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The time for which state senators are chosen varies, in different states, from one to six years. In eight of the states the state senators are chosen for only one year; in six of the states for two years; in three of the states for 3 years; in ten of the states for 4 years; and in one state for six years.

The time for which members of the house of representatives hold their office is not the same in all the states. In nineteen states they hold their office for 1 year; in nine states for 2 years.

Therefore, throughout all the states there is a frequent change of legislators, or an opportunity to change them. If any law is passed by a legislative body, contrary to the wishes of the people, and the same legislature which passed it refuse to repeal it, the people at the next election can elect persons

who will repeal it. In this way, insurrections and rebellions against the laws are in a great measure prevented. For the people always have a peaceable remedy for existing evils, at the ballot box.

In how many states are state senators chosen for only one year?
In how many for two? For three ? For six ?
In how many states do members of the house of representatives

of the state hold their office for only one year?
In how many for two years ?
What advantage is there in frequent elections ?

JUDICIARY.

The next department of the state governments is the judicial department.

It is composed of the judges of the several state courts. To them is intrusted the power of judging of the state laws.

The judges in the several states are appointed in different ways, and hold their offices for different periods.

In New York, the chancellor and judges are appointed by the governor, and hold their offices during good behavior, but not beyond 60 years of age. The judges of county courts and courts of common pleas are appointed for 5 years.

In Georgia, the judges of the inferior courts are elected by the people every 4 years.

In Mississippi, the judges of the higher courts are chosen by electors for 6 years, and judges of inferior courts for 4 years.

Of what is the judiciary of a state composed ?
What is intrusted to them?
Are all the judges in the state courts appointed in the same man-

ner ? Do they hold their office for the same length of time ? In New York, in what way, and for how long are the chancellor

and judges appointed ? For how long are the judges of the county courts and courts of

common pleas appointed ? In Georgia, how are the judges selected ? In Mississippi, how, and for how long are the judges choson ?

In Tennessee, the judges of the supreme court are elected by joint vote of the two houses of assembly for 12 years, and judges of the other courts for 8 years.

In Ohio, the judges of all the courts are elected by the legislature for the term of 7 years.

In Michigan, the judges of the supreme court are appointed for 7 years, with the approval of the senate.

In Indiana, the judges of the supreme court are appointed by the governor for 7 years, with the approval of the senate, but the president judges of the circuit courts are elected for 7 years by the legislature.

In Illinois, the judges are elected by the legislature, and hold their office during good behavior.

In Missouri, the judges of the supreme and circuit courts are nominated by the governor, and confirmed by the senate.

In Virginia, the judges of the higher courts are elected by joint vote of both houses of assembly, and may be removed in the same way.

In North Carolina, the judges of the higher courts are appointed by joint vote of both houses of the legislature, and hold their office during good behavior.

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How, and for how long in Tennessee ?
In Ohio, how, and for how long are judges chosen ?
In M gan? In Indiana, how, and for how long are the judges

of the supreme court appointed ?
How, and for how long the judges of circuit courts ?
In Illinois, in what way, and for how long are the judges elected ?
In Missouri ? In Virginia ? In North Carolina ?

In Pennsylvania, the judges are appointed by the governor, with the approval of the senate. The judges of the supreme court hold their office for 15 years, if they so long behave themselves well, and president judges of the courts of common pleas for ten years, on the same condition.

Thus, we see that the judges in the several states are some of them elected by the direct vote of the people, some by the legislature of the state, and some are appointed by the governor, with the approval of the senate. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. The peculiar institutions of one state may lead thein to adopt one mode, while the peculiarities of another state induce the people to adopt a different method.

The time for which the judges hold their office is equally various as we have seen, it being in some states 4 years, in others, 7, 8, 12 and 15 years, in some till 60, 65 and 70 years of age, in others, during good behavior.

In most of the states, the highest court in the state is called the supreme court.

In New Hampshire and Delaware, the highest court is called the superior court. In Maryland, Virginia and Kentucky, the highest court is called the court of appeals; in Georgia, the circuit court; and in Mississippi, the high court of errors and appeals.

In Pennsylvania, how are the judges appointed ?
How long do the judges of the supreme court hold their office ?
How long the president judges of the courts of common pleas ?
What then are the different ways in which the judges of state

courts are appointed ? What are the different periods for which they hold their office ? Are the highest courts in each state called by the same name?

There are, also, in all the states, inferior courts, called by different names.

But, by whatever name the courts in the several states may be called, the jurisdiction of the courts of each state is nearly the same. That is to say, there are in each state, courts which have jurisdiction of all suits in which property is involved, and courts in which all who commit crimes against the laws of the state are tried. In all the states, suits may

be appealed from lower to higher courts; thus both the law and facts may be re-examined in the higher court; or cases may be taken from a lower to a higher court by writ of error, in which case the law only can be re-examined by the higher court. And if the higher court reverse the decision of the judge in the court below, the case is sent back to the same court for a new trial.

In all the states the trial by jury is preserved.

Are the inferior courts in all the states called by the same names ?
What is said of the jurisdiction of the state courts ?
Is the right of trial by jury preserved in all the states ?

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