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FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND POLITICAL ISSUES AT
WESTERN STATE UNIVERSITIES
storm centers of agita- in the opinion of the N. Y. Press, why freely given. It may be that this har-
a state government should not employ monious relation led in some quarters to speech for professors the State-paid faculty of its university State and its university, to a too sanguine
a false impression of the relations of the and freedom of the state in the analysis of public problems. The universities from anything that smacks difficulty is that it appears to be im- education in guiding public affairs. Amer
view of the rôle to be played by organized of political control. In Il'isconsin the
ica is not yet ready for the Kulturstaat appearance of “ripper" bills in the leg
of Hegel's dream, and great as are the islature under a new Republican ad
services which university experts can give ministration, the findings of a so-called
there is need of the utmost caution ; full educational “survey,” and the activi
advantage, perhaps, ought not to be taken ties of various Wisconsin investigating
of every favorable wind of politics, for
fear of the reaction. In its zealous efforts bodies have attracted national attention
to bring education to the people the unias phases of an alleged reactionary at
versity has been radical but in a way to tack upon progressive educational poli
strengthen its position. If some of its cies for which the State University of
members, as is quite possible, have shown Wisconsin is noted. In L'tah the Presi
measure of indiscretion in regard to dent's dismissal of four members of the
politics, they have learned their lesson, and faculty of the State University was
it may be hoped that no blow will be followed by the resignation of 14
struck which will injure a great and useothers, and charges of repression of
Perhaps the university has gone too broadcast. The secretary of the Amer
far in making an experimental laboican Association of Lniversity Profes
ratory of the state at large, suggests sors, who arrived in Utah to investi
the Indianapolis Neus; but one lesson gate the situation, committed himself
of the present controversy is that the only so far as to say that "the Uni
people are seeing that a great university versity of L'tah is facing the same
can be unmade in considerably less time proposition that has confronted other
than it can be made. The legislative universities." However, the mere ex
proposal to reorganize the whole eduistence of such a newly organized pro
cational machinery of the state under fessional body of some 900 members,
centralized control of three business banded together to discover and make
men appointed by the governor, the Los clear the status of professors, not as
Angeles Tribune considers a peculiar to salaries but as to tenure of office and
It is “quite out of keeping with freedom of thought and teaching, may
the ordinary idea of controlling the be fairly considered a national symptom
policy of an educational system. A uniof university unrest.
versity conducted in conformity with The issue in Wisconsin, according
the ideas of 'three business men' would
“WISCONSIN IDEA” UNIVERSITY to the Milwaukee Leader, is "simply
probably be just about as efficient as a whether the university shall become an
Reactionary forces are said to be after the great business concern if turned over educational factory for the production progressive State University of Wisconsin.
R. Van Ilise, head of the scalp of Charles
to the control of three professional eduof standpat politicians, or whether it trenchment and administration on “efficiency”.
cators. On the other hand, every edushall teach the truth as discovered by perils of university leadership in social, eco
lines are demanded by legislative officials. cational institution needs the advantage untrammeied investigation."
of the views and advice of business men, and political questions arouse nationwide discussion.
just as business men can profit by fre“The talk of economy from the de
quently advising with educators." fenders of the gang that are looting the possible to separate such problems from Governor Philipps declares the purState of more each year than the univer- practical politics. It was a dangerous pose of his administration to be one of sity cost since its foundation, is cheap thing to have it get abroad even as a necessary retrenchment and correction clemagoguery. In fact, it was not until jest that the university was “running of defects in the administrative system the university interfered with the schemes the State,” comments the Springfield of all branches of education in the state, of the lumber and water power corpora- Republican.
the university included. The Washingtions to grab public resources that the university critics declared war.
ton Herald concludes that the university During
“That, of course, was never true, but in all the years that the real estate and pine the faculty the State had available experts
has grown too fast and has used up woods gang was looting the university on many live subjects, and so long as a more money than the people of Wis
The land grants without protest from the radical and creative spirit controlled pol-consin can afford to give it. faculty: there was no complaint of the itics and was matched by a similar spirit Herald adds a double indictment of the university being ‘in politics.''
