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to the things of God. In these assemblies adhered to the faith ; and till now these of Primitive Christians a bookbinder and a antichristian communities have therefore veterinary surgeon of the most equivocal re- been almost entirely confined to eities, putation deliver discourses, the purport of though the country peop in tbeir neigtwhich will be sufficiently designated when I bourhood are by degrees drawn say, that they have given currency to the them. sentiments which David Strauss and Lud.
Among other means of diffusing tbeir wig Feuerbach, in their infidel wntings, have opinions, these parties have had recourse declared to be evidence of the highest cul. to Almanacs, which, besides the usual Ture. The deservedly celebrated Dr. Krum. chronological and astronomical matters for MACHER,-celebrated also in America,-an the year, contain essays designed for amuseorator of such power as no church or par. ment, and which gain admission into every liament in Germany has produced, has had house, and are exerting a very pernicious inthe courage to enter these assemblies, and fiuence. One of them, for example, among its to engage in controversy with their leaders: political satires, contains the most vulgar I say the courage, because an opponent is blasphemy against God; and of this several often exposed among them to the roughest editions have been printed, two of which ill usage. He has compelled their leader to contained twenty thousand copies each. explain himself more openly and precisely Something is done to counteract the evil upon his irreligious tendencies, and actually tendencies of such almanacs by the Etanwon the confidence of many of the auditors. gelical Yearbook, (Erangelisches Jahrbuck,) This party has even had the audacity to an almanac which has been commenced by expose to open mockery the holy ordinance
Dr. F. Piper, and which, it is hoped, will be of baptism ; one of them having given no- widely diffused wherever the German lantice through a newspaper that his child guage is spoken. Besides the usual calendar would receive the rite of Democratic bap- matter, it contains a collection of biographical tism, and invited all Democrats to be pre- sketches of illustrious Christians, prepared sent as sponsors.
When the time for the by some of our most eminent writers, performance of the rite had arrived, the among whom may be mentioned Drs. Xeanchurch was crowded with these people ; and der, Krummacher, Heubner, and others. when the preacher put the usual questions to The first part, published at Leipzig, cos. the apparently officiating sponsors, an affirm- tains, for example, a sketch of the apestie ative answer was not only received from them, Matthew; the conversion of Paul; the lives but from the whole assembly. The person of Gallus, Luther, Cranmer, Elizabeth Fry, who carried the child then lifted it up and and others. The editor, Dr. Piper, is also exhibited it to the multitude, who expressed known as the author of a work on the My. their approbation. Similar outrages have thology and Symbolism of Christian Art, been repeated: when, however, the leaders (one volume, 1847,) in which, for the first of the party, some of whom are Jews, per. time, the influence which heathen myths ceived that not only was there danger of and symbols have had on the religious stacollision with the civil authorities, but also tuary of Christian nations is historically that many of the populace were indignant at developed and demonstrated. their acts, they counselled prudent measures, Although the developments of uncbristian and discountenanced the repetition of such and infidel tendencies for the last year tare acts of blasphemy.
