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INDEX.

Abba Oumna, a distinguished Jewish

physician, i. 390.
Abbot Arnold, his sanguinary order at

the capture of Beziers, ii. 59.
Abderrahman slain at the battle of

Tours, ü. 28.
Abderrahman III., description of the

Court of, ii. 31.
Introduces cotton manufacture into

Spain, ii. 373.
Abderrahman Sufi improves the photo-

metry of the stars, ii. 41.
Abdallah penetrates Africa as far as

Tripoli, i. 323.
Abdalmalek invades Africa, i. 323.
Abdulmalek, his scrupulous integrity in

regard to the church of Damascus,

i. 327.
Abelard, Peter, his character and doc-

trines, ii. 10.
Abkah, his temporary success in subju-

gating Africa, i. 323.
Aboul Wefa discovers the variation of

the moon, i. 315.
Abraham Ibn Sahal, obscene character

of the songs of, ü. 34.
Absorption of the soul of man, the

Veda doctrine of, i. 57.
Abu-Bekr, the successor of Mohammed,

and first Khalif, i. 323.
Abul Cassem, a Moorish writer of the

tenth century on trade and com-

merce, ii. 42.
Abul Hassan, an Arab astronomer, ii.

40.
Abu Othman, a Moorish writer on

zoology, ii. 37.
Acacius, Bishop of Constantinople, ex-

communicates Felix, the Bishop of
Rome, i. 342.

Academies, accusation of heresy against

the Italian, ii. 207.
Foundation of modern learned, ii. 277.
Academy, Old, founded by Plato, i. 163.

Middle, founded by Arcesilaus, i. 163.
New, founded by Carneades, i. 163.
Fourth, founded by Philo of Larissa,

i. 164.
Fiftlı, founded by Antiochus of As-

calon, i. 164.
Acherusian Cave, superstitiously be-

lieved to lead to hell, i. 34.
Achilles, spear of, preserved as a relic,

i. 49.
Puzzle, advanced by Zeno the Eleatic

as one of four arguments against

the possibility of motion, i. 117.
Acoustics, discoveries in, and pheno-

mena of, ii. 358.
Adrian, Pope, incurs the displeasure of

Charlemagne in consequence of
selling his vassals as slaves, i.

362.
Adriatic Sea, North, change of depth

in, 29.
Æneas Sylvius becomes Pope Pius II.,

i. 289.
His remark on the Council of Basle,

ii. 97.
On the state of faith, ii. 100.

On Christendom, ii. 106.
Aerial martyrs, account of, i. 414.
Æschylus condemned to death for

blasphemy, but saved by his bro-

ther Aminias, i. 47.
Æsculapius, the father of Greek medi-

cine, i. 382.
Affinity, first employed in its modern

acceptation by Albertus Magnus,
ii. 149.

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Africa, circumnavigation of, by the ships | Alchemists, minor, of England, France,
of Pharaoh Necho, i. 74.

and Germany, ii. 151.
Conquered by the Arabs, i. 323. Alchemy, theory and object of, i. 395.
Effects of the loss of, on Italy, i. 340. Alemanni, Christianized at the begin-
Circumnavigation of, by Vasco de ning of the sixth century, i. 354.
Gama, ü. 163.

Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople,
Age of the earth, problem of, ii. 284.

his controversy with Arius, i. 276.
Proofs of, ii. 323.

Alcuin, a Benedictine monk, founded
Age of Faith, Greek, i. 138.

the University of Paris, i. 425.
Its problems, i. 213.

Alexander II. excommunicates the
European, i. 298.

Bishop of Milan, ii. 16.
In the East, i. 316.

Alexander IV., Pope, he endeavours to
In the West, i. 339 ; ii. 1, 26, 75, 102. destroy the “Everlasting Gospel,”
Its literary condition, ii. 124.

ii. 76.
Results of, in England, ii. 222. Alexander of Aphrodisias, his principles
Contrast of, and age

of Reason, ii. 377. and tendencies, i. 251.
Age of Greek decrepitude, i. 200. Alexander the Great, his invasion of
Age of Inquiry, European, its solutions, Persia, i. 166.
i. 210.

His character, i. 168.
History of, i. 232, 258.

Alexandria, foundation of, i. 167.
Age of Reason, European, its problems, Political state of, i. 195.
i. 214.

Decline of the school of, i. 199.
Approach of, ii. 147, 185.

Description of, i. 312.
History of, ii. 244, 284.

Its capture, i. 324.
Age of Reason, Greek, i. 166.

“ Alexiad” of Anna Comnena, ii. 57.
Ages, duration of Greek, i. 215.

