Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

MAINE, Sir Henry, D.C.L., LL.D., Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Popular

Government. Lond., 1885. Cited in App. G. MAITLAND, F. W., M.A. Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester, 5

Hen. III. Lond., 1884. MARSHALL, E., M.A., late Fellow of C. C. C., Oxon. The Early History of Wood

stock Manor. Oxford & Lond., 1873. MARSHALL, G. W., LL.D. Calendar of Lambeth Wills, by, in Genealogist, vol. V.,

for 1885. Massacres, The Irish, 1641. Art. in Edinburgh Review for Oct., 1884. MAULDE, RENÉ DE. Art. Coutumes et Règlements de la Rép. d'Avignon, in Nouv.

Rev. Hist. de Droit. Paris, Larose, 1877. MORGAN, JAMES F., M.A. England under the Norman Occupation. Lond., 1858. MORLEY, HENRY, Professor, University College, London. English Writers. Lond.,

1867. MURPHY, DENIS, S.J. Cromwell in Ireland. Dublin, 1883. Normendie, Coustumier du Pays et Duche de. Rouen & Paris, 1539. North British Review, The. Edinb., N. S., vol. v., for 1866. North American Review, The New York, D. Appleton & Co. Cited in App. G. Nouvelle Revue Historique de Droit Français et Etranger. Paris, Larose et Forcel. O.xford Essays for 1857. Lond., 1857. PARKER, SIR WILLIAM, of Melford, Bart. Letters by, in East Anglian (Ipswich,

1885), on Nativi, 12th & 13th cents. PEARSON, C. H., M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. History of England in

the Early and Middle Ages. 2nd ed., Lond., 1867. Quarterly Review, The. Lond., John Murray. REICHEL, O. J., M.A. The See of Rome in the Middle Ages. Lond., 1870. Revue Générale du Droit, de la Législation, et de la Jurisprudence. Paris, E.

Thorin. REID, J. Eaton. History of the County of Bute. Glasgow, 1864. Relazioni, The Venetian. Art. in North British Review, June, 1866. ROBERTSON, ALEXANDER, M.A., Sheriff-Substitute of Forfarshire. The Laws, Con

stitution, and Government of Scotland. Lond., 1878. ROBERTSON, E. W. Scotland under her Early Kings. Edinb., 1862. The Acre

and the Hide. Art. in The Gentleman's Magazine, N. S., for Dec., 1866, and

Jan., 1867. ROBERTSON, J. CRAIGIE, M.A., Canon of Canterbury. History of the Christian

Church from the Apostolic Age to the Reformation. New and revised ed., Lond.,

1874-5. ROMANO-CATANIA, A. Del Governo Parlamentare. Art. in Circolo Giuridico,

Palermo, for July-Aug., 1881. ROYAL ARCHÆOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Journal of. Paper on Teutonic Settlements

in Sussex, by F. E. Sawyer, in vol. xli. Royal Society of LITERATURE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, Publications of.

Chronicon Adæ de Usk. Ed. by E. M. Thompson, now Keeper of the MSS., British Museum. 1876. Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis. Ed. by N. E.

S. A. Hamilton. 1876.
SAWYER, F. E. Traces of Teutonic Settlements in Sussex. Paper in Journal of R.

Arch. Inst., vol. xli.
Seabury Centenary, The. Art. in Church Quarterly Review for Jan., 1885.
SEEBOHM, F. The English Village Community. Lond., 1883.

2

SÉVIGNÉ, MME. DE. Lettres Choisies. Ed. by C. Fallet. Rouen, 1856.
SKEAT, W. W., M.A., Professor of Anglo-Saxon, Cambridge. Etymological Dic-

tionary of the English Language. Oxford, 1882.
SKENE, W. F., LL.D. Celtic Scotland. Edinb., 1876-80.
SKOTTOWE, B. C., M.A. Our Hanoverian Kings. Lond., 1884.
SMITH, GOLDWIN, M.A., formerly Regius Professor of Modern History, Oxford.

(Cited from MS. Notes of Lectures. -ED.] SMITH, J. PARKER, M.A. Art.-University Representation, in Law Magazine and

Review for Nov., 1883, and Feb., 1884. SOCIÉTÉ DE LÉGISLATION COMPARÉE, Paris. Annuaire de Législation Étrangère.

Libr. Cotillon. Slapeltons, The, of Yorkshire. Paper in Yorksh. Arch. Journ., 1884. STAPYLTON, H. E. CHETWYND. PaperThe Stapelions of Yorkshiri, in Yorksh.

