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awakened some of the best ability of the generation to the service of the theater, he remains a way-shower to art and an interpreter to humanity without an equal. One marveled that after his technic has been dissected and formulated in all the schools, there is to-day hardly a dramatist who dare attempt his technical method. The 'dovetailing' which is so wonderful in Rosmersholm' is still beyond the power of our best craftsinen of the theater. A generation which has sought for psychological truth at all costs has not been able to show human beings so terrible in their nakedness and loneliness, so significant in their relations to the problem of life. The poets have not created a grander poetry. The realists have not revealed a deeper truth."

Even in the revival of “The Yeomen of the Guard,” one of the least known of the Gilbert and Sullivan operettas,

interest was centered in the character TIE IMPORTANCE OF BEING FU'YNY

of Jack Point the jester, as portrayed As the tragic buffoon in "The Yeomen of the Guard,” Jack Point, De Wolf Hopper voices a

in masterly fashion by De Wolf Hoptypical plaint:


“The Yeomen of the Guard” was “Tho your wife ran away with a soldier that day, And took with her your trifle of money;

a distinct departure from the usual Bless your heart, they don't mind-they're exceedingly kind

efforts of W. S. Gilbert. Plot is sacriThey don't blame you- -as long as you're funny."

ficed in order that the character of the

merryman Jack Point may be emphasuffered the ravages of time.

it Ibsen was as great and true a genius sized—a character tragic and pitiful, viewing Emanuel Reicher's recent pro as he seemed in the first astonishment of illustrating with subtle irony the callduction of "John Gabriel Borkman,” recognition. It is almost accurate to saying of the jester of modern times as this writer asserts :

that he is as far ahead of our age as he
was ahead of his. After having revolu-

well as ancient. There is something “Ibsen has not aged. The performance tionized the modern theater in all lands, autobiographic in this figure, both for was good and just. It showed the Ibsen after having created a multitudinous school Gilbert and for De Wolf Hopper, who values with fairness and honesty. And in of followers and imitators, after having enacts the role in the present revival.


In re



CARILLONS OT the least poignant injury cate imagery he has immortalized his octaves, "the lowest ... several tons to civilization and culture vision of the spirit of the carillon in weight, with each succeeding bell brought about by the Euro- dressed like a Spanish dancer lightly smaller, so that in the highest octave pean war has been the de- tripping from the heavens on a stair- the weight of each bell is scarcely 20

struction of many of the case of invisible crystal, and from her pounds." These bells are either conbell-towers of Belgium, and the con silver raiment scattering magic notes nected with a keyboard by means of sequent restriction of the domain of upon the sleeping world. Longfellow which the bell-master or carillonneur an ancient and unique music—the car fell under the spell of this music at causes their clapper to strike the inillons of Belgium and Holland. The Bruges.

Edmond de Amicis, the side of their sound bow, or with a silvery music of the carillons is ad- Italian lover of the Low Countries, clockwork mechanism which causes a mittedly one of the finest cultural prod- Robert Louis Stevenson, Hilaire hammer to strike the outside. ucts of the Low ntries. Its larger Belloc, Havelock Ellis, and many

The mechanism of the carillon, development began in the sixteenth others have attempted to express the however, is not as interesting a feacentury. For more than two centuries beauty of the carillon music.

ture as the part this music has played travelers have been deeply impressed It has remained for William Gor- in the life of the Low Countries. Says by this music. It has inspired poets liam Rice to treat the whole subject Mr. Rice: and writers and artists. The inhal)- in a manner that must be as fascinating itants of the ancient Netherlands, re

"Surely its long-continued hold upon to the layman as to the technical musi

the people of Holland and Belgium, its gardless of political barriers, experi- cian. His book. “Carillons of Bel- associaton with stirring events in their enced a veritable passion for their gium and Holland” (John Lane), was history, its touch with prosaic duties, its carillons. In Belgium, Holland and in published last year: and more recently, democratic spirit, its companionship with northern France the carillon and the in

essay published in the new time, its seat in lofty towers, and its mainbell-master became municipal institu- Musical Quarterly (G. Schirmer), Mr. tenance at the public charge—all give tions. The English diarist, John Rice presents an inspiring impression suggestions of racial temperament well Evelyn, paid a glowing tribute to this of what must remain-temporarily at

worth considering. Ver Meer and Remmusic in 1641. The English composer, least for most of us—“unheard melo- brandt, van Dyck and Rubens, listened Charles Burnay, climbed towers in dies.

to it as they painted the life of their time,

and still in our day, the benediction of 1773 to learn of the science and mech The carillon, he explains, is a set of this music continues for all who dwell in anism of the carillons. Victor Hugo tower-bells attuned to intervals of the the Low Countries. The watchman high

once awakened at night by the chromatic scale. They are many in up in Groningen's tower in the north and tower music of Mechlin; and in deli- number, sometimes more than four those in Mechlin's tower in the south, as





ir centuries past, follow with their faint- impossible to describe its character which followed the royal prize compesounding trumpet-strains the notes of and charm through the medium of tition there in 1910. Denyn, accordthis bell music through the hours of the words:

ing to Mr. Rice, is the most famous night; and the market-men at the weigh

master of the carillons. He describes house of Alkmaar, and the market-women "Perhaps the best conception will be obin their Zealand costumes at Middleburg tained by thinking of it as resembling an

his impressions of one of the Denyn wait for its signal to begin their selling organ in majesty and a pianoforte in

concerts at Saint Rombold's tower in at mid-day. From the tower of St. Ste- delicacy, but with harmonious aerial and

