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and Engineering.

181 filling the terraces with rich earth. They excavated pits in the sand, surrounded them with adobe walls, and filled them with manured soil. On the low level they cultivated bananas and cassava; on the terraces above, maize and quinoa; still higher, tobacco; and above that, the potato. From a comparatively limited surface, they raised great crops by judiciously using manures, employing for that purpose fish, and especially guano. Their example has led to the use of the latter substance for a like purpose in our own times in Europe. The whole civilized world has followed them in the cultivation of the potato.

The Peruvian bark is one of the most invaluable remedies. Large tracts of North America would be almost uninhabitable without the use of its active alkaloid, quinine, which actually, in no insignificant manner, reduces the percentage mortality throughout the United States. Indispensably necessary to their agricultural system were the great

aqueduct their great water-works. In Spain there was nothing worthy of Condeof being compared with them. The aqueduct of Condesuya was nearly five hundred miles long. Its engineers had overcome difficulties in a manner that might well strike modern times with admiration. Its water was distributed as prescribed by law; there were officers to see to its proper use.

From these great water-works, and from their roads, it may be judged that the architectural skill of the Peruvians was far from insiguificant. They constructed edifices of porphyry, granite, brick; but their buildings were for the most part low, and suitable to an earthquake country.

I have dwelt at some length on the domestic history of the stages Mexico and Peru because it is intimately connected with one developeof the philosophical principles which it is the object of this ment al. book to teach, viz. that human progress takes place under an same. unvarying law, and therefore in a definite way. The trivial incidents mentioned in the preceding paragraphs may perhaps have seemed insignificant or wearisome, but it is their very commonness, their very familiarity, that gives them, when rightly considered, a surprising interest. There is nothing in these minute details but what we find to be perfectly natural from the European point of view. They might be, for that

ways the

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matter, instead of reminiscences of the spontaneous evolution of a people shut out from the rest of the world by impassable oceans, a relation of the progress of some European or Asiatic nation. The man of America proceeded forward in his course of civilization as did the man of the Old World, devising the same institutions, guided by the same intentions, constrained by the same desires. From the great features of his social system down to the little details of his domestic life, there is a sameness with what was done in Asia, Africa, Europe. But similar results imply a similar cause. What, then, is there possessed in common by the Chinese, the Hindoo, the Egyptian, the European, the American ? Surely not climate, nor equal necessities, nor equal opportunity. Simply nothing but this-corporeal organization ! As automatons constructed in the same way will do the same things, so, in organic forms, sameness of structure will give rise to identity of function and similarity of acts. The same common sense guides men all over the world. Common sense is a function of common organization. All natural history is full of illustrations. It may be offensive to our pride, but it is none the less true, that, in his social progress, the free-will of which man so boasts himself in his individual capacity disappears as an active influence,

and the domination of general and inflexible laws becomes Analogy manifest. The free-will of the individual is supplanted by between societies of instinct and automatism in the race. To each individual bee societies of the career is

the career is open; he may taste of this flower, and avoid that; he may be industrious in the garden, or idle away his time in the air; but the history of one hive is the history of another hive; there will be a predestined organization—the queen, the drones, the workers. In the midst of a thousand unforeseen, uncalculated, variable acts, a definite result, with unerring certainty, emerges; the combs are built in a preordained way, and filled with honey at last. From bees, and wasps, and ants, and birds—from all that low animal life on which he looks with such supercilious contempt, man is destined one day to

learn what in truth he really is. T'he crime For a second reason also I have dwelt on these details. The of Spain in America. enormous crime of Spain in destroying this civilization has

men and


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never yet been appreciated in Europe. After an attentive The Spaconsideration of the facts of the case, I agree in the conclusion the Ameri. of Carli, that at the time of the conquest the moral man in Peru was superior to the European, and, I will add, the intellectual man also. In Spain, or even in all Europe, was there to be found a political system carried out into the practical details of actual life, and expressed in great public works as its outward, visible, and enduring sign, which could at all compare with that of Peru ? Its only competitor was the Italian system, but that for long had been actively used to repress the intellectual advancement of man. In vain the Spaniards excuse their atrocities on the plea that a nation like the Mexican, which permitted cannibalism, should not be regarded as having emerged from the barbarous state; and that one which, like Peru, sacrificed human hecatombs at the funeral solemnities of great men, must have been savage. Let it be remembered that there is no civilized nation whose popular practices do not lag behind its intelligence ; let it be remembered that in this respect Spain herself also was guilty. In America, human European