Arch. Journ., 1884. STRATMANN, F. H. Dictionary of the Old English Language. 3rd. ed., Krefeld,

1878. University Representation. Art. by J. Parker Smith, in Law Magazine and Revieži',

Nov., 1883, and Feb., 1884. VAUGHAN, ROBERT, D.D. Revolutions in English History. Lond., 1859–63. WALKER, W., M.A. Life and Times of Rev. John Skinner. Lond., 1883. WHARTON's Law Lexicon. Ed. by J. M. Lely. Lond., 1883. WHITE, C. H. Evelyn, M. A. Letters by, in East Anglian (Ipswich, 1885), on

Nativi, 12th and 13th cents. WILLIAMS, JAMES, B.C.L. Art.-The Welsh Element in English Law, in Law

Magazine and Review for Nov., 1885. WROTTESLEY, GEN. HON. GEORGE. Ed. of Burton Chartulary, in Derb. Arch. Soc.

Journ., 1885. YORKSHIRE ARCHÆOLOGICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION, Journal of.

[The following works are cited in the present edition as below, except where otherwise stated. —ED.]

[ocr errors]

HALLAM. Constitutional History of England. Lond., 7th ed., 1854. Middle Ages.

Lond., IIth ed., 1856.
KEMBLE. Saxons in England. Lond., 1849.
MACAULAY, History of England. Lond., 1861.
May. Parliamentary Practice. Lond., 9th ed., 1883.

ENGLISH

Constitutional History.

CHAPTER 1.

FROM THE TEUTONIC CONQUEST OF BRITAIN TO THE

NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND.

The first step in a history of the Institutions of the Origin of the

English English people is to determine the elements of the English nationality. It is not unusual to speak of the English as a mixed race formed out of the fusion of the Britons, the Anglo-Saxons, the Danes, and the Normans; but this form of expression is apt to convey an erroneous idea of the facts. No modern European nation is, indeed, of pure unmingled race; yet in all some one element has maintained a clear and decided predominance. In the English people this predominant element is the German or Teutonic. The Teutonic conquest of Britain was something more Teutonic than a mere conquest of the country: it was in all senses Britain,

conquest of a national occupation, a sustained immigration of a new A.D. 450

600. race, whose numbers, during a hundred and fifty years, were continually being augmented by fresh arrivals from the Fatherland.

Before the end of the 6th century, the Teutonic invaders had established a dominion in Britain, extending from the German Ocean to the Severn and from the English Channel to the Firth of Forth. The Britons were soon driven into the western parts of the island, where they maintained themselves for a time in several small states. The remnant of the country which they retained was indeed at first of

B

considerable extent, including not only modern Wales but the great kingdom of Strathclyde, stretching from Dumbarton to Chester, together with Cornwall, Devon, and part of Somerset. But the eastern boundary of this territory yielded more and more to the influence of the invaders; and it was only in the mountains of Wales and Cumbria

that the Britons preserved for any length of time their No general ever-decreasing independence. During the long-continued commixture of races ;

and peculiarly ferocious series of contests between the natives and invaders, vast numbers of the flower of the British race perished. Many Britons sought refuge in emigration to the Continent. :-Net a few of the less warlike doubtless remained as slaves to the conquerors, and a still greater infusion of the Celtic element may have been effected by the interniarriages of the victors with the women of the yanquished. But the Germanic element has always constituted the main stream of our race, absorbing in its coựrse and assimilating each of the other elements. It is the paternal element in our system natural and political: 2 Since the first immigration, each infusion of

1 This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that the few words in our language which have been retained from the original Celtic (about thirty-two in number, excluding proper names) have all relation to inferior employments, and for the most part apply exclusively to articles of feminine use or to the domestic occupations of women. See a list by the late Rev. R. Garnett, in his Linguistic Essays. [But Pearson, Hist. Eng., Early and Middle Ages, 1867, I. 102, cites another list by Brandes, including lance, spear, &c.

For arguments in favour of a considerable Celtic influence, see, as to language, Vaughan, Revolutions of Eng. Hist., and Kennedy, Ethnological and Linguistic Essays, 1861, and as to law, Law Magasine and Review, No. cclviii., for Nov. 1885, art. by J. Williams, B.C.L., The Welsh Element in English Law.-E..]

? Stubbs, Select Charters, Introductory Sketch, p. 3. See also Archdeacon Squire, Anglo-Saxon Government in Germany and England (1745); Freeman, Norm. Conq. vol. i. ; and Stubbs, Const. Hist. vol. i.

The arguments in favour of the opposite theory, of the permanence of the British race, are very ably stated by Mr. L. O. Pike in his Origin of the English. [The late] Mr. Coote, in his Romans of Britain (1878), also maintains the permanence of the population of Britain, but then he affirms that the greater part of the island was occupied by a Belgic race, who began to settle here before the invasion of Julius Cæsar, and that these Belgians were Teutonic. [The late Dr. Guest, in the interesting posthumous collection of his various writings, Origines Celtica, 1885, treats the Belgæ as a Gaelic race, and akin to the Fir-Bolg of Ireland. Dr. Hyde Clarke argues for both an Iberian and a Belgic period of civilisation in Britain, in his Essay on The Iberian and

« AnteriorContinuar »