in the university, it was natural that their university and La Follett eism:
“It has indulged in dreams and ambi- efficiency” record methods to academic “Regents, professors, and students, as tions of expansion that are not warranted work. On the other hand threatened individuals, have taken part in campaigns by the public means, and it must recognize snap legislation is likely to be modified
and in the advocacy of measures and that many of the members of its faculty after the legislators have learned from policies of legislation; members of the have gone beyond their proper sphere, which is not that of trying to discredit hearings and investigations what has faculty have addressed student clubs on the general political and social system of actually been done. In a report of the political questions, and have expressed
their personal convictions, but in all this Wisconsin Board of Public Affairs, they have 'exercized only their right to the United States. “The meaning of all this is, put in plain with which a citizens' advisory com
independent thought and action as indiwords, that once given its head the pro- mittee cooperated, the friends of the viduals and citizens.' gressivism and radicalism, that has been principle of academic freedom will find “No information ‘has come to the board so much of a factor in political and social encouragement.
The Board says:
which shows that the University as an matters in this country for the last five
institution is or has been in party or years, was bound to make a demonstration
“The people may well look with concern
factional politics.' Any attempt of the of the unsoundness of its ideas and the upon assaults calculated to impair the use
State, says the board, to prevent or disunfitness of its adherents to be entrusted fulness of the institution. In such crises courage individual activity of professors with practical affairs. The people have it is the duty of the State to defend free
or students in politics would be unfound out the truth, at last. And while dom of investigation, freedom of instruc- American.
As to abuse by certain proradicals and demagogs may still be en tion, and freedom of opinion and ex
fessors of opportunities provided by sotrenched in a good many legislatures, the pression in the University, to the end that cial and economic research,. the board day is near at hand when even the rem academic freedom may not be an empty
finds that 'some few forget their responnant of power which they now exercize phrase, but shall be a living fact.”
sibilities and use the sincere and earnest will be taken from them.”
work done by the many as a cloak for
The Board finds no evidence of med- indolence,' and favors more supervision.” But investigators find much more in dling or dictation or trying to run the the Wisconsin situation than evidence
The university's crisis shows more of mere political reaction. Juch light On the contrary, lawmakers have con
state, on the part of the University. plainly than any other test the inestihas been thrown upon the complicated sulted university men and used some
mable value of the great institution at problem of state-supported education in
Madison, observes the Richmond Timesof them for service on commissions to Wisconsin in a series of comprehensive
Dispatch: advantage: articles by Victor S. Yarros. These
“The whole country views with alarm were written for the V. Y. Evening “The department under particular at the prospect of a cutting off of its activiPost and have been quoted extensively. tack, that of economics, sociology, and ties. Incomparably, the most important Mr. Yarros concludes that except for political science, the board says, has thing about Wisconsin is the University a few extremists at the capitol and in
grown in importance with the develop- of Wisconsin, as the general interest in ment of new problems in State and na
its fate proves. the university the difficulty would melt
The common sense of
the Wisconsin people will prevent any away by conference or mediation. The tion, but there has been no material in
crease in the appropriations for this work.' serious injury to one of the most notable university would not oppose administra
The board recommends that the depart- of American seats of learning, and the tive improvements, altho the faculty is
ment be given greater support, material university will emerge from its tribulaweary of investigations and averse to
and moral, than it has received in the tions a little more cautious but not a bit the application of so-called "business past.
less helpful to its State."
DIPLOMATIC NEUTRALITY THAT DOES NOT SATISFY
AMERICAN MORAL SENSE F neutrality in the present war intrinsically inalienable and no obligation of immorality. One can only keep his means indifference to the moral inore inviolably sacred than the right and moral self-respect by free exercize of issues involved or failure to exerthe obligation to make up one's mind, con
his own supremest right and divinest cize our moral reason, then it is scientiously and in view of all the evi
gift of moral judgment. immorality, in the opinion of dence, so far as trustworthy evidence is
For the consideration of the compliavailable at all. The one last resort of George Trumbull Ladd. Yale professor the man pestered or favored with impor- cated war problems a distinction is necof mental and moral philosophy. To tunity to form an opinion about the right essary between two kinds of neutrality: ask men to suspend or lay aside alto- and the wrong of a transaction like that
"These two kinds are never quite the gether their moral judgment or moral of the present European war is the deter
same; and they may get further apart feeling is to ask them to suspend the mination not to allow his judgment to be until their attitude toward each other behighest privilege of their manhood. forced or bribed into the neutrality of
comes antagonistic rather than otherwise. Neutrality cannot be commended, much indifference, or into any kind of neutrality, Let us call these the diplomatic or governless enjoined or commanded, except on
or breach of neutrality, that is not strictly mental, and the popular, in the meaning moral grounds. Note, says Professor determined by the ethics of the case.
