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acid acres action added admit adopted allowed amount applied arrangement average Board carried carriers cent CHAPTER chemical clay condition consequence considerable constructed contains Corporation cost crop cubic discharged district drainage drains effect effluent employed engines expenses experiments fall feet filters filtration flow gallons given grains ground houses inches intercepting iron irrigation land lime liquid material means mixed nature necessary obtained operation organic matter outfall outlet pail passes period persons pipes placed plant Plate pollution population portion practically precipitation prepared present presses produced proportion pumping purification quantity regard removed Report river Sanitary scheme separate settling tanks sewage disposal sewage farm sewers sludge soil solids solution sufficient surface taken tanks tons towns treated treatment various varying volume whilst whole Wimbledon yards
Página 84 - ... we are led, in each case, to the inevitable conclusion that the oxidation of the organic matter in sewage proceeds with extreme slowness, even when the sewage is mixed with a large volume of unpolluted water, and that it is impossible to say how far such water must flow before the sewage matter becomes thoroughly oxidised.
Página 16 - Any liquid which contains, in 100,000 parts by weight, more than one part by weight of sulphur, in the condition either of sulphuretted hydrogen or of a soluble sulphuret.
Página 17 - That, as far as we have been able to ascertain, none of the existing modes of treating town sewage by deposition and by chemicals in tanks appear to effect much change beyond the separation of the solids and the clarification of the liquid. That the treatment of sewage in this manner, however, effects a considerable improvement and, when carried to its greatest perfection, may in some cases be accepted.
Página 152 - ... sewage or filthy water into any natural stream or watercourse, or into any canal pond or lake until such sewage or filthy water is freed from all excrementitious or other foul or noxious matter such as would affect or deteriorate the purity and quality of the water in such stream or watercourse or in such canal pond or lake.
Página 110 - ... ferment, which occurs abundantly in soils and in most impure waters. The evidence for the ferment theory of nitrification is now very complete. Nitrification in soils and waters is found to be strictly limited to the range of temperature within which the vital activity of living ferments is confined. Thus nitrification proceeds with extreme slowness near the freezing point, and increases in activity with a rise of temperature till 37° C.
Página 16 - ... (i) Any liquid possessing an alkalinity greater than that produced by adding one part by weight of dry caustic soda to 1,000 parts by weight of distilled water. "(t) Any liquid exhibiting a film of petroleum or hydro-carbon oil upon its surface, or containing in suspension in 100,000 parts, more than 0-05 part of such oil.
Página 18 - With regard to the various processes based upon subsidence, precipitation, or filtration, it is evident that by some of them a sufficiently purified effluent can be produced for discharge, without injurious result, into water-courses and rivers of sufficient magnitude for its considerable dilution;* and that for many towns, where land is not readily obtained at a moderate price, those particular processes afford the most suitable means of disposing of water-carried sewage.
Página 82 - Whenever and wherever there is decomposition of organic matter, whether it be the case of an herb or an oak, of a worm or a whale, the work is exclusively done by infinitely small organisms. They are the important, almost the only, agents of universal hygiene; they clear away more quickly than the dogs of Constantinople or the wild beasts of the desert the remains of all that has had life...