caused many, who otherwise would have In the Free Congregations also, which for remained indifferent to the Gospel, to emthe most part adhere to Deistic Rationalism, brace it with interest, and to examine aner (though their preachers are frequently Pan. the prejudices which divide and separate theists,) great disorder and abuse exist in re- Christians, nevertheless the enomous power gard to baptism : for their forms are made to of the antichristian spirit of the age, over conform entirely to the inclinations of the pa. both educated and uneducated minds, ia a'l rents and the preachers. Baptism is adminis. the religious communions of Germany, can tered sometimes in the name of Christ, some. no longer be either denied or concealed. times in that of universal Brotherhood; a bunch David Strauss is still the highest authority of flowers is then presented, and whatever with these classes, and his Lise of Christ else is most likely to increase the scandal. (Leben Jesu) is to many of them the strong, The country people, by means of a tradi. est proof of the untruthfulness of the Gospel tional or hereditary Christianity, in which history. During the past year he has pubthere is little life, have for the most part lished another work— The Life of Ch. F. D. Schubart.* This Schubart, a well-known ward side of modern science, in order to poet of Wurtemberg, in the latter half of combat destructive principles with their the eighteenth century, was a talented, but
own weapons, then would the day of final sensual, vicious, and unprincipled man. victory over the powers of darkness be Smitten with the spreading skepticism of neither distant nor doubtful. But distracthis times concerning the doctrines of the ing and separating influences are so great church, by his sarcasms upon influential among believers, their interests and efforts clergymen, and upon the immoral life of the are so divided, that no sense of the common Duke of Wurtemberg, he drew upon him- danger is sufficient to unite them. A glance self the hatred of the prince and the clerical at the nature of the so-called “ Ecclesiastical party at the court, who, in defiance of all Union of the Protestant Denominations" will justice, inflicted upon him a ten years' im- throw some light upon the distracting forces prisonment of almost unmitigated cruelty, in now at work in Prussia. By far the greater order to make him a good Christian. This part of the Protestants in Prussia belonged revolting despotism is set forth by Strauss originally to the Lutheran party; of Calvinwith sufficient clearness, and he also neg. ists, or Reformed, as they are usually called, lects no opportunity to cast contemptuous there are proportionally but few. The difside glances at Christianity.
ference between the two confessions, some “ The weakness of his moral character ninety years ago, was considered of little ackept him (Schubart) always in the region count by either party, partly from indifference, of authority, through the influence of miracle and partly from a just perception that the and mystery. More than once he raised his
points of difference were less essential and foot in order to place himself by the side of important than those of agreement. Under rational thinkers, but he never dared to step firmly up, through fear of his inability to
these circumstances, a plan of uniting the maintain his footing on the new ground. His two religious parties in one and the same want of moral freedom held hiin ever fast Consistory, and by means of a uniform order bound. He was himself conscious that the
of worship, was undertaken and carried scourge-fears from without--threatenings through in the reign of the deceased king of the pains of hell, were needed to restrain
Frederick William III. Means were also the animal within him. This was the ground on which he now, and indeed during
taken to obliterate as far as possible the the whole of his life, remained a believer, — remaining dissimilarities of the two coma very good ground for the man, such as he munions. It was far from being clear, how. was, and for all like him, even if we cannot
ever, how far the peculiarities of a creed also find it a very noble one.”—P. 51.
might properly be preserved; or whether a Dr. Strauss's meaning is plain enough: united church, or two churches in union, that Christianity is adapted only to the sub- ought to be established. The idea of comordinate condition of common, vulgar men; pulsion was theoretically so far removed, to prudent, far-seeing spirits, like himself, that freedom of conscience might always be reason is sufficient.
demanded as a right; practically, however, The other herald of unbelief, Bruno compulsion was exercised, whether forcibly BAUER, is a far more subordinate spirit or by milder means, because it is so difficult than Strauss, and is handled by him in for a State Church to resist the temptation rather a contemptuous manner.
to exercise force. now publishing a popularized remodelling The United Church was declared to be of his Critique on the Gospels. After the State Church. A small number of Lu. vainly endeavouring for a long time to theran congregations kept aloof from it, and help himself to honour and gold as persisted in a bitter opposition against both politician, he is now seen coming back the United Church and the Reformed. This again with his old arms to his former separated party has its principal seat in battle-field.
Silesia; and since the greater clemency of If all those who honour Christ, the Son Frederick William IV. has granted them of God, and reverence the plan of salvation greater freedom, they have established a through him, were more closely united Consistory of their own. On the shores of against unbelief in life and literature; if the Baltic also, in Pomerania, their apostles they would avail themselves of the heaven. have met with no little sympathy.
