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A.D. 1095, gave authority to the Holy War. “It is the will of The Coun. God," was the unanimous shout of the council and populace. mont auThe periodical shower of shooting stars was seen with remark-crusade. able brilliancy on April 25th, and mistaken by the Council for a celestial monition that the Christians must precipitate themselves in like manner on the East. From this incident we may perceive how little there was of inspiration in these blundering and violent ecclesiastical assemblages; the moment that they can be brought to a scientific test, their true nature is detected. As a preliminary exercise, a ferocious persecution of the Jews of France had burst forth, and the blood and tortures of multitudes offered a tardy expiation for the crimes that their ancestors had committed at the Crucifixion in Jerusalem, more than a thousand years before.

It does not fall within my plan to give a detailed description The first of the Crusades. It is enough to say that, though the clergy had promised the protection of God to every one who would thus come to his assistance,--an ample reward for their pious work in this life, and the happiness of heaven in the next ---Urban's crusade failed not only disastrously, but hideously, so far as the ignorant rabbles, under Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless, were concerned. Nevertheless, under the better-organized expeditions that soon followed, Jerusalem was captured, July 15th, A.D. 1099. The long and ghastly line of bones whitening the road through Hungary to the East showed how different a thing it was for a peaceable and solitary pilgrim to beg his way, with his staff and wallet and scallop-shell, and a disorderly riot of thousands upon thousavds to rush forward without any subordination, any organization, trusting only to the providence of God. The van of the Crusades consisted of two hundred and seventy-five thousand men, accompanied by eight horses, and preceded by a goat and a goose, into which some one had told them that the Holy Ghost had entered. Driven to madness by disappointment and famine,-expecting, in their ignorance, that every : town they came to must be Jerusalem,-in their extremity

they laid hands on whatever was in their way. Their track was marked by robbery, bloodshed, and fire. In the first Crusade

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Results of the Crusades. more than half a million of men died. It was far more disas.

trous than the Moscow retreat. Storming of But still, in a military sense, the first Crusade accomplished Jerusalem.

its object. The capture of Jerusalem, as might be expected
under such circumstances, was attended by the perpetration of
atrocities almost beyond belief. What a contrast to the con-
duct of the Arabs! When the Khalif Omar took Jerusalem,
A.D. 637, he rode into the city by the side of the Patriarch
Sophronius, conversing with him on its antiquities. At the
hour of prayer, he declined to perform his devotions in the
Church of the Resurrection, in which he chanced to be, but
prayed on the steps of the Church of Constantine; “for,” said
he to the patriarch, “had I done so, the Mussulmans in a fu-
ture age would have infringed the treaty, under colour of imi-
tating my example.” But, in the capture by the Crusaders,
the brains of young children were dashed out against the walls;
infants were pitched over the battlements; every woman that
could be seized was violated; men were roasted at fires; some
were ripped up, to see if they had swallowed gold; the Jews
were driven
nto their synagogue,

and there burnt; a massacre of nearly 70,000 persons took place; and the Pope's legate

was seen “partaking in the triumph.” Political re It had been expected by the politicians who first projected sults of the Crusades these wars that they would heal the divisions of the Latin and

Greek Churches, and give birth to a European republic, under the spiritual presidency of the Pope. In these respects they proved a failure. It does not appear that the Popes themselves personally had ever any living faith in the result. Not one of them ever joined a Crusade; and the Church, as a corporation, took care to embark very little money in these undertakings. But, though they did not answer to the original intention, they gave, in an indirect way, a wonderful stimulus to the Papal

power. Under the plausible pretences offered by them, the control of Pope obtained control over the

every Christian man from the highest to the lowest. The cross once taken, all civil Europe. control over the Crusader ceased,-he became the man of the

Church. Under those pretences also, a right was imperceptibly acquired of raising revenue in all parts of Europe; even the

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clergy might be assessed. A drain was thus established on the resources of distant nations for an object which no man dared to gainsay; if he adventured on any such thing, he must encounter the odium of being an infidel-an atheist. A steady stream of money flowed into Italy. Nor was it alone by this taxation of every Christian nation without permission of its government—this empire within every empire; immense wealth accrued to the projectors, while the infatuation could be kept up, by the diminished rate at which land could be obtained. Domains were thrown into the market; there were few purchasers except the Church. Immense domains were also given away by weak-minded sinners, and those on the point of death, for the salvation of their souls. Thus, all things considered, the effect of the Crusades, though not precisely that which was expected, was of singular advantage to the Church, giving it a commanding strength it had never possessed before.

