not to the Faiher, because they were properly preludes s of the Son's incarnation, and because the Father being first in the order or economy, was to send, and not to be sent.

Accoring to this order the Father is said to do all things by • and through the Soil, and therefore to have appeared to the • Fathers by him.-We have an instance of this in the natu; ral order of our own powers of understanding or intelli,

gence, of reason or wisdom, of will or action. We may, i in like manner, when we consider the infinite Mind, as Fa

ther, Word, and Spirit, conceive likewise a distinct order e in their actions.'

By their actions, he means, the actions of one mind; and, therefore, the Father, Word, and Spirit, will be no other than different Modes of the fame Mind, as intelligence, and reason, and will, are in man. This order and econoniy is no other than an ideal order or æconon:y, and has its diversity not in the mind, but the manner of action: it is the same power exerted different ways. And in this sense it may be iaid, the fame God or Being who, as Father, creates, reseems through the mediation of Christ, and fanctifies by his

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power. Whether this is the Author's meaning or not, let our Readers determine, we think it is what he ought to have said, in consequence of his notion of the Scripture doctrine of the Schechinah, mixt with what the Fathers have asserted concerning OEconomy*;;;

We now proceed to review what he has set forth in his fe. cond Traet, the Effay on the Schechinah. - And first, We observe, that this word is very improperly spielt with c; the English language well expresses the found by th, which foreigners cannot, without inserting c, and it is not right to imitate them in their defe&ts. And as k is nearer to Gaph or Kappa than the ambiguous ch, we thall, for the future, write Shekinah. - In our Author's Introduction to this second Tract or Eslay, he explains, more largely than he had done in his former Tract, the general meaning of the Shekinah, and the Scripture sente of the word Angel." But as we have already given his sense of these words, we shall not enlarge upon them here. In page 84, he considers the Divine Appearance to our first parents in Paradise, Gen. iii. 8. They heard the Voice of the Lord God walking in the garden, in the cool of the day. And Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God. From

The reasonings of our Author, in this fir& Tract, will, from the following remarks, appear to be rather fpecious, and plaufible, than folid, and conclufive. It was usual, in the eastern countries, for fuch as delivered messages from others, to speak after the fame manner as those very persons would have done, in whose names they came; and those who returned answers by messengers, fpake as if those very persons were present, by whom the messengers. Thus, in Matthew viii

. 5-13., the centurion is represented as personally addressing his petition to Jesus, to heal his fick fervant; and our Saviour's answer is directed to him as if he had been personally present : whereas, from Luke vii. 148. it is evident, that the centurion was not perfonally present; but prefeted his request, and received the answers from Jesus, by the inter. mediate agency of the messengers he employed on that occafion. See also Jadges, chap. vi, 11-18, 21, 22, 23. , where in the history of the angelic appearance to Gideon, the fame observation is clearly illuftrated.

It may also throw some further light on this subject, to take noe tice, that the angel by whose ministry Jesus Christ signified [eonfuavev] to his servant John, that revelation which himself had received from God the Father, Rev. i. 1. this very angel, whom

A employed as his Minister, assumes characters appropriate and peculiar to God, and to Jesus Chrift. See Rev. i. 8, 11. xxi. 5-7. xxi. 6, 8, +3; 16.


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Ezek, i. 24, and Jer. xi. 16, compared with Exod. ix. 28, he infers, that the voice was as mighty thunderings. There is no mention of splendor in this paffage, but the appearance is described as a voice or found approaching nearer and nearer

to our first parents, under the denomination of the Presence of - the Lord.: . In the further account of this ar

appearance, Jehovah Elohim represented as converfing with our firft pa• rents, calling first to Adam, and replying to his answer ; • then speaking to the woman, and replying to her answer ;

Ype king afterwards to the Serpent, and denouncing a punishment fuitable to the evil he had done, then pronouncing the • punishment of the woman, afterwards of the many giving

a promise, that the Seed of the woman should bruise the

Serpent's head; and finally directing our first parents how « to cloath themselves. As here was an appearance of Jeho« vah Elohim, here was also a fenfible appearance, and fuch

as that by it our first parents knew it was the presence of

the Lord. Though there is no express mention of the form of “the Shekinah, whether by a vilible shining Light, or other

wise, yet there was an articulate Sound, and distinct Voice

or Oracle. This is all along not only spoken of as the Voice 6 or Oracle of the Lord God, but in the discourse, or words

of the Oracle there is an exact conformity to the character * of Jehovah Elohim, as having given the command not to • eat of the forbidden Tree, and as punishing the transgreffiion, and as giving the prospect and hope of tavour and blef

fing from Jehovah, whom they had to justly and so highly displeased, by their offence, in eating the forbidden fruit.

The next instance considered is, the appearance to Abraham, Gen. xvii. Concerning which he obferves,

“Fift, That the person appearing was Jehovah, as in the so met appearance to our first parents.

Secondly, That in this appearance he takes to himself the character of Almighty God; speaks all along, as the Per* son who had the supreme authority, and government of this

world, and disposal of the several bleflings of Providence; as the Person who had a right and authority to direct the whole religion of Abraham, and to whom all Abraham's religion was to be directed; who entered into Covenant with Abraham and his Seed, and who promised to be

a God unto them, and that he would make him a Father of ☆ many Nations, and give to him, and his Seed after him, the

land of Canaari for an everlasting poffeffion; who gives

thereupon a command for the use of the rite of Circumci. & fion, as a Seal of the Covenant that was entered into, bę.


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