Over the great United party many dark * Ch. F. D. Schubart's Leben in seinen
clouds are lowering. It contains a conside. Briefen, bearbeitet und herausgegeben von D. F. Strauss. Berlin : 1819; bei A. Duncker.
rable number who hold fast to the Lutheran 2 Bde.
confession, but who are either dissatisfied
with the subordination incident to the eccle. There has lately appeared, however, a siastical authority of a united church, and new theological journal, published weekly, the degree of participation they are able to of the same spirit with the one just menobtain in its measures and counsels, or who tioned, and which, to judge by previous see that by agitation they may gradually gain efforts, will give at least equal attention to over the congregations to their views, and theological studies. It is called “ The Jou. hope through the majority to obtain dominion nal of Christian Science and Life,"* by over the church. These are hated by the Drs. Müller, Neander, and Nitzsch. Be. separated Lutherans with fanatical intole. sides these well-known scholars, many rance; many influential persons among the others of note have promised their support latter even deny them all hope of salvation, to the paper. Since its establishment, in because they have no Lutheran consistory. January last, it has contained a very inThese still united Lutherans have not a few structive essay by Dr. Neander, on “The able, practical clergyman in their ranks. At last Half Century in its Relations to the their head may be specially designated the Present;" also, by the same author, a view former president of their consistory, Göschel, of the subject, and a statement of the imwho is justly esteemed for his active parti- portance, of practical exegesis ; and a comcipation in many Christian enterprises. It parison of Christian morality with that of the is doubtful, however, whether his theological Stoic, Socratic, Platonic, Aristotelian, and works will add anything to his reputation, Neoplatonic philosophies, with a searching made up, as they are, of a very unedifying analysis of the essence of Hellenic and mixture of Hegelian philosophy and eccle- Christian ethics. Dr. Julius Müller, wbose siastical orthodoxy. Many professors in able work on Sin was noticed in your ReBreslau might well be placed in the same view for 1849, has given a very thoughtful category.
essay on the Idea of the invisible Church, Besides this class, and a small number of describing its origin, and defending it. the Reformed who hold a similar position in against the numerous misconceptions of the United party, there are also a very great modern times. Dr. Nitzsch has furnished number who would critically apply the Pm- an article on the confederation of religious testant principle, that the Holy Scriptures parties; and Dr. Sack-formerly professor are the highest rule of faith and practice, to at Bonn, now counsellor of the consistory at the Protestant symbols ; and instead of the Magedeburg, and known in scientific theoscientific formulas of the older Lutheran logy by his work on apologetics-one on the Church, they endeavour to obtain new for law of church union. All these essays are mulas out of the available ideas of modern of the highest order of merit which the thea learning, and especially from the theology logy of the present year has produced; and of Schleiermacher. Among these are some on this account we eamestly recommend an of the ablest teachers of theology in the uni. acquaintance with this journal to all who versities, such as Neander, Nitzsch, Müller, feel an interest in a theology at once erasRothe, and a great number among the clergy, gelical, and which recognizes the freedom who amid practical interests have also pre- and manifold variety of science. served a taste for scientific theology.
Besides the party represented by this Among the periodicals that defend these journal, there are within the Union no in views in theology may be mentioned the considerable number of educated, zealous justly esteemed Theologische Studien und men, who have more exclusively approKritiken. I do not quote in full the contents priated to themselves the formulæ of Schleiof the second part for the year 1850, because ermacher, and are just now very active in I presume this part has already been re- favour of the Union. ceived in America; but I cannot refrain Finally, persisting in the Union may also from calling attention to the concluding re- be seen the swarm of Rationalists, who remarks of Dr. Schenkel, of Basle, who re- fuse to organize themselves as free compresents the Lutheran and Reformed munions, and who in other countries conChurches as two complementary pecu.
stitute the dregs 'of either the Lutheran or liarities—parts of one and the same whole Reformed Church. -and exhorts them to peace by the impend. It is now much to be deplored, that ing perilous oppositions of infidelity. I may
* Die deutsche Zeitschrift für christliche also mention the article of Dr. Roth, who has
Wissenschaft und christliches Leben. Berlin, sifted the heathenish creed of Dr. Strauss, Verlag von Karl Wiegandt. Wöchentlich I Boas laid down in his Life of Schubart.
