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himself happily poffeffed of. If the Doctor had in view that precept of Horace, which advifes,

-Neque, te ut miratur turba, labores;

Contentus paucis lectoribus.

he has certainly acted right; for his performance is far from being calculated to engage the multitude; nevertheless, it may probably furnish a fufficient degree of entertainment for the clafs of readers for whom it appears to have been defigned, and to whom only it is evidently adapted. A confciousness of this, perhaps, produced the following apology. There are more

men than naturalifts, and perhaps more of these than phyfi⚫cians. In the part which treats of the civil ftate of the island, • I own, I have been the most brief. The lives of the go• vernors, the civil and military transactions, and various other ⚫ particulars, would have made no improper part of such a work; but this would take up a large fhare of my time, on • a fubject to me not fo materially interefting; and of confequence hindered me from pursuing that part to which I found • myself more equal; more ftrongly inclined; and in which I thought my researches more likely to tend to public advantage. The natural history is therefore by much the most extenfive part; the productions are both numerous and curious; and contains (b) great numbers of articles, whereof ⚫ many have been left wholly unnoticed, while others were but • imperfectly or inaccurately represented to us.'

Agreeable to this plan, out of five hundred pages contained in this volume, twenty-feven only are appropriated to the civil hiftory of Jamaica; the former ftate of which, from its difcovery by Columbus, to the beginning of the prefent century, employs the first chapter. The conqueft of the ifland by the Spaniards, their expulfion by the English, the different administrations of the government previous to any fettled form, the charter granted for that purpose by King Charles II. the deftruction of Port-Royal by an earthquake in 1692, and the invafion of the French in 1694, are here mentioned; but the accounts are not always juft,(c) and in general too fuperficial, to gratify the curiofity of an inquifitive reader. Chap.

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(b) So Dr. Brown expreffes himself.

(c) Our Author, fpeaking of the retreat of the Spaniards to Cuba, takes notice, that they left behind them many of the negros and mulatos, to keep poffeffion of the place, and to prevent the conquerors from fettling in the country parts: these people,' adds he, continued very troublesome for a time: but the English, who were not used to the woods, at length called in fome of the Buc6 cancers

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Chap. 2. is divided into three fections. The first gives a fhort account of the parishes, and number of reprefentatives, ports of entry and clearance, and courts of judicature." With refpect to the reprefentatives, our Author takes notice of a law paffed by the Affembly for chufing them by ballot, but which has not yet received the royal fanction: also of another law for the inftitution of circular courts, under the fame circumftances. Such a law would certainly contribute greatly to the ease and advantage of thofe who live remote from the common feats of justice. He has likewife judiciously pointed out the inconveniences arifing to thofe fhips that load in the western harbours, from the want of a contiguous port of entry and clearance.

Sect. 2. treats of the lands, fettlements, foils, produce, ⚫ and income of Jamaica.' The quantity of fertile land in the island is computed at about four millions and an half of acres; of which one million, fix or feven hundred thoufand acres are already patented.' The Doctor, with great juftice,

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caneers to their affiftance, and foon after brought them under fubjec tion.'-Now it is a known fact, that tho' the Negros might perhaps be then, for a time, fuppreffed, yet they were not fubdued; feeing they and their defcendants continued their depredations till within thefe twenty five years: among them every difcontented negro that ran away from his owner, was fure of finding an afylum; till their numbers grew formidable. Thus ftrengthened, they frequently made incurfions on the fettlements, plundered the plantations, and murdered the inhabitants. Many attempts were made to reduce them by force, but their retreats being, in a great measure, inacceffible to the parties fent out against them, rendered thofe attempts fruitless. Abundance of lives had been loft in the purfuit of thefe favages, and the terror of them greatly impeded the cultivation of the more inJand parts of the ifland. The inefficacy of force having been wofully experienced, the late Governor Trelawny found means to bring them to a treaty; whereby the negros were allotted certain portions of Land, and permitted to live under the direction of their own chiefs; commiffions were granted by the Governor to those chiefs, who folemnly engaged for themselves and their people, thenceforward, to live peaceably, and as became good fubjects. The more effectually to difincline them from receiving or harbouring any run-away flaves, an act foon after paffed the affembly, encouraging them, by fuitable rewards, to difcover and bring home any fuch flaves, wherever they fhould meet with them. The engagements thus entered into have been punctually obferved, and thefe long and much dreaded enemies have ever fince continued faithful and useful fubjects; to the no little cafe and advantage of the inhabitants, and to the particular honour of that worthy Governor.


cenfures the unequal diftribution of those lands: his remarks upon this fubject are fo pertinent, that we apprehend no apology neceffary for laying them before our readers; efpecially if it be remembered, that every bar to industry in any of our colonies, extends itself to the prejudice of the parent-country.

