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pox, not only of his fight, but his eyes alfo, for they came "away in abfcefs. A fenfe fo little enjoyed,' adds Mr. Colfon, "was foon forgot; he retained no more idea of light "and colours, than if he had been born blind."
From a perfon thus unfortunately deprived of that fenfe which feems abfolutely neceffary in acquiring mathematical learning, it muft furely have appeared abfurd to expect any great proficiency in that branch of science. But this inftance fhould teach us not to look upon every thing above our comprehenfion as impoffible; and reftrain us from peremptorily charging authors of credit with relating falfehoods, merely because fome things may excel, what we may vainly think, the bounds of human perfpicacity. For Mr. Saunderfon, in mathematical learning, was equal to any of his time, and in the addrefs. of a teacher, perhaps, fuperior to all.
Whatever pieces, therefore, the world may be favoured with from fo excellent a mafter, cannot fail of meeting with a kind reception; and the work before us, tho' far from being a complete fyftem of the Fluxionary Calculus, will prove of the utmost advantage to ftudents in this branch of fcience. That perfpicuity; that fimple analyfis and elegant conftruction, for which Dr. Saunderfon was fo very remarkable, and fo jufly celebrated, appear through this whole treatife. The confumate mafter, and finished teacher, are here fully displayed, in a judicious choice of examples, and the confpicuous method of folving and applying them.
"What the Doctor has given us (fays the Editor very juftly) upon Mr. Cotes's Logometria, is particularly valuable; as, by his intimate acquaintance with that extraor "dinary perfon, he may be prefumed to have understood his "writings better than any one at that time living, Dr. Smith "only excepted, to whofe fuperior genius, and faithful care, "the world is fo much indebted for the improvement, as well "as the prefervation of Mr. Cotes's works."
But we are much mistaken if the latter part of this treatise, we mean his explanation of the chief Propofitions of Sir Ifaac Newton's Principia, does not prove as valuable as what he has given us on the writings of Mr.Cotes. Every perfon who has attempted the arduous ftudy of Sir Ifaac's Principia, must be sufficiently acquainted with the difficulties of fully comprehending the demonftrations in that illuftrious author. Dr. Saunderfon has removed many of thefe difficulties, and thereby rendered the ftudy of the Principia much pleasanter, and eafier, than it was before.
We have already obferved, that this treatise is not a complete fyftem of the Fluxionary Calculus; its readers must, therefore, be previously acquainted with the elementary parts of Fluxions, or affifted, vivâ voce, by a mafter. With either of these helps, he will find it one of the most useful treatises that has hitherto appeared on the fubject.
St. Peter's Chriftian Apology, as fet forth in a Sermon on
FTER employing feveral pages to fhew that St. Peter does not mean by λoyos, reafon, this Apologift concludes his obfervations upon the text, by faying, that λoyos 4 ΠΕΡΙ της ελπίδος can only fignify a Difcourfe cONCERNING hope; a reafon concerning hope being an expreffion ⚫ which no fenfe or language can admit:' P. 16. But what fort of difcourfe is that which has no Reafon in it? and if it mean a reasonable difcourfe concerning hope, where is the difference between this and the common interpretation?
What this Author principally labours to prove may be seen p. 22, 23. where he fays, the Chriftian religion, so far as it is recommendable to the UNDERSTANDING,-ftandeth upon the foundation of miracles wrought, and prophecies fulfilled; which, when plainly alledged upon the warrant of the hiftories of the Old and New Teftament, do demand an implicit affent to the doctrines they are adduced to confirm for divine, and do altogether fupercede all abstract speculations, all reafonings à priori, concerning fitnefs, probability, grounds and reafons, or concerning the correspondence of the doctrines with common notions, or the principles of a fuppofed natural religion.' What ftrange work may not be made in the interpretation of fcripture upon thefe no principles of no reafon? What is there to hinder men from applying human paffions and properties to the Deity, or what right have they to interpret any literal paffages to a
* See Review for July laft, page 78.'
figurative fenfe? Why may they not believe the bread in the facrament to be the body and blood of Chrift, with the Papitts, as to affert, with fome Proteftants, that the body is prefent only in a spiritual fenfe? We fay with fome Proteftants, because there are among them who believe the bread to become one with the body of Chrift, in the fame sense that the word was made flesh, which they call Confubftantiation. And how
perfon to fettle this, and many other articles of faith and practice, without Reason, where Chriftians, who all end to be determined by what is written, vary from one other as wide as is poffible; and one fect damns all the reft for not believing as they do? Muft there be no Reasoning concerning the correfpondence of doctrines with common notions?" Muft we believe all the doctrines of the church of Rome, or as many of them as are believed by the followers of Janfenius, if we cannot confute the miracles of the Abbé Paris? Curcellæus believed that the Deity had fome peculiar refidence in heaven above, which he was fadly puzzled to reconcile with the omniprefence of God, because of the frequent occurrence of the phrase, in heaven.* Many worse errors than this may be committed if men will so adhere to what is written, as not to regard natural notions, or natural religi on, or reafon, when they attempt to explain Revelation.
