Imágenes de páginas


The Romans hear




ignominiisque confectos esse, ut quidam eorum mortem sibi ipsi extemplo consciverint, ceteri non foro soluni omni deinde vita, sed prope luce ac publico caruerint. Mirari magis, adeo discrepare inter auctores, quam, quid veri sit, discernere queas. Quanto autem maior ea clades superioribus cladi

bus fuerit, vel ea res indicio est, quod their allies on als fides sociorum, quæ ad eam diem firma think of making steterat, tum labare cæpit, nulla profecto

alia de re quam quod desperaverant de imperio. Defecere autem ad Ponos hi populi: Atellani, Calatini, Hirpini, Apulorum pars, Samnites præter Pentros, Bruttii omnes, Lucani, præter hos Uzentini,

et Græcorum omnis ferme ora, Tarentini, Metapontini, 13 Crotonienses Locrique, et Cisalpini omnes Galli. Nec

tamen ex clades defectionesque sociorum moverunt, ut pacis usquam mentio apud Romanos fieret, neque ante

consulis Romam adventum nec postquam is rediit 14 renovavitque memoriam acceptæ cladis ; quo in tem

pore ipso adeo magno animo civitas fuit, ut consuli Varro on his re- ex tanta clade, cuius ipse causa maxima with reproaches, fuisset, redeunti et obviam itum frequen

ter ab omnibus ordinibus sit et gratiæ

actæ, quod de re publica non desperasset; 15 qui si Carthaginiensium ductor fuisset, nihil recusan

dum supplicii foret.

but with thanks
for not
of the common.



P. 1, c. 1. & 1. In parte operis. Lívy's work in nearly 150 books covered the whole history of Republican Rome; books XXI.—XXX, dealt with the Second Punic War.

summæ totius=tñs 8lms ouvTáčews of Polybius. Cf. Lucr. 1. 983, spatium summai totius omne. Cic. Qu. fr. III. 5. 5, in omni summa. Summa is often used substantively in Livy, and with a genitive as summa rerum, imperii, spei, rei bellicæ, rei publice. Cf. Vitæ summa brevis, Hor. Carm. I. 4. 15, and hodierna summæ, iv. 7. 17.

rerum scriptores. For the historians who wrote specially on this war see the Introduction on the Authorities, but cf. also the beginning of Thucydides, who calls the Peloponnesian War μέγαν τε και αξιολογώτατον των προγεγενημένων. .

unquam, though properly used in negative sentences, is employed at times with si to increase the indefiniteness of the statement, and even absolutely when the indefiniteness is to be made still more emphatic. Cf. use of quisquam Seneca de tranquil. 11, cuivis potest accidere quod cuiquam potest.

Hannibale. The name meant in Punic ‘favour of Baal,' Schröder Phæn. Sprache p. 87. The 2nd a was long in Ennius and in the speech of the earlier Romans (Aul. Gell. iv. 7) as in Hasdrubal, Hamilcar, but became shortened in familiar use, just as the aspirate which had at first the Punic sound of ch, was softened, and often dropped completely, as in the Greek, 'Avvisas. Corssen Aussprache der Lat. Spr. 1. 99.

§ 2. virium aut roboris, "resources or endurance.' Polyb. II. 24 estimates the armies which Rome could raise with the Italian contingents as 700,000 foot and 70,000 horse. He asks the question 1. 64 why in later days of empire she could no longer put such forces on the field.

inter sese, sed. Heerwagen notes that the alliteration was in such cases less displeasing to Roman than to modern ears, cf. Cic. opt. gen. or. 2. 6, nec generibus inter sese sed facultatibus different.

artes conserebant is formed on the analogy of pugnam or manus conserere. The reading conferebant found in some MSS. is approved by Ruperti and by Madvig as a more natural expression.

expertas primo Punico, i.e. each of the combatants had learnt its rival's skill by the experience of the first war. Yet the naval skill of Carthage was comparatively little used in the 2nd war, probably because the Barcine party had neglected the fleet. But Hamilcar had given proof of a genius like that of Hannibal in his power of welding into unity a motley host of various nationalities.

propius p. . 4. vicerunt. Rome, though victorious, was brought to the brink of ruin by the early successes of Hannibal. Muretus notes that Silius Italicus in the corresponding passage writes propiusque fuere periclo queis superare datum. Livy elsewhere often uses the acc. as XXII. 40. 5, propius Han. nibalem, iv. 17. 3, propius fidem, XXIII. 12. 4, quo propius spem. vicerunt here used absolutely, cf. XXIII. 13. 4, quam (pacem) quum vincimus, dat nemo.

§ 3. ultro inferrent a. should presume to attack.' Cf. 1. 5. 2, ultro accusantes; of the robbers who accused Romulus of theft.

superbe, in threatening war and taking. Sardinia ; avare in raising the war indemnity by 1200 talents. Polyb. III. 10.

crederent does not properly balance inferrent, as it rather repeats than justifies the idea of the word indignantibus, and the subj. is due to a looseness of style as in Cic. Phil. 11. 4, at etiam literas, quas me sibi misisse diceret, recitavit homo.

imperitatum. Liyy has a special affection for frequentative forms, and often uses this one.