Algazzali, his writings and doctrines,
Ages, of life of man, i. 14.

ii. 48.
Of intellectual progress of Europe, Alhakem, Khalif, his extensive library,
i. 19.

ii. 31.
Algazzali's, of life of man, ii. 50. Alhazen discovers atmospheric refrac-
Each has its own logic, ii. 187.

tion, ii. 40.
Agriculture in a rainless country, i. 81. Review of, ii. 44.
Aiznadin, battle of, i. 324.

His conclusions on the extent of the
Air, modern discoveries of the relations atmosphere confirmed, ü. 358.
of, i. 97.

Ali, believed by the Shiites to be an in-
Aix-la-Chapelle, adorned by Charle carnation of God, i. 336.
magne, i. 363.

His patronage of literature carried
Al Abbas, a Moorish writer on botany, out by his successors, ii. 34.
ii. 37.

Alineations, employed by Hipparchus
Alaric, capture of Rome by, i. 291.

in making a register of the stars, i.
Albategnius discovers the motion of 197.
the sun's apogee, i. 315.

Alliacus, Cardinal, the five memoirs of,
Determines the length of the year,

ü. 246.
40.

Almagest, of Ptolemy, description of
Al Beithar, a Moorish writer on botany, i. 197.
ii. 37.

Translated by Averrhoes, ii. 64.
Albertus Magnus, power imputed to, ii. Almaimon, his letter to the Emperor
112.

Theophilus, ii. 38.
His extensive acquirements, ii. 148. Determines the obliquity of the
Alberuni, a Moorish writer on gems, ecliptic, ii. 39.
ii. 37.

Also the size of the earth, ii. 40.
Albigensian revolt, ii. 142.

His accuracy confirmed by the mea-
Albucasis, a skilful surgeon of Cordova, surements of Fernel, ii. 247.
ii. 38.

Almansor patronizes learned men irre-
Alby, edict of Council of, against the spective of their religious opinions,
Jewish physicians, ii. 121.

i. 325.
Al-Cawthor, river of, mentioned in the Alps, upheaval of, i. 29.
Koran, i. 336.

Al-Sirat bridge, spoken of in the Koran,
Alchemists, Saracenic, i. 398.

i. 335.

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Alwalid I., Khalif, prohibits the use of Animals, cold and hot-blooded, ii. 321.
Greek, i. 328

Characteristics of, ii. 327.
Amadeus, elected “Pope Felix V.,” ii. In lower tribes of, the movements
100.

are automatic, ii. 337.
Amber brought from the Baltic, i. 44. Their instinctive and intellectual ap-
Supposed by Thales to possess a living paratus, ii. 339.
soul, i. 93.

Their nature, ii. 350.
Its electrical power imputed to a soul Analogy between, and Man, ii. 351.
residing in it, i. 96.

Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury,
Study of its phenomena has led to takes part in the dispute between
important results, ii. 364.

the realists and nominalists, ii. 11.
Ambrose of Milan converts St. Augus Anthropocentric stage of thought, i. 34.
tine, i. 295.

Ideas, prominence of, i. 61.
Apology for the impostures practised Ruin of, ii. 270.
by, i. 303.

Philosophy, review of, ü. 278.
Ambrose Paré lays the foundation of Anthony, St., a grazing hermit, i. 415.
modern surgery, ii. 275.

Delusions of, i. 418.
America, persecutions practisedin, ü. 113. Antimony, its uses, and origin of its
Discovery of, ii. 158.

name, ii. 152.
Where name first occurs, ii. 159. Antiochus of Ascalon, founder of the
Crime of Spain in, ii. 182.

fourth Academy, ii. 164.
Antiquity of its civilization, ii. 184. Antiochus, King of Syria, cedes his Eu-
America, United States of, separation ropean possessions to Rome, i. 239.

of Church and State in, ii. 138, 220. Antisthenes, founder of the Cynical
Opportune occurrence of the Revo School, i. 143.
lution, ii. 146.

Antonina, wife of Belisarius, her cruel
Culmination of the Reformation in, treatment of Sylverius, i. 344.
ii. 220.

Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, Emperor,
American tragedy, ii. 161.

his acknowledgments to Epictetus,
Ammon, St., wonder related of, i. 415. i. 251.
Ammonius Saccas, reputed author of Antonio de Dominis, outrage on the

the doctrines of Neo-Platonism, body of, ii. 219.
i. 204.

Apennines, upheaval of, i. 29.
Amrou, the Mohammedan general, takes Apocalypse, comments on, ii. 76.
Alexandria, i. 323.

Apollonius Pergæus, the writings of,
Amulets, whence their supposed power

i. 196.
derived, i. 392.