gen. Preis jährlich 5 Rthl.
through the Lutheran agitation, even within dreds, and has also two Berlin preachers, the United Church, dissension among be- one of whom was formerly settled over the lievers is constantly increasing. As, by the congregation of the celebrated preacher lately published constitution, Church and Gossner. Its progress has been arrested State are separated, and the present for the present, in consequence of aposmanagement of the Church through the tasy among the better informed members. former consistories must soon give place to It is hardly possible that men of piety and legal forms, the Lutherans, availing them- intelligence can long be satisfied with the selves of the occasion, are straining every spiritless externals of this Judaizing sect. nerve to gain ground by the change. In I fully appreciate the brilliant description many places they are holding conferences; of Edward Irving contained in your Reand where formerly they were accustomed view for 1849 ; I can, however, assure to meet together with the united com- you that the party of his followers whom munions, they are now every day becoming we have mentioned at Berlin have pracmore and more estranged from them.
tised few of his virtues, and imitated many Theological conferences,-free convoca- of his faults. As the sect has made some tions in regular rotation, without official stir here, Dr. Krummacher has several authority in the church,-have become very times combated their pretensions in controfrequent for the last few years among theo- versy; the new German paper also conlogians in Prussia; and by quickening the tains an article on their character and warmth of brotherly feeling, and awakening practices. a religious public spirit, as well as by pro- The Catholic Church in Germany, as moting a good understanding upon questions well as the Protestant Church in Prussia, of universal interest, they have proved very is also internally distracted by parties. She edifying and beneficial in their tendency. too has her Rationalists and her Free Con. The conference which has been held twice gregations; at the other extreme are the a year in the market town of Gnaden, near ever-active, untiring Jesuits, especially in Magdeburg, has been found particularly Austria, in Munich, on the Rhine, and in agreeable. It has been numerously attended Westphalia. The path of the Prussian by persons of various theological tendencies, government is again beset with difficulties who have engaged freely in discussion, and by a border conflict of the State with the yet with no diminution of brotherly love. Catholic Church; for this church among us The stricter Lutherans have likewise also has never once renounced her former several times held separate meetings here; claims, but has merely deferred her pretenand indeed they have also visited the united sions for the time, and received whatever has sessions, but gradually they met with rather been conceded to her as it were on account, a cool reception. This was made painfully or in part payment. Wherever the oath of evident at the last convocation, which was investiture is now taken on the constitution, held on the 10th of April of the present and is required of those who are placed over year; so that these pleasant unions now Catholic schools or Catholic courts, they seem to afford but little promise of a longer refuse to take it otherwise than with a recontinuance. But if a private assemblage servation of the rights of the Catholic of persons formerly associated together are Church. Several of them, on this account, unable to unite in their leading objects, how have already been suspended by the govern. will it be possible for a legislative assembly ment; but the Rhine bishops have in conto agree upon measures which will be ac. ference declared that the reservation is ceptable to the parties in the church? And necessary,--that the oath is only allowable yet the present state of the church cannot salvis ecclesiæ juribus,-and the government be prolonged, because it is not in accordance is now in negotiation with them. In Austria with the constitution of the state. The con. a very important concession has lately been gregations demand the right to choose their made to the Catholic clergy. According to pastors; and thus the consistories, which newspaper reports, the privilege of corre. have persisted in their accustomed manner, spondence with the Pope without inspection are everywhere encountering opposition. has not only been freely given them-(this
In Berlin, that great city of intellect-the freedom has been enjoyed by the clergy in centre of confluence for every variety of
Prussia since the accession to the throne of spirits, many good and many bad-a congre- Frederick William IV.)—but also the right to gation of Irvingiles has just been gathered. decree spiritual penalties which involve It has a membership numbering several hun. temporal results, and to hold the civil
government to the execution of these penal- M. L. DE WETTE, by Hagenbach of Bise. ties.
