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$ 12.

nam si elliptically. “I compare our money price, and not our worth, for,' &c.

P. 143, § 14. avarior an crud. Cf. note on xxi. 4. 9.

§ 15. moveat...cernatis. The pres. is used to represent the scenes as pictured at the moment to the fancy.

§ 16. Intueri. The doors of the senate-house were left open, while the friends of the prisoners crowded round.

§ 17. mediusfidius. Equivalent to So help me the God of Faith,' fidius being connected with fides, fido, fædus, as the genius of fidelity in social intercourse, such as the Sermo Sancus was among the Sabines. Analogous to the formation of the word are forms like edepol=0 deus Pollux.

indigni ut. Less frequent than the use of qui, but in XXIII. 42. 13 both constructions are combined. Si modo quos ut socios haberes dignos duxisti, haud indignos iudicas quos in fidem receptos tuearis.

§ 18. Suum quisque h., i. e. We may not be all of the same spirit, but I for my part,' &c.

C. LX. & 2. arbitris. Cf. 1. 41. 3, Tanaquil claudi regiam iubet, arbitros eiecit. The strangers bidden to withdraw were the envoys lately heard.

$ 3. prohibendos. Cf. III. 28. 7, ad prohibenda circumdari opera. Madvig compares this use of the gerundive with the personal use of the passive iubeor in such sentences as XLII. 31. 2, in Macedoniam sena millia peditum scribi iussa. Suet. Tib. 11, iussi sunt omnes ægri in publicam porticum deferri.

§ 4. prædibusque ac prædiis cavendum populo. This is a customary formula in all cases of security given to the state, and commonly limited to such cases by the words publice, in publicum, or populo. The prædes, written prævides in the lex agraria, were the sureties who were bound over; they were to be landowners, and their prædia (præhendia) might be seized upon in case of default (ea pignore data publice mancipio fidem præstant. Varro 1. 1. v. 40). The legal characteristics of these prædia are stated Cic. pro Flacc. 32. 79, quæro sintne ista prædia censui censendo, habeant ius civile, sint necne sint mancipii, that is, they must be freehold under strict Roman law. The formula occurs in the Lex Malacitana of the 1st century of the Empire, where see the comment of Mommsen, p. 470.

P. 144, § 5. T. Manlius Torquatus. Descended from an ancestor of like prænomen and nomen, whose title of Torquatus. is explained by Livy, vii. 10, as derived from the collar (torques) of the Gaul whom he slew.

§ 11. Si, ut...si, ut. In both cases Madvig has corrected the sicut of the MSS. which gives an awkward turn to the sentence. He notes a similar mistake in the MSS. in vii, 13.8 and xxxiv. 2. 7, as also Tac. Hist. 1. 83, sicubi for si ubi.

P. Decius, B.C. 340 near Saticula. Cf. VII. 34.

P. 145. Calpurnius Flamma in B.C. 258 near Camarina.

§ 15. deminuti...capite. The caput comprised the sum of the rights implied in personal freedom, civil and family status, and change in any of these respects might bring a deminutio capitis with it. The forfeiture of freedom was of course the worst or dem. maxima. In the case of those who had given themselves up with arms in their hands it could not be recovered easily by the forms of postliminium.

abalienato. Madvig's correction for abalienati of the MSS. Livy uses the word elsewhere either absolutely or with a preposition. It would seem natural to say abalienari ab aliqua re, in the sense of being estranged from a place or pursuit, but not from a right ( jure).

§ 17. conati sunt, ni elliptically put for 'and might have succeeded if,' &c.

P. 146, § 20. nam fortes' elliptically implies the reason why boni fidelesque was said instead of the usual combination fortes fideles.

§ 21. favisse. The MSS. read fuisse ut, which is evi. dently corrupt. W. corrects it to fuisse usui which sounds ill and is somewhat weak, while Madvig's suggestion is spirited and balances invidere in the next line.

§ 24. ante secundam h., i.e. after sunrise.

§ 25. Hæc vobis. • This, mark you,' &c. Cf. Hor. Epist. 1. 3. 15, Quid mihi Celsus agit? It is called by grammarians the dativus ethicus.

§ 26. Et vos. Most MSS. have quos, which probably grew out of the abbreviation for et and uos.

et is inserted by Madvig to avoid an awkward asyndeton which sounds ill after cunct. ac manetis.

P. 147, C. LXI. § 5. decem primos, like the déka Tous éTpaveotátous of Polybius—those of highest social status chosen as the representatives.

ita admissos...net. Admitted on the understanding that,' &c., an ellipse not unfrequent in the case of ita...ne in Livy as VII. 31. 1. Cf. the use of tantum ne ... . reciperentur, XXI. 19. 5.

87. novos legatos. • recruits.'

• The last comers.' So novi milites

§ 8. victosque paucis sent. • Outvoted by a small majority.'

§ 9. proximis censoribus. Not 'by' but in the time of,' as consule Manlio.

notis ignomintisque. The censors could expel members from the Senate, or strike off the roll of the knights (equum adimere), or remove from a country tribe to a city tribe (tribu movere), or disfranchise altogether (@rarium facere). These powers of moral censure grew out of the large authority vested in them for taking the census of the population. At such times the nota of their disapproval was affixed to the name upon the roll.

P. 148. omni deinde vita. For the rest of his life.' An adjectival use of the adverb, which is frequent in our author.

caruerint. Abstained from.' Cf. Cic. Mil. 7. 18, caruit foro postea Pompeius, caruit senatu, caruit publico.

§ 1.1. Defecere. A summary account is here given of the defections of the following years. Central Italy remained for the most part constant to Rome, except her old rivals of Samnium, while the alien peoples fell away.

Atellani. Known chiefly in connection with the fabulæ Atellanæ of which L. speaks VII. 2. 10 in his sketch of the early comedy of Italy.

$ 12. Uzentini. Represented by Ugento to the northwest of the Iapygian promontory.

§ 13. Romam adventum. Verbal substantives implying motion are often accompanied by an accusative without a preposition, so reditus, legatio, introitus, concursatio as examples collected by Fabri. C. L.

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§ 14. consuli ... gratiæ actæ. Frontinus Str. IV. 5. 6 says that Varro refused the offer of the Senate to make him dictator, on the ground that the office should fall on a more fortunate. man. But he often served afterwards in posts of trust or honour, & fact which discredits the accounts of his antecedents as given in Livy,

§ 15. nihil recusandum suppl. Carthage is said to have degraded or even crucified her comm aders who were unfortunate. Cf, Polyb. I, 11, Diod. xx. 10.

APPENDIX I.

ON THE ROUTE OF HANNIBAL

THE passage of Hannibal across the Alps was even in Livy's days a controverted question, as we may gather from his words (XXI. 38. 6) 'ambigi quanam Alpes transierit.' It is still matter of dispute, and endless varieties of route have been proposed, most of which however are hopelessly at variance with the language of the ancient writers, or with the nature of the ground, as since explored. More or less definite statements on the subject are found in the following authorities.

1. Polybius was born during the war, and after some time spent in public life in Greece, was taken as one of the Achæan hostages to Rome. He lived there in the society of distinguished men, whose fathers might have taken part in the great struggle ; he sought, as he tells us, information from contemporary witnesses, and travelled himself among the Alps to gather further knowledge in the scenes of the events. He was eminently accurate and truthful as a writer, and his authority is undoubtedly first-rate. His account is found 1II. 35—60.

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2. We have the narrative of Livy (XXI. 23–38), who wrote two centuries after the second Punic war began. His work was on too large a scale to admit of very special studies for the period before us; he makes no claim to personal knowledge of the localities in question ; his descriptions of topography are often vague and indistinct; and on all grounds his evidence on these points must rank far lower than that of the Greek writer.

3. There is a passage bearing on this subject in the life of Hannibal by Cornelius Nepos, the contemporary and friend of Cicero. Ad eas (Alpes) posteaquam venit que Italiam ab Gallia sejungunt, quas nemo unquam cum exercitu ante eum præter Herculem Graium transierit, quo facto is hodie saltus Graius appellatur, Alpicos conantes prohibere transitum concidit.

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