His geometry underrated by Patristi-
Anabaptists, number of, put to death, cism, i. 306.
ii. 220.

Apollonius of Tyana aids in the intro-
Analogy of Greek and Indian philo duction of Orientalism, i. 203.
sophy, i. 204.

Wonders related of, ii. 111.
Analysis, higher, commencement of the, Aquinas, Thomas, a Dominican, the
i. 129.

rival of Duns Scotus, ii. 14.
Political dangers of, i. 134.

Sojourns with Albertus Magnus, ii.
Anaxagoras condemned to death for 112.
impiety, i. 47.

Arabian, influence, importance of, i.
His doctrines, i. 103.

373.
Persecution and death of, i. 106.

Sorcery, i. 379.
Anaximander of Miletus, his doctrines, School system, ii. 34.
i. 102.

Practical science, ii. 37.
Originates cosmogony and biology, Medicine and surgery, ii. 38.
i. 102.

Astronomy, ii. 39.
Anaximenes of Miletus holds the doc Practical art, ii. 41.

trine that air is the first principle, Commerce, ii. 42.
i. 94.

Numerals, ii. 47.
Anchorets, number of, i. 421.

Arabs cultivate learning, i. 325.
Animals, Veda doctrine of use of, i. 57. Rapidity of their intellectual deve-

Are localized as well as plants, ii. 298. lopement, i. 326.
Order of succession of, ii. 310.

Invade Spain, ii. 27.

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Arabs, civilization and refinement of Astronomy affords illustration of the
Spanish, ii. 29.

magnitude and age of the world, i.
Introduce the manufacture of cot-

270.
ton into Europe, ii. 373.

Athanasius rebels against the Emperor
Invent cotton paper, and the print Constantine, i. 280.

ing of calico by wooden blocks, ii. First introduces monasticism into
373.

Italy, i. 421.
Arantius, a distinguished anatomist, ii. Athene, statues of, i. 49.
275.

Athens, her progress in art, i. 127.
Arcesilaus, founder of the Middle Aca Athens, her philosophy, i. 128.
demy, i. 163.

Her fall, ii. 105.
Archimedes, the writings of, i. 188. Atlantic, first voyage across, ii. 157.
His mechanical inventions held in Atmosphere, height of, determined by

contempt by Patristicism, i. 306. Alhazen, ii. 45.
Arctinus, his poems held in veneration, Effects of light on, i. 309.
i. 49.

The phenomena and properties of, i.
Arddha Chiddi, the founder of Bud 355.
dhism, life of, i. 63.

Atomic theory, suggested by Democritus,
Argonautic voyage, object of, i. 39.

i. 120.
Its real nature, i. 43.

Attalus, King of Pergamus, effect of his
Ariminium, Council of, i. 280.

bequests to Rome, i. 239.
Aristarchus attempts to ascertain the Attila, king of the Huns, “the scourge
sun's distance, i. 194.

of God,” invades Africa, i. 340.
Aristippus, the founder of the Cyrenaic Augsburg, Diet of, ii. 205.
School, i. 143.

Augustine, St., causes Pelagius to be
Aristotle keeps a druggist's shop in expelled from Africa, i. 284.
Athens, i. 124, 386.

Writes the “City of God,” i. 292.
Biography of, i. 170.

Character of that work, i. 294.
His works translated into Arabic, Denies the possibility of the Anti-
i. 391.

podes, i. 305.
Aristotelism compared with Platonism, His notion of the Virgin, i. 351.
i. 172.

On spontaneous generation, ii. 318.
Arithmetic, Indian, ii. 39.

Auricular confession, introduction of,
Arius, his heresy, i. 276.

ii. 63.
His death, i. 279.

“ Ausculta Fili,” Papal bull of, ii. 81.
Political results of his heresy, i. 316. Australian, how affected by physical
Arnold of Brescia, murder of, ii. 24.

circumstances, i. 25.
Arnold de Villa Nova, biographical Avenzoar, a Moorish writer on phar-

sketch of, ii. 126.
Art, Black, i. 393.

Averrhoes, of Cordova, the chief com-
Artesian Wells, ii. 290.

mentator on Aristotle, ii. 37.
Articulata, anatomy of, ii. 338.

His theory of the soul, ii. 188.
Asclepions, effect of the destruction of, Confounded force with the psychical
i. 376.

principle, ii. 331.
Nature and organization of, i. 382. His erroneous view of man, ii. 345.
Asellius discovers the lacteals, ii. 276. Avicenna, the geological views of, i.
Asoka, King, patronizes Buddhism, i. 399.
64.