Mechlin : phen's at Nimeguen it floats down upon unbounded. Like every other instrument wide river waters, and from the Town it must be judged when well attuned and "In these northern countries the day Hall at Veere it sounds out over the sea. mechanically perfect. Awakened by the is long even in late August, and it was From the spire of the Cathedral of Ant- hand of a master then, this tower. music still twilight. Against the southern sky, werp it unites with hundreds of worship

come from the heavens, the

framed in by two dark trees in the forepers beneath, and from the tower of the silvery quality of the higher notes being ground, rose the broad, rugged tower of fiftenth century New Church at Delft it carried far upon the tide of the sonorous Saint Rombold's. High up, near the top inspires students listening in the great bass tones."

of the tower, from a narrow opening square below.

shone out a faint, dull light. “Each of these lofty towers, beyond Edmond von der Straeten of Brus “After the bell ceased striking, and the carrying its part in this chain of melody, sels, Dr. van Dorslaer of Mechlin, and vibration of its deep and solemn tone had is itself of exquisite architectural beauty.

Dr. W. W. Starmer of Tunbridge died away, there was silence. So long a Oudenaarde and Mons, Edam and Amers

Wells, England, have made important silence it seemed, so absolute, that we
contributions to the technical history wondered if it ever was to be broken.
of the carillons. Mr. Rice sums up
their contributions to the history of
this unique art. We learn that the
bells of the lowest octave and a half
are connected aiso with a pedal clavier.
This is done for the reason, Mr. Rice
explains, that the larger bells require
a forceful stroke when it is desired to
bring out their full tones, and because
this arrangement gives the bell-master
greater command of the resources of
the carillon by allowing the use both
of hands and of feet, enabling him to
play music in three or more parts. The
greatest virtuosity is required to master
this complex clavier. Mr. Rice ex-
plains :



"On the manual clavier, as Mr. Starmer points out, great dexterity of hand is essential, for much of the execution is with a kind of tremulando in which the keys are played from the wrist and the elbow'. Scales and arpeggios are accomplished by a constant crossing of the hands. The greater part of the playing is on the smaller bells, with occasional

TIE BELLS AT MECHLIN use of the large ones. The reasons for

This shows the bells hung in straight rows, TILE BELL-MASTER OF MECHLIN this are that small bells are more easily which is claimed to be the best arrangement The revival of interest in the inspiring music sounded, and that the effect of chords for them. A good bell, according to a master of the Belgian and Dutch carillons has been inspired primarily by the devotion, genius, and is much more satisfactory on them, due of the science, is not made by chance but is

the result of a wise combination of qualities unique artistry of Josef Denyn, the greatest of to the fact that on the large bells the

and thought. A fine carillon is said to be as all bell-masters. Pilgrims travel to Mechlin to

harmonic tones are prominent and, when precious as a violin by Stradivarius. John 1', of hear his recitals. He usually takes his audi

sounded together, frequently interfere Portugal is said to have paid a sum amounting ence captive with

brilliant composition, perhaps by Verdi or Bach; and ends his conwith each other in a disagreeable manner.

to $43,000 for a carillon for his palace chiapel at

cert with some deeply emotional music, some This is not the case with the smaller bells,
times a tender song by Schubert.

as their harmonic tones are too high in
the scales of sounds to distress the ear.

Then pianissimo, from the highest, lightfoort, and those already spoken of, are All degrees of crescendo and of dimi

est bells, as if not to startle us, and from perfect in their setting. By their pro- nuendo are possible. Vibration of the

far, far above the tower, it seemed-inportions and strength, by their domina- bells does not long persist, so that, apart

deed as if very gently shaken from the tion of the scene, they satisfy the eye from the fact that the effectual damping sky itself-came trills and runs that were even before the melody of their bells of bells is practically an impossibility, angelic! Rapidly they grew in volume comes to please the ear. Assuredly no when a carillon is played by an expert

and majesty as they descended the scale music joins more perfectly in the cele- performer, there is no real necessity for

until the entire heaven seemed full of bration of days of national rejoicing; such a thing. With smaller bells the

music. Seated in the garden we watched

the little light in the tower, where we but, better still , it sends down from airy sound is so quickly effaced that when the

knew the wseen carillonneur sat at his heights an influence which lightens rou effect of sustained chords is desired, it tine and to happy occupation adds an ac is obtained by a rapid tremulando, much

clavier and drew the music from his companiment of surpassing charm." as in pianoforte playing."

keys, and yet as we watched and listened,

we somehow felt that the music came Every musical instrument possesses

from somewhere far beyond the tower, “The most memorable concert I have

far higher than that dim light, and was character peculiarly its own, the ever heard," wrote the special cor

produced by superhuman hands. Somewriter points out; and this individual- respondent of a London newspaper in

times in winter, after icicles have formed, ity is as striking in the carillon as in describing the recital of Josef Denyn, there comes a thaw, and one by one they other instruments. But it is almost municