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incipientes timor tenuit ; carried to an awkward extreme in in eos versa peditum acies...haud dubium fecit quin... XXI. 34. 37, cf. 52. 1, 55. 8, and xxII. 18. 7.
ELLIPSE. Tantum ne, modo ne, at enim, retinere conati sunt ni summovissent.
CHIASMUS is a marked feature of his style : animus ad pugnam ad fugam spes, in urbem Romani Peeni in castra.
ANAPHORA. Hic vobis terminum...fortuna dedit : hic dignam mercedem e. 8. dabit ; often combined with iteratio, as totiens petita foedera totiens rupta.
PARONOMASIA. Hospitem non hostem, hostis pro hospite.
INVERSION in order of familiar expressions : pro parte virili, belli domique, nocte dieque, inferos superosque.
ANASTROPHE OF PREPOSITION. Capuam propius, Fæsulas inter Arretiumque.
In general we may notice the growing tendency to copy Greek forms of expression, which the want of the article as also of the participle of the substantive verb often render less natural in Latin,
The oldest MS. of the third decade of Livy is that which is preserved in the National Library at Paris, under the name of the Codex Puteanus (P), dating probably from the beginning of the eighth century. In the earlier edition (1860) of the Emendationes Liviana, Madvig came to the conclusion that this was the source of all the extant MSS., which he believed to differ from it only in the various errors due to the carelessness of later copyists. But the researches of Mommsen and Studemund have thrown light on the influence of another Codex called Spirensis (S), from which a number of readings were noted down long ago by Beatus Rhenanus, but which has since disappeared with the exception of a single leaf discovered a few years back (C. Halm in Act.
1 Compare Madvig, Emendationes Liviana; Mommsen and Studemund, Analecta Liviana ; Brambach, Neugestaltung d. Lat. Orthographie ; Corssen, Aussprache d. Lat. Sprache.
Monac. 1869). This, or its unknown original, is not entirely represented by any extant MS.; it seems to have come to light at a later time than P, and all of the copies made from it, or derived indirectly from it, show distinct traces of the influence of P, which was referred to probably in obscure or doubtful passages, so that readings from P are found in the margin, or the text even, of the MSS. that can best be traced to S.
Further enquiry may possibly succeed in distinguishing still further the two families of MSS. That of P is admitted to be the earliest and best; it abounds however in obvious errors and omissions, which various editors have gradually corrected. It would be quite hopeless to adhere even to the best MS. authority, and bold as some of the suggestions of Madvig may appear, we must remember that the text has been thrown into its present shape by many critics who have been forced to go to work with equal freedom. We may take one specimen as given by him to prove in his own words 'quantum ubique sordium et robiginis detergendum sit.' It is the beginning of B. XXII, as it appears in P.
Jam vero ad petebatque Hannibal ex hibernis metuit et neque eo qui iam ante conatus transcendere Appenninum intolerandis frigoribus et cum ingenti periculo moratus ac metu. Gallis, quos prædæ populationumque consciverat spes, postquam pro eo, ut ipsi ex alieno agro raperent acgerentque, suas terras sedem belli esse promiique utriusque partis exercituum hibernis viderent, verterunt retro Hannibalem odia. So faulty a MS. can be little trusted in nice questions of orthography, and Madvig accordingly has not attempted to reproduce the forms of Livy's age, or to give us the spelling of the historian himself, but has fallen back upon the orthography of Quintilian's age, which was fixed by the authority of critics and grammarians, and which is known to have differed in material points from that of Livy's time, when it was still shifting and unsettled. It may be convenient however to formulate some of the chief points of difference between the spelling most in vogue at the end of the Republic, and that of a century later, though with the caution that we cannot tell exactly when the change in each case took place, or how far personal taste may have modified the general fashion, 0. V.
vo was at first usual, as in servos, volnus. The change to vu took a century to effect, from Augustus to Vespasian, cf. Quintilian 1. 7. $ 26.
0. E. The change from vortex to vertex began with Scipio Africanus, but some forms advorsus, controvorsia, voster lasted till the Empire, when there was doubt between foenoris, foeneris, &c.
V. E. We have the later form of the gerundive of the third and fourth conj. as early as B.C. 185, but the older form, as faciundus, appears much later, especially in archaic formularies.
V. I. Maxumus, optumus were common before
J. Cæsar, who set the fashion of writing maximus, &c. Quintil. 1. 7. $ 21.
E. I. Livy wrote sibe, quase, and many in the first century did likewise, Quint. I. 7. $ 24. So the abl. of words like agilis, Viminalis was written at the end of the Republic with a final e. The elder Pliny proposed to write agile of persons, agili of things. J. Cæsar decided for the i, to distinguish abl. from neut. nom., but it did not definitely prevail till the end of the century.
The form of the acc. plur. gave critics much trouble in the varieties of eis, is, es. It seems to have been settled that is was the commoner ending in words whose sing. nom. and gen. ended in -is, like omnis, navis, or of nominatives in -er with abl. in i, as acer, in words in ns, rs, like fons; pars; while words in as, x more frequently assumed a plur. in es. The account of the grammarians that the gen. plurals in ium were followed by acc. plur. in is requires correction in this respect.
In the acc. sing. there was also a wavering between im and em, and the i prevailed only in Greek words, and a very few feminines.
I (pingue). The broad i sound was under the Republic commonly written ei, which ceased in the Augustan age, though grammarians recognized it much later.
II. The doubling of i between two vowels was preferred by Cicero, as in aiio, Maria, and inscriptions