A physician and philosopher, ii. 37.
Aspasia, history of, significant, 127. Avignon, Papacy removed to, ii. 83.
Astrolabe, known to the Saracens, ii. 40. Voluptuousness of, i. 92.
Astronomical refraction, understood by Papacy leaves, i. 93.
Alhazen, ii. 44.

Azof, Sea of, dependency of the Medi-
Astronomy, primitive, i. 37.

terranean, i. 27.
Passes beyond the fetich stage, i. 96.
Of Eratosthenes, i. 193.

Babylonian, extent of, astronomical ob-
How she takes her revenge on the servations, i. 187.
Church, i. 350.

Astronomy, i. 193.
The intellectual impulse makes its Captivity ended by Gregory XI., ii.
attack through, ii. 129.

93.

macy, ii. 37.

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Bacon, Lord, nature of his philosophy, Benedetto Gaetani, Cardinal, his parti-
ii. 250.

cipation in causing the abdication
Bacon, Roger, titles of his works, ii. of Peter Morrone, Celestine y., ii.
117.

77.
Is the friend of the Pope, ii. 128. Ben Ezra, his numerous acquirements,
His history and his discoveries, ii. ii. 119.
149.

Berengar of Tours, opinions of, ii. 9.
Baconian philosophy, its principles un Many of his doctrines embraced by

derstood and carried into practice Wickliffe, ii. 96.
eighteen hundred years before Ba Berkeley, his doctrine on the existence
con was born, ü. 170.

of matter, i. 224.
Bactrian empire, European ideas trans Bernard of Clairvaux stimulates the se-
mitted through, i. 43.

cond Crusade, ii. 23.
Badbee, John, the second English mar Bernard, St., attacks Abelard, ii. 10.

tyr, denies transubstantiation, ii.96. Bernardini, Peter, the father of St.
Bagdad, Khalifs of, patronize learning, Francis, ü. 61.
i. 325.

Bertha, Queen of Kent, assists in the
Its university founded by the Khalif conversion of England to Christi-
Al Raschid, i. 391.

anity, i. 355.
Baghavat Gita, i. 61.

Beziers, the capture of, by Abbot Ar-
Baines on the extent of the cotton ma nold, ii. 59.
nufacture, ii. 374.

Council of, opposes the Jewish phy-
Bajazet, defeats Sigismund, King of sicians, ü. 121.

Hungary, at the battle of Nicopolis, Bible, translated into Latin by Jerome,
ii. 102.

i. 296.
“Balance of Wisdom," probably writ Its superiority to the Koran, i.
ten by Alhazen, ii. 45.

333.
Balboa discovers the Great South Sea, Translated into English by Wickliffe,
ii. 169.

ii. 96.
Ball, John, his preaching an index of Its character and general circulation,
the state of the times, ii. 144.

ii. 218.
Balthazar Cossa, Pope John XXIII., Biology originates with Anaximander,
ii. 95.

i. 102.
Barbarians, Northern, their influence Birds, migration of, i. 6.

on civilization in Italy, i. 404. Bishops, rivalries of the three, i. 289.
Barbarossa, Frederick, surrenders Ar Their fate, i. 297.

nold of Brescia to the Church, ii. Accusation of House of Commons
24.

against the English, ii. 227.
Barsumas assists in the murder of the

Their reply, ü. 229.
Bishop of Constantinople, i. 288. Black Art sprang from Chaldee notions,
Basil Valentine introduces antimony, i. 393.
ii. 159.

Black Sea, a dependency of the Medi-
Basil, St., Bishop of Cæsarea, founder terranean, i. 27.

of the Basilean order of monks, Bleaching by chlorine, ii. 373.
i. 424.

Blood admixture, effect of, i. 15.
Basle, Council of, i. 99.

Degeneration, its effect, ii. 139.
Bavarians Christianized, i. 354.

Bodin's, ' De Republica,' i. 6.
“ Beatific Vision," questioned by John Boccace, obtains a professorship for Le-
XXII., č. 91.

ontius Pilatus, ii. 188.
Beccher introduced the phlogistic theo Boethius falls a victim to the wrath of

Theodoric, i. 343.
Bechil, the discoverer of phosphorus, His character, i. 348.
i. 399.

Boilman, Tom, origin of the nickname,
Belgrade, taken by Soliman the Magni ii. 236.
ficent, ii. 106.

Boniface VIII., Pope, “Benedetto Gae-
Belisarius reconquers Africa, i. 317.

tani,” his quarrel with the Colon-
Captures Rome, i. 340.
Benedict, St., miracles related of, i. 423. Boniface of Savoy, Archbishop of Can-
Benedictines, their numbers, i. 425.

terbury, his rapacity, ii. 73.

ry, ii. 276.

nas, ii. 78.

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