of the word which would make it applica
"le repeat, then, that the fundamental ble to the unofficial body of the people. Ladd in the X. Y. Times, this most sug- thing about an ethical neutrality is that it gestive, if not in times like the pres- is the very opposite of indifference. Mo
"It is a significant fact that both the ent positively startling phenomenon: rality finds the attitude of moral indiffer- ing, and the state which it represents, are
word ‘neutrality' in its diplomatic mean“Every exhortation to neutrality of ence intolerable. The summons to neu
of modern origin. In the growth of the whatever sort, and every urgent or
trality in the name of ethics is the demand great Oriental monarchies and of the subtile influence to break neutrality and
for the regulation of judgment, feeling Holy Roman or Germanic Empires no openly or secretly espouse one of the and conduct, on grounds of moral prin- people or individuals were expected, and
ciple.” two contesting sides, implies some su
if the ruling powers could help it no peopreme standard of the right and wrong,
The “haughty, superior way” in which ple were allowed, to remain neutral. In some measure, agreed upon, as to what the Germans have proposed to take modern diplomacy, however, that nation is rational, what irrational, in human in hand the moral consciousness of is ‘neutral which refrains from interferconduct."
ence of any kind in the contest between thoughtful and fair-minded people in the belligerents; and which, altho not “Now, moral judgment and moral feel- this country, Professor Ladd sets down morally indifferent, behaves so as, if posing is a matter, in some good sort, of live as grossly immoral. Such an attitude sible, to remain in friendly relations with and let live. And there is no right more toward others is of the very essence both sides. For the belligerents, the one
EL'ANGELISM AND GOOD BUSINESS
prime and inviolable law is this, as it is are by no means clearly defined. Laws to moral issues. With greatly increased
between honorable individuals. of the belligerents from the standpoint
it is well that a certain amount of strain mental ethical principle is simply this:
obliges the Government to give way all nations as well as all individuals thing more. And if I might venture to and express in other than diplomatic are bound to give supreme regard to select three of the most necessary and ways the more spontaneous and pas- the moral considerations, in declaring conspicuous of the virtues due to the sionate moral consciousness of the na and waging war, as well as in the conmaintenance of neutrality on the part of tions.
duct of peace.
That Germany caused
“The grandest thing about this other- this war, that Germany invaded neutral
Belgium, and that Germany has exhib-
world's history. Nowhere is it
“We will try to keep our Government
"But having taken this position for supported in a course of diplomatic neu-
Government not to limit its protests so
paratively unimportant commercial inter-
ests, but to make another kind of protest ciples which prescribe maxims for eth- bound morally to lay aside all appear- in the name of moral decency and of huical neutrality of the governmental sort ance of the neutrality of indifference manity at large.”