§ 4. Fama est. Polyb. 111. 11 says that H. himself told this story to Antiochus in later days. Cf. Livy, xxxv. 19.

annorum novem. The gen. of the quality is here immediately connected with a proper name as in III. 27. 1, L. Tarquinium patriciæ gentis ; xxļi, 60. 5, Torquatus prisca severitatis. Fabri.


blandientem, used in pregnant sense with ut, coaxingly entreating.' Blandus is connected by Bopp and Curtius with uellexos and uénc, mla passing into bla, cf. the like change in the formation of βλίττειν, βροτός.

Hamilcari, a name meaning friend of Melcart.' Schröder,

p. 87.

altaribus, a word used almost exclusively in the plural, though of a single altar (ara).

P. 2, $5. amissæ, 'the loss of Sicily and S.' Cf. 16. 2, pudor non lati auxilii, and xxII. 34. 2, ex dictatorio imperio concusso. It is a form not used by Cicero, but very common in Tacitus, as Ann. I. 8, Occisus Cæsar aliis pessimum, aliis pulcherrimum facinus visum.

Sardinia said by Polybius to be νήσος τω μεγέθει και πολυ- . ανθρωπία και τους γεννήμασι διαφέρουσα. It seems never to have recovered its prosperity after its change of masters. On this and the following points referred to see the Introduction.

nam et Siciliam 'for he felt that S. For the acc. in connexion with angebant Fabri compares 1. 46. 6, angebatur ferox Tullia, nihil materiæ in viro...esse. His successes seemed to justify unwillingness to accept the terms of peace, yet Polyb. 1. 62 says that Hamilcar felt the need of submission and conducted the negotiations.

desperatione r. It is common with Latin writers to add rerum where no equivalent is wanted in English, thus, exitus, motus, inopia, ignoratio rerum.

inter motum Afr. These are weak words for the for. midable war of mercenaries which nearly ruined Carthage.

stipendio, the indemnity, cf. 3. 3. Stipendium seems to be put for stipi-pendium (stips), like pauper for pauciper, anceps for ambiceps, cf. amputare, amplecti, selibra (semi), prudens (providens).

insuper imposito, a poetic form; so 45. 1, castellum insuper imponunt, Verg. Æn. 1. 61, montes insuper altos imposuit. Cf. Livy's use of compounds such as superincubare, superinsternere.

C. II. § 1. anxius, as explained by the angebant of 1. 5.

sub recentem. Sub is used with the accus. for just after,' cf. VII, 31. 4, sub hæc dicta omnes-procubuerunt. So sul

But sub galli cantum, sub vesperum, and sub idemi tempus are less definite, and may be just before. The passage in Verg. Georg. 11. 211, usque sub extremum brumæ intractabilis


imbrem, is decisive for "just before.' The mercenary war “which followed closely on the treaty with Rome," lasted three years and four months, Pol. I. 88. The five years of Livy probably cover the warlike movements against the Numidians mentioned by Diodorus,

novem annis, from 236 to 227 B.C. Note the change to the abl. after quinque annos.

in Hispania. The Phoenicians had in remote ages planted colonies on the coast of Spain, which fell in time under the influence of Carthage. The wealth of the mines tempted her to push her way further inland, but no great progress had been made till Hamilcar annexed much of the South, and changed the imperial policy of Carthage. The vast revenues of the mines and the hardy material for soldiers were the chief objects in view ; like Cæsar, he went to conquer a province, and organize an army for future uses. It is curious to contrast the speedy conquests made by these generals with the slow progress of Rome in finally subduing Spain. In a later age the Arabs, of Semitic race possibly akin to that of Carthage, possessed themselves of Southern Spain, and attained to a high degree of power and culture, in the Moorish kingdoms of Cordova and Granada.

§ 2. quæ. Weissenborn and Fabri adopt the qui of the MSS. but it is a less probable reading.

ductu. The modal abl. of one of the verbal forms in the 4th decl. which are of frequent use in Livy. It is here employed to vary the H. duce of the line before.

§ 3. Mors H. He died in war with the Spanish tribes. Pol. II. 1.

peropportuna. Cf. vi. 1. 5, mors adeo opportuna ut voluntariam magna pars crederct.

distulerunt. For the use of this word Fabri compares XLIII. 1. 12, metus de consule atque exercitu distulit muniende Aquileiæ curam.

Hasdrubal means 'help of Baal,' Schröder, p. 100.

flore ætatis. Scandalous gossip probably circulated among the partisans of Hanno, the rival faction to that of the Barca family, so styled from the personal name, meaning lightning, of the great Hamilcar.

conciliatus, for this use cf. XXII. 34. 2, hominem plebi insectatione principum conciliatum.

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