Page 29, are cenfured, the dregs of bold Socinus-yet this man, and his followers, were famous for adhering to what was written, and for objecting to fuch terms as Trinity, Satisfaction, Effence, Trinunity, &c. because they are not written, and it will be extremely difficult for this gentleman to justify himfelf in the ufe of thefe words upon his plan of Christianity. See page 34. If a revelation treateth of a triune fubfiftence,' &c. Is this, or the other expreffion that follows it, of eternal proceeding, &c. written in the book of life? But what this gentleman takes to be written, may be eafily gueffed by the following paffage, p. 61, where he fays, he would readily fubfcribe to a Popish Bifhop affirming the truth of the Apoftolic, Nicene, and Athanafian Creeds.'
* Non probatur nobis quod nonnulli audacter afferunt, Deum fic immenfum effe ut totus puncti inftar in omnibus rebus effentialiter fit. Ita enim opinio ægre admodum cum fcriptura conciliari poteft, quæ paffim docet Deum effe in cœlis: fic Pfal. xi. 4. học defcribitur elogio, babitans in cœlis, et Pfal. cxv. 3. Certe Deus noSter eft in cælis et Chriftus ipfe in Orationis formulâ, quam nobis reliquit, ita jubet nos cum compellate, Pater nofter qui es in cœlis. Relig. Chrift. Inftitet. p. 46, 47.
We shall have done with this writer when we have told him, that the charge which he has revived against Bishop Rundle *, was an infamous and notorious calumny, and has long fince been proved fo. See the feveral pamphlets wrote on that occafion.
* Certain it is,' fays Dr. Patten, p. 65, that this procedure of Abraham's [with regard to the facrificing his fon] was fo fhocking to a late reafoning Divine of great hopes, who afterwards went into Ireland, that he fcrupled not to fay, "if he had been a Juftice of Peace in the parish where Abraham lived, he would have put him in the ftocks."
Voyage d' Egypte et de Nubie, par M. F. L. Norden. Premiere partie contenant la defcription de l' ancienne Alexandrie. Folio, printed at Copenhagen.
HE great antiquity of Egypt, the various revolutions
it has undergone, the wonders of the Nile, the pyramids, and other amazing monuments of ancient magnificence, have long been the admiration of the world, and have inspired the most curious and inquifitive men with a defire of knowing the true state of this country, and the many wonders it has produced.
In the Arabic language may be found fome accounts of the antiquities of Egypt, more perfect, perhaps, as they are more antient, than any formerly given by European authors; but this account by Mr. Norden deferves the preference, as, by his accurate drawings, taken on the spot, and finely engraven, it brings to the Reader's eye all the monuments, cities, and fine profpects in Egypt and Nubia. In this firft volume are 59 large folio copper-plates; and in the fecond, the fociety of sciences, who are the editors of this ufeful and entertaining work, affure us, will be 106 plates, befides ornaments.
This work appears at prefent without the title-page, which, with a dedication, preface, and portrait of the deceased Author, will very foon be published with the fecond volume. The fociety have refolved not to publish one copy more than is fubfcribed for.
This firft volume is divided into four parts: the first gives an account of Old Alexandria, the fecond of New Alexandria, the third of Old and New Cairo, and the fourth contains a description of the pyramids and obelifks.
Old Alexandria has been fubjected to fo many revolutions, and been fo often ruined, that it would be now difficult
to discover where it antiently stood, if the fituation of its ports, and fome old monuments, did not point out to us the very place.
Thefe infallible guides will help me, fays Mr. Norden, to defcribe, in fome order, what I could obferve. However, continues he, I pretend not to give an exact defcription of the whole, nor to write a complete history of the rife and fall of that great city. My defign is, only to make a faithful report of what Ifaw, and could obferve, of the present state of Old and New Alexandria. The order I fhall obferve will be fuch as my memory may enable me to pursue, and if at any time it shall happen, that I do not explain myfelf with fufficient clearness, the defigns I have taken on the spot, will complete the idea my reader may form of the defcription I fhall give him.'
The first fix plates contain plans and views of antient and modern Alexandria.
The old and new ports of Alexandria are those which were antiently called the ports of Africa and Afia. The first, which is deeper and cleaner than the other, is reserved for the Turks ; the new one is entirely given up to the Europeans: the bottom of this is so full of rocks, that it is difficult for feamen to preserve their cables and their fhips, or to hold by their anchors. The entrance is guarded by two caftles, very ill built, after the Turkish fashion.
On the ifland of Pharos is the grand Pharillon, the body of which is a small tower, having a lanthorn on the top of it: which, however, affords no great light, the lamps being ill fupplied. There are no remains of the famous library, which, in the times of the Ptolemies, was confidered as the greatest that ever was. There is also another ifland, on which is a caftle, called the Leffer Pharillon. Each of these islands is joined to the continent by a mole. That from the island of Pharos feems to be 3000 feet in length, conftructed part of brick, part of square ftone, and confifts of a great number of arches, under which the water may pafs. The two Pharillons, and their moles, are the one on the right, the other on the left of the port, and conduct you infenfibly to land. infenfibly to land. But in entering the port, are rocks, both above and beneath the water, which must carefully be avoided. For this purpose Turkish pilots come off, to meet fhips in the road.
Nothing can be more agreeable than the profpect, on every fide, of antient and modern monuments. As foon as you pass the lesser Pharillon, you fee a row of grand towers, joined one to another by the ruins of a thick wall; one obelifk, remaining upright, is juft high enough to fhew itself where the wall is broken down; in turning a little afide, the towers rise again,