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To avoid a more tedious and uncertain computation on this occafion,' fays our Author, I fhall only give an inftance of the parish of St. James's, one of the most thriving in that island, and one that at this time seems to keep a due • medium between the most populous, exclufive of towns, ⚫ and those that are yet the leaft cultivated. In this parish, on an exact computation, I find one hundred and fix thousand, three hundred and fifty-two acres already patented; and now the property of about one hundred and thirty-two perfons, whereof ten are only nominal proprietors, being poffeffed of no more than thirty-five or forty acres one with another: a quantity of land nearly equal to the whole ifland of Barbadoes, formerly computed at 106470 acres; which in 1676 was computed to maintain no less than feventy thousand Whites, and eighty-thoufand Blacks, in a decent and plentiful man· ner. From hence we may obferve, how much the prudent • diftribution of lands contributes to the fettlement of a colony; for, in Barbadoes, and the other fugar colonies, no < man was allowed to take up more land than he could cultivate in a certain space of time, and the new-comer had always his choice of the unpoffeffed lands, to enter upon immediately, which, tho' perhaps more remote from the markets, or fhipping-places, equally answered his purposes, while every neighbour, whofe plantation was already fettled, wanted the produce of this, as yet unfit for any thing but provifions, to fupply both his table and his flaves. Thus industry was ftill promoted, for every established fettler wanted an opportunity of encreafing his poffeffions with his family, and the produce of his labour was the only means of attaining it, which, for this reafon, he was refolved to employ to the great• est advantage; and made use of the major part in advancing his fortune, while a fmaller portion ferved to purchase the • neceffities of his family and flaves. By thefe means the colonies were foon fettled, and at length brought to fuch perfection, that the generality of cane-land now fells there from thirty to eighty, or one hundred pounds fterl. per acre; while the most promifing fie ds in Jamaica, continue ftill adorned with their native productions, and the cultivated are íçarcely valued at above ten or fifteen pounds an acre.

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The neceffity of putting a ftop to fuch inconveniences • must be then apparent to every perfon who confiders or reg REVIEW, July 1756.


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gards the general welfare of the colony; but the means of redreffing them must be the peculiar work of that wife body, to whofe care the fupreme power is committed; and yet I am afraid, that many of its members will think themselves too nearly interested, to confider the public happiness with warmth on this occafion.'-From the knowlege we have of this ifland, we are forry to fay, there is but too much reafon for our Author's fears: the fcheme he proposes for remedying this mifchief, by laying a heavy tax on uncultivated lands' (we prefume he means only thofe that are poffeffed) and reaffum

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ing the forfeited without favour,' is not new; the fame project was talked of at least fifteen years ago, particularly by fome new fettlers, who came from the island of Antigua; where, as Dr. Brown rightly observes, fuch a tax had fully fucceeded. His propofal for allotting a certain number of acres to form regular plantations of the moft ufeful timbertrees, fuch as braziletto, fuftic, lignum vitæ, ebony, baftardcedar, cedar, and mahogony, is practicable, and feems to deferve a serious confideration.

Tho' this ifland is not fo far improved as it might or ought to be, its importance to Great Britain cannot better be determined than by its produce, exports, and imports. The respective value of thefe, our Author has taken more than a little pains to ascertain. The materials from whence he has collected his informations, are, the books in the public offices of Jamaica, and schedules occafionally laid before the house of commons. Hence he computes, that

1. The quantity of fugar exported (d) annually
at a medium for four years, ending in De-
cember 1751, to be about 476338 Ct. nett
or fhort weight, which at the ufual price
that fugars bear in that place, will amount
to in currency (e) about
2. Rum (f) exported about 4600 puncheons,
valued according to the common price there

1. s. d.

738280 7 6

69575 o o

807855 7 6 Brought

(d) Exclufive of the fugars confumed in the island, which are reckoned to be feldom lefs than 4300 hogfheads, of 15 Ct. each. (e) Jamaica currency is to fterling, as feven to five, or 140 to 100.

Our Author obferves, that the quantity of rum is not proportionable to the quantity of fugar, which he accounts for from the export of molaffes to the North-American continent.


Brought over

3. Molaffes, 258707 gallons, about

4. Cotton, 1253 bags, at a medium one year

with another

5. Coffee, 220 casks

6. Pimento, 438000 lb. weight (g) 7. Mahogany

807855 7 6

12367 0 0

18895 0 0

3300 o o 21925 0.0 25000

8. Sundries, as logwood, nicarago, braziletto, fuftic, lignum vitæ, cocoa, ginger, canella, or winter's bark, Peruvian bark, balfams, indigo, aloes, hides, flaves, dry goods, and bullion fometimes exported from thence, whofe value is not fo easily computed, and chiefly the produce of their foreign trade (b). 450co o o 9. To the above is alfo added, for charge attending about 450 fhips that annually refort to the island

Total of Exports (i) currency

Equal to fterling

20000 0

954342 7 6

681673 222

The foreign trade, imports and revenues are confidered in the third fection: our Author's eftimate of the two former is taken from the collector's books for the year 1752; which year, he informs us, he more particularly made choice of, because the intercourfe of that year was deemed pretty moderate, and • rather under the medium, having immediately fucceeded the hurricane in fifty-one.' According to this account, the number of fhips trading to Jamaica, in the course of the year 1752, were as follows.


N. B. One hundred and fixty puncheons are computed to be retailed in the island, befides what is ufed in private families, and at the plantations where it is manufactured, which is here fuppofed to be tripple the quantity of what is retailed.

(g) That is, at the rate of fomething more than One Shilling per pound: furely an extraordinary price!

(b) Our Author fays of thefe articles, that of late years they have beenfeldom computed to bring in more than 45 or 50,000l. a year, but frequently not fo much.'


(i) Dr. Brown makes the total of the exports amount to only 945,7841. 75. 6d. but if his computation of the refpective articles is right, the fum of the whole ought to be as it ftands above. Whether he had any particular reafon for this deduction of upwards of 8000l. or whether it is owing to inadvertency, is not quite clear to us; tho' we are inclined to impute it to the latter, as this is not D 2 the

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