and Åmeri. sacrifice was part of a religious solemnity, unstained by pas- can human sion. The auto da fé of Europe was a dreadful cruelty ; not an offering to heaven, bụt a gratification of spite, hatred, fear, vengeance—the most malignant passions of earth. There was no spectacle on the American continent at which a just man might so deeply blush for his race as that presented in Western Europe when the heretic, from whom confession had been wrung by torture, passed to his stake in a sleeveless garment, with flames of fire and effigies of an abominable import depicted upon it. Let it be remembered that by the Inquisition, from 1481 to 1808, 310,000 persons had been punished, and of these nearly 32,000 burnt. Let what was done in the south of France be remembered. Let it be also remembered that, considering the worthlessness of the body of man, and that, at the best, it is at last food for the worm,-considering the infinite value of his immortal soul, for the redemption of which the agony

and death of the Son of God were not too great a price to pay, indignities offered to the body are less wicked than indignities offered to the soul. It would be well for him



Antiquity of American Civilization.

of Ameri.

who comes forward as an accuser of Mexico and Peru in their sin, to dispose of the fact that at that period the entire authority of Europe was directed to the perversion, and even total repression of thought, to an enslaving of the mind, and making that noblest creation of Heaven a worthless machine. To taste of human flesh is less criminal in the eye of God than to

stifle human thought, Antiquity Lastly, there is another point, to which I will with brevity can civili- allude. It has been widely asserted that Mexican and Peruzation.

vian civilization was altogether a recent affair, dating at most only two or three centuries before the conquest. It would be just as well to say that there was no civilization in India before the time of the Macedonian invasion because there exist no historic documents in that country anterior to that event. The Mexicans and Peruvians were not heroes of a romance, to whom wonderful events were of common occurrence, whose lives were regulated by laws not applying to the rest of the human race,who could produce results in a day for which elsewhere a thousand years are required. They were men and women like ourselves, slowly and painfully, and with many failures, working out their civilization. The summary manner in which they have been disposed of reminds us of the amusing way in which the popular chronology deals with the hoary annals of Egypt and China. Putting aside the imperfect methods of recording events practised by the autochthons of the Western world, he who estimates rightly the slowness with which man passes forward in his process of civilization, and collates therewith the prodigious works of art left by those two nations--an enduring evidence of the point to which they had attained—will find himself constrained to cast aside such idle assertions as altogether unworthy of confutation, or even of attention.






the intel

N estimating the influences of literature on the approach of The rise of

the Age of Reason in Europe, the chief incidents to be considered are the disuse of Latin as a learned language, the formation of modern tongues from the vulgar dialects, the invention of printing, the decline of the power of the pulpit, and its displacement by that of the press. These, joined to the moral and intellectual influences at that time predominating, led to the great movement known as the Reformation.

As if to mark out to the world the real cause of its intel- Epoch of lectual degradation, the regeneration of Italy commenced with lectual the exile of the Popes to Avignon.


During their absence, so rapid was the progress that it had become altogether impossible to make any successful resistance, or to restore the old condition of things on their return to Rome. The moment that the leaden cloud which they had kept suspended over the country was withdrawn, the light from heaven shot in, and the ready peninsula became instinct with life.

The unity of the Church, and therefore its power, required Use of the use of Latin as a sacred language. Through this Rome sacred lanhad stood in an attitude strictly European, and was enabled to maintain a general international relation. It gave her far more power than her asserted celestial authority, and, much as she claims to have done, she is open to condemnation that, with such a signal advantage in her hands, never again to be enjoyed by any successor, she did not accomplish much more.


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