In their resistance to the German attack the Popes never hesitated at any means. They prompted Prince Henry to revolt against their great antagonist, his father; they intervened, not to rebuke, but to abet him, when he threw his father into prison and deprived him of the necessaries of life. They carried their vengeance beyond the grave. When the aged emperor, broken in heart, escaped from their torment, and was honourably buried by the Bishop of Liége, that prelate was forth with excommunicated and compelled to disinter the corpse. But crimes like these, against which human nature revolts, meet with a retribution. This same Prince Henry, becoming Henry Resistance

of Henry V., was forced by circumstances to resume his father's quarrel, v. and to refuse to yield his right of granting investitures. He marched upon Rome, and at the point of the sword compelled his adversary, Pope Paschal II., to surrender all the possessions and royalties of the Church,-compelled him to crown him emperor,---not, however, until the pontiff had been subjected to the ignominy of imprisonment, and brought into condemnation among his own party.

Things seemed to be going to ruin in Rome, and such must Bernard of inevitably have been the issue, had not an extraneous influence stimulates arisen in Bernard of Clairvaux, to whom Europe learned to Crusade.

the second

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look up as the beater down of heresies, theological and political. He had been a pupil of William of Champeaux, the vanquished rival of Abelard, and Abelard he hated with a religious and personal hate. He was a wonder-worker, though some of his miracles now only excite a smile; as when he excommunicated the flies which infested a church, and they all fell down dead and were swept out by the basketful. He has been described as “ the mellifluous doctor, whose works are not scientific, but full of unction.” He could not tolerate the principle at the basis of Abelard's philosophy—the assertion of the supremacy of reason. Of Arnold of Brescia - who carried that principle to its political consequences, and declared that the riches and power of the clergy were inconsistent with their profession-he was the accuser and punisher. Bernard preached a new crusade, authenticating his power by miracles, affirmed to be not inferior to those of our Saviour; promising to him who should slay an unbeliever happiness in this life and Paradise in the life to come. This second Crusade was

conducted by kings, and included fanatic ladies, dressed in the Its failure. armour of men; but it ended in ruin.

It was reserved for the only Englishman who ever attained to the Papacy to visit Rome with the punishment she had so often inflicted upon others. Nicholas Breakspear-Adrian IV.-put the Eternal City under interdict, thereby ending the republic which the partisans of Arnold of Brescia had set up. But herein he was greatly aided by a change of sentiment in many of the inhabitants of Rome, who had found to their cost that it was more profitable for their city to be the centre of Christianity than the seat of a phantom republic. As an

equivalent for his coronation by Adrian, Frederick Barbarossa Murder of agreed to surrender to the Church Arnold of Brescia. With Brescia. indecent haste, the moment she had obtained possession of her

arch-enemy she put him to death,—not delivering him over to the secular afm, as the custom had been, but murdering him with her own hand. Seven centuries have elapsed, and the blood of Arnold is still crying from the ground for retribution. Notwithstanding a new—the third-crusade, things went from bad to worse in the Holy Land. Saladin had retaken

Arnold of

Summary of the Foregoing Events.

25

Jerusalem, A.D. 1187. Barbarossa was drowned in a river in
Pisidia. Richard of England was treacherously imprisoned ;
nor did the Pope interfere for this brave soldier of the Cross.
In the meantime, the Emperors of Germany had acquired
Sicily by marriage,-an incident destined to be of no little im- Birth of

Frederick portance in the history of Europe ; for, on the death of the II. Emperor Henry VI. at Messina, his son Frederick, an infant not two years old, was left to be brought up in that island.

What the consequences were we shall soon see.

If we review the events related in this Chapter, we find that Review of the idolatry and immorality into which Rome had fallen had ing events. become connected with material interests sufficiently powerful to cause their perpetuation; that converted Germany insisted on a reform, and therefore made a moral attack upon the Italian system, attempting to carry it into effect by civil force. This attack was, properly speaking, purely moral, the intellectual element accompanying it being derived from Western or Arabian influences, as will be shown in the next Chapter; and in its resistance to this, the Papacy was not only successful, but actually was able to retaliate, overthrowing the Emperors of Germany, and being even on the point of establishing a European autocracy, with the Pope at its head. It was in these events that the Reformation began, though circumstances intervened to postpone its completion to the era of Luther. Henceforth we see more and more plainly the attitude in which the Papacy, through its material interests, was compelled to stand, as resisting all intellectual advancement. Our subject has therefore here to be left unfinished until we shall have described the Mohammedan influences making pressures on the West and the East.

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