REVIVAL OF RELIGION CONSIDERED AS A GOOD
OMEN FOR BUSINESS
DECLINE in religious belief is law. But they are all susceptible to terrible conflict now in progress, if there-
reverent, industrious, forbearing and not
mor which is bred of pity and humility,
we may say that, in spite of ourselves,
These are strong words, comments
Zion's Herald, but they indicate the
, pointing augurated by spectacular evangelists, who
very thing that Christianity has been out “that any man engaged in com
augurated by spectacular evangelists, who insisting upon right along-that “God-
up to their God, are significant. If that liness is profitable unto all things.” The
New York Christian Adrocate quotes
from the proposition, heads it “a spirit-
In the religious papers of this coun-
latures. not because he feared the courts or the
news of revival spirit. Secular papers
“Here, then, is the better remedy, and
have played up the Billy Sunday city
signing movement in which Mr. Bryan
gate can be characterized as nothing
wave. Correspondents frequently note
of the future, and it is something which
that one result is that people are paying
, nine-tenths of the evils from which we
The Sunday School Times contains suffer are beyond the reach of statutory “If this great thing emerges from the an article describing the work of “Gos
on the part of some of the authorities, ment at Yale and elsewhere. Writing dents who volunteered to state their At Yale the culmination of an organ college year over 30,000 men continued shades of religious beliefs were
pel Teams” of laymen in Kansas. There ners, in missions, Y. M. C. A. Sunday startled and delighted at the results” of are said to be about 300 such teams and afternoon and Saturday evening meetings, a short campaign of evangelism unique 2,000 converts in 87 towns are reported: parks, pool-rooms, schools, theaters, col, in the history of that denomination. The
leges, country churches and schools—all "All manner of men are on these work- have been
Leader puts the situation thus: “The
of these campaign for - Jesus teams. There are lawyers, meetings.”
religious world is being awakened as it physicians, ex-prizefighters, one chief of
has not been in many generations, and police, a bank president, a few bar An Ohio Convention for Methodist the awakening is but at its beginning. bers, manufacturers, ex - saloonkeepers, Men at Columbus, the state capital, re The next ten years will witness such a coal heavers, traveling men, city editors, cently enrolled an attendance of 3,456 religious revival as has never been school-teachers. Y. M. C. A. secretaries, delegates, and the keynote of the con known before. The very foundations of reporters, merchants, cattle buyers, car
vention was missionary evangelization the religious nature will be upheaved, penters
, blacksmiths, men from the fac- in view of the opportunity opened by religious hunger will be ravenous, and tories,-all standing on the platforms speaking of the saving power of Christ.
the unprecedented war-crisis in the if human souls can not get the best they Meetings are being held in as many kinds world of to-day. National campaigns will take what they can get, tho it be of places as there are representative men
of evangelism for 1915-16 are being or the worst. They are bound to on the teams; fashionable churches, in ganized by various denominations. The something. If, as we say, we have the Salvation Army halls, on the street cor Universalist Leader reports itself “as best, are we ready to deliver the goods?” CHRISTIAN STUDENT AWAKENING
AWAKENING AND BIBLE STUDY AT
ences of students at the University of
in the number of undergraduate enrolevangelist” addresses students of Princeton despite opposition classes in the background of the movenote the importance of Bible study ments in the United States, have recent
ly become available. Out of 3,253 stupublic attention is directed to the exist
in The Congregationalist, Clayton Sedg. religious affiliations, 3.001 belonged to ence of a student religious movement.
wick Cooper reports that during the last so-called orthodox denominations and 41 ized University Christian Association two months or more in attendance upon
fessed. Methodists, Presbyterians and movement was a series of addresses by voluntary Bible classes in 490 educa- Unitarians have student churches, the George Sherwood Eddy, who recently tional institutions in the United States Church of the Disciples has a combined returned from conducting a remarkable and Canada.
University and City Church, one of the ·campaign of student meetings in China.
