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of the early Empire show this spelling; but nouns of the second decl. in ius, ium were written in the Republic with one i only in the gen. as imperi; adjectives assumed the double i earlier, and gradually a like rule spread to the nouns.

K. C. Originally the letter C corresponded to our G sound, as in the C which stands for Gaius, till Spurius Carvilius introduced the letter G, and C then took the place of the tenuis K.

CI, TI, were often confused in common speech, inscriptions, and MSS., but in the following words the right reading seems quite established: condicio, contio, convitium, dicio, indutie, nuntius, otium, setius, solacium, suspitio (Fleckeisen, Fünfzig Art.).

QVO. CV. QVV. The old form quom became cum in the time of J. Cæsar, there being little evidence for quum in the first century. So quoi passed into cui and quare into cur. Secundus is early found for sequondus. Æquom became acum, then later on æquum.

N in old Latin was often omitted before i and 8, as in cojunx, cosol, cesor, Megalesia; but in the final ens of the numerals it was retained till the end of the Augustan era, though afterwards confined to totiens, quotiens, and the like.

SS, frequent at the end of the Republic, was changed to 8; thus Cicero used caussa, divissiones, but later inscriptions' after the Monumentum Ancyranum have a single 8.

XS was common, not only in compounds like exspecto, but in others like saxsum, proxsumus, and inscriptions prove this in spite of the protests of the old grammarians, who regarded the 8 as needless.

Assimilation of the last letter of the preposition to the first of the verb with which it is compounded began early, but the inscriptions of the end of the Republic have forms like adclamaro, adlectus, adrideo, conlega, inlustris, varied by more modern forms. The grammarians favoured the general assimilation, and the process went forward steadily, though modified by personal caprice.

CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY.

B.C. 229. Death of Hamilcar, the Carthaginian general in Spain;

Hasdrubal succeeds to his place. 228. Roman treaty with Hasdrubal. 221. Death of Hasdrubal. Hannibal takes the command in

Spain. 219. Saguntum taken by Hannibal. 218. Hannibal marches through Spain, crosses the Rhone

and passes the Alps.
Battles of Ticinus and Trebia.

Successes of Cn. Scipio in Spain. 217. Defeat and death of C. Flaminius at L. Trasimene.

Hannibal marches through Central Italy.
The cautious policy of Q. Fabius Maximus.

Hannibal winters in Apulia. 216. Battle of Cannæ.

Revolt of Italian allies,

LIBER XXI.

memorable character of the

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In parte operis mei licet mihi præfari, quod in principio summæ totius professi plerique The sunt rerum scriptores, bellum maxime Second Punic war omnium memorabile, quæ unquam gesta sint, me scripturum, quod Hannibale duce Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere. Nam neque validiores opibus ullæ inter se civitates gentesque contulerunt arma, neque his ipsis tantum unquam virium aut roboris fuit, et haud ignotas belli artes inter sese, sed expertas primo Punico conserebant bello, et adeo varia fortuna belli ancepsque Mars fuit, ut propius periculum fuerint, qui vicerunt. Odiis etiam prope maiori- 3 bus certarunt quam viribus, Romanis indignantibus, quod victoribus victi ultro inferrent arma, Ponis, quod superbe avareque crederent imperitatum victis

Fama est etiam, Hannibalem annorum ferme 4 novem, pueriliter blandientem patri Hamilcari, ut duceretur in Hispaniam, quum, perfecto Africo bello, exercitum eo traiecturus sacrificaret, altaribus admotum, tactis sacris, iure iurando adactum, se, quum primum posset, hostem fore populo Romano. Ange 5 C. L. 1

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esse.

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Hamilcar.

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bant ingentis spiritus virum Sicilia Sardiniaque amissæ : nam et Siciliam nimis celeri desperatione rerum concessam et Sardiniam inter motum Africæ fraude Ro

manorum, stipendio etiam insuper imposito, intercep2 tam. His anxius curis ita se Africo bello, quod fuit

sub recentem Romanam pacem, per quinque acros ita deinde novem annis in Hispania augendo Punico which was post- imperio gessit, ut appareret, maius eum, by the death of quam quod gereret, agitare in animo bel

lum, et, si diutius vixisset, Hamilcare duce Penos arma Italiæ illaturos fuisse, quæ Hannibalis ductu intulerunt.

Mors Hamilcaris peropportuna et pueritia Hannibalis distulerunt bellum. Medius Hasdrubal inter patrem ac filium octo ferme annos imperium obtinuit, 4 flore ætatis, uti ferunt, primo Hamilcari conciliatus, gener inde ob aliam indolem profecto animi adscitus et, quia gener erat, factionis Barcinæ opibus, quæ apud milites plebemque plus quam modicæ erant, haud sane 5 voluntate principum, in imperio positus. Is plura consilio quam vi gerens, hospitiis magis regulorum conHasdrubal, his ciliandisque per amicitiam principum no

extended vis gentibus quam bello aut armis rem 6. Carthage in Spain Carthaginiensem auxit. Ceterum nihilo ei pax tutior fuit; barbarus eum quidam palam ob iram interfecti ab eo domini obtruncat; comprensusque ab circumstantibus haud alio, quam si evasisset, vultu, tormentis quoque quum laceraretur, eo fuit habitu oris,

ut superante lætitia dolores ridentis etiam speciem 7. præbuerit. Cum hoc Hasdrubale, quia miræ artis in sollicitandis gentibus imperioque suo iungendis fuerat, fædus renovaverat populus Romanus, ut finis utriusquc

successor in com-
mand,
the influence of

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