The clergy are therefore already Hagenbach has given, in his peculiarly clear, making preparations to decree the ban and flowing, and commanding style, a Lifelike interdict, with all their spiritual and tem. picture of De Wette. The significancy and poral terrors. No one can hercaster enter interest of this theologian's character de in upon the office of teacher of Catholic doc. his many-sided activity, in his suscepti. trines, or obtain a professorship in theology, bility of manifold impressions, and in bis who has not received the authorization of
great love of truth. His childlike sincerity the bishop in whose diocese the institution was so great that it disarmed his enemies. or establishment may be situated. A bishop To give up an opinion proved grourdless may also revoke his authorization, and cost him scarcely an effort. He had a warm thereupon dismissal from office is pro- heart under a cold exterior. Hagenbach nounced. The Austrian government evi. gives a poem of De Wette's which may be dently wishes to make use of the clergy to called the song of the swan, for it was control the Democratic elements among the written but a short time before his death. people, and at the same time to attract the It breathes of sincerity, humility, and faithsympathies of the clergy of other countries The other work is a Philosophy of Religion, -the Catholic clergy of Prussia especially a posthumous production of Rettberz's, taken -and embarrass the Prussian administra- from his lectures. (Marburg: published by tion. How far, in these circumstances, the Elwert, 1850.) It is a brief and comprehet equal justice promised to all religions will sive work, (pp. 224,) written with a quod be realized, may be easily imagined ; hither- knowledge of the subject; but it seems to there has been but little fulfilment of the faulty in method, inasmuch as the forms of promise, and in future no more will be
religion in the abstract are first given, and granted than absolute necessity prompts. then, without any just connexion therewitt,
In conclusion, I will mention a few lite- historical religion is treated of. A breuer rary productions which have not so close a conception of the subject would probably be connexion with the party relations of the obtained, and much repetition avoided, by church, but which nevertheless have inte. treating of both unitedly.-On a third treatise
The first is a Funeral Sermon* on W. -Ritsehl's Origin of the Ancient Catbalo * Gedächtnissrede von Hagenbach über W.
Church, (Bonn, bei Marcus : 1850; pp. 621) M. L. de Wette. Leipzig : 1850. Weidmansche
--I shall make some remarks in my dent. Buchhandlung.
J. L. JACOBI.
DEATH OF NEANDER.
AUGUSTUS NEANDER, the greatest Protest. recovery. During this interval he didae ant Theologian of the age, died at Berlin, a page in his ‘Church History,' and ina on the 13th of July last, in the sixty-second
said to his sister,— I am weary-let is
home. He had no time to die. He perded year of his age. On the 19th of June the
no further preparation; his whole life Editor of this Journal had an interview with
been the best preparation, and up on the the veteran scholar in his own house at last moment we see him active in his Mas Berlin, and found him then in better health ter's service. The disease retumed mit and spirits than he had enjoyed for years.
redoubled force; a day or two more of He was working finely on his “Church fering, and on Sunday, less than a weck
from the day of attack, he was dead. History," with the help of an amanuensis,
“On the 17th of July I attended toe fez and, so far as human judgment could go, ral services. The procession of stess there was every prospect that he would be was formed at the unirersity, and marrin able to bring that great work to a conclusion. to his dwelling. In the mean time, in the It is ordered otherwise. We extract the
house, the theological students, the pas following from a letter in the Boston Tra
fessors from Berlin, and from the l'niversi veller:
of Halle, the clergy, relatives, high our
of government, &c., were assemited to an “ His sickness was only of a few days' the funeral discourse. Professor Straus. duration. On Monday he held his lecture for forty-five years an intimate friend a as usual. The next day he was seized with Neander, delivered a sermon.
During it a species of cholera. A day or two of pain ' exercises, the body, not yet placed in the was followed by a lucid interval, when the coffin, was covered with wreaihs and physicians were encouraged to hope for his ers, and surrounded with buring candies.