largest denominations is said to have The “revival" or "awakening” at Yale, "This interest was by no means more students at this state university as it is variously termed by religious fined to the older institutions in the East than at all of its denominational colleges papers, included preliminary and supple- or to strictly denominational or church in the state combined. Unity, Chicago, mentary meetings at dormitories and colleges, but included institutions all over
comments: fraternity houses. Student organiza
the South and West, many of them tech
nical in character. Nor is this Bible intions freed their schedules from con
"The lesson of all this is obvious. The flicting dates for four days, and about paring to be ministers or who, as mem
terest confined to the men who are pre- investing of large sums of money in de1,000 names were recorded of those who
nominational colleges that number their bers of Christian churches, would perhaps students by hundreds, to the neglect of indicated that their special interest had be expected to take interest in Bible in
the students in the great State universities been aroused. The secretary of the vestigations. On the contrary, the great- that are numbered by the thousands, is university said in The Yale Alumni est gains for the Bible seem to be coming
not only bad denominational policy but it W’eekly that these special religious at present from institutions which make
is a sad diversion of religious enthusiasm services were the most successful held no claim to be sectarian, or whose charter and spiritual potency. These State instiwithin his recollection :
forbids regular teaching in the curriculum. tutions, as the above figures show, are
“There were over 7,000 non-Christian splendidly non-sectarian, or, to, "Mr. Eddy's four main addresses were students attending voluntary Bible classes better word, pan-denominational, but they straightforward and helpful presentations in colleges last season. Many Chinese
deal with a constituency that is by no of the essential truths of Christian faith students were enrolled; several classes of
indifferent to religion or not and life. His experience in presenting the Jewish young men were among the Bible amenable to religious influenes. essentials of Christianity to students of groups; and a class which succeeded in
"It is well to surround these State UniChina and India, who know little about a marked measure at an Eastern uni- versities with a cordon of denominational our religion, has given him the power of versity was composed of eight different churches each bidding for its share of concentrating on fundamentals. No one nationalities and religions. . . . Over 800 students, but it would be much better if could have attended the four evening ad- college professors who, with scores of the denominations who have sufficient dresses in Iloolsey Hall, each of which pastors, were engaged closely with stu- identity of beliefs and methods could unite was attended by over a thousand students dents in the Bible campaigns in educa- in a few great union churches, manned -about equally divided between the col- tional centers — training teachers, leading by commanding ministers and directed by lege and the scientific. school — without classes, helping in Bible conferences, ral- efficient social and other instrumentalities. having his own faith strengthened and lies, social occasions connected with the Certainly three or four such great college his determination to lead a life of moral Bible departments, and often greatly churches could appeal with great power purity and high purpose increased. There assisting as advisers concerning the whole without violence to their convictions to was nothing emotional, or sensational, or Bible development. As a result of this the great bulk of the student body. [Unity ‘revivalistic,' in the old sense of the word, united effort on the part of all classes in
suggests four: Union Protestant Orthoabout the meetings, but it was evident the college environment we now have a dox, Protestant Episcopal, Roman Caththat a large amount of careful prepara- condition of Bible interest intensely valu- olic, and Liberal.]” tion had been made for them, and that able in itself and decidedly important to many Christian men in different parts of the church.”
On account of the opposition to the
SHALL BIRTHS BE CONTROLLED?
use of the Bible in schools, state col- the Director of Bible Study has power Unitarian, Episcopal, and Disciples of leges and universities, a contributor to of approval. The academic qualifica- Christ. The plan, says the writer, Mr. The American Journal of Sociology de- tions of teachers nominated by the Ethan Allen Cross, meets the approval scribes the accomplishment of the groups must be approved by the Direc- of all the city churches. No test case “seemingly impossible thing” in Colo- tor, and it is stated that in the churches has been carried to the courts, but rado by the “Greeley Plan” of Bible now supporting these classes “all the favorable legal opinion is based "on the study for credit. “More than half of teachers have had their training in col- fact that the college presumes to pass all the students enrolled in the State leges or theological seminaries, all but only upon the academic quality of the Teachers College at Greeley are doing one are graduates, and four out of the work, the same as it does upon work systematic Bible-study, and their work nine are Masters of Arts or Philoso- in domestic science, history, or language is being accepted for credit toward phy.” Enrolled college students are in- when sent in as work done in nongraduation in this state - supported vited to join classes in churches of their residence, on the fact that the study of school."
choice either for credit or without. Over the Bible is not carried on within the The college was asked to accept work 60 per cent. of the college students are college buildings, and that no state done in the churches in groups under enrolled, more than half taking the money is expended for this work.” Furcompetent teachers just as it would ac work for credit. This year there thermore the essentials of the “Greeley cept work done in agriculture taught to are vigorous classes in nine churches Plan” have been put into operation this groups outside the college. Two and in Greeley—the Methodist Episcopal, year in a number of public high schools four years' course requirements are laid Baptist, Congregational, Presbyterian, under official sanction in Denver and down. So one text-book is required but Roman Catholic, United Presbyterian, other Colorado high schools.
SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE QUESTION OF CONTROLLING
BIRTHS OF CHILDREN
make it a crime to teach people any step we can take to solidify the kins contrasts American with European
laws and quotes statistics and conclubirths appear in both The leavilized, because we are afraid that some
sions of investigators in this country women cannot be trusted with the conRepublic and Harper's Il’eekly. duct of their own lives? Is society to
and abroad. Figures regarding infant Altho one publication was recently sup
set all its machinery in operation to make mortality for America, Denmark, and pressed for going into this matter, Har.
a terrifying darkness, for fear that the Germany, for example, show that the per's II'cckly presents a series of studies light of knowledge may tempt a few?" more children born into a family the bearing upon the subject so freely
less chance each has of living. A table treated in Europe. The Vow Republic The cost of such a policy is monstrous
for Chicago covering 1,600 families in takes the editorial position that “fewer and the method ridiculous, according to
the Hull House region showed that children and better ones is the only this publication. Ignorance can be en
"child mortality increases as the number policy a modern state can afford.” It forced only upon those wives of the of children per family increases, until says:
poor and illiterate who suffer from it we have a death rate in families of “The population question is a social most. It is the business of society to eight and more, which is two and a question of the first magnitude, and there enlighten them, to allow physicians and half times as great as that in families can be no enlightened approach to eco district nurses and mothers' clubs to of four children and under.” The larnomic problems which shirks a study of spread the needed information. “What gest family of all was that of an Italian the human family. If the family is the society, cannot afford to do," proceeds woman who had borne 22 and raised 2. foundation of the State, then ignorance, the argument, “is to enforce the igno- The small families of every nationalaccident, and misery cannot be permitted
because to eat into the foundations of the family.
of a timidity about ity had a lower mortality rate than the If the quality of human births and the
the potentially unchaste. A mature large families of the same nationality. nurture of children is the supreme con
community would trust its unmarried The advocates of birth control in cern of the race, then a refusal to discuss women, knowing that the evil of un
America recommend two measures: the question of a controlled family is chastity is greatly exaggerated. Our first, the repeal or amendment of both equivalent to asserting that intelligence society does not seem to have attained the federal and the state laws prohibitshould not govern the central issues of such self-confidence; it still seems to ing the giving of information concernlife."
regard virginity and not child life as ing family limitation; and, secondly, Ilhat are the objections to the use of the great preoccupation of the state.” after their repeal, the dissemination of a knowledge of harmless methods of
Of the claim that knowledge of how scientific knowledge. Our laws, says preventing conception, possessed by the to limit births is the most immediate the Harper's Weekly writer, confuse cducated but prohibited to the poor? practical step that can be taken to in- the issue by classing—in a shockingly There is an honest conviction that igno- crease human happiness, The New Re- ignorant fashion-contraception, aborrance of preventives is the safeguard of public says in part:
tion, and pornography, in the same chastity, answers The Veau Republic.
category. The group is treated in the It is a safeguard, but not the only one:
“The relief which it would bring to the New York State Penal Code under the
poor is literally incalculable. The assist- astonishing title of “Indecent Articles.” “The question is whether earlier mar ance it would lend all effort to end The European laws on this subject are riages, the reduction of illegitimacy and destitution and fight poverty is enormous. in striking contrast to ours. They treat abortion, the prevention of too frequent And to the mind of man it would mean a contraception and abortion as two seppregnancy with its disastrous effect on release from terror, and the adoption arate matters. The laws against aborthe health of the wife and the morale of openly and frankly of the civilized creed the husband, the lightening of economic that man must make himself the master
tion are strict. The laws concerning burdens, the decrease in the birth of the of his fate; instead of natural selection contraception are directed against disunfit, are not reasons which far outweigh and accident, human selection and rea
tasteful advertizing but not against prithe importance attached to the personal son; instead of a morality which is fear
vate advice or public propaganda. The chastity of a minority among women. Is of punishment, a morality which is the birth control movement is antagonistic everything to wait for them? Are we to making of a finer race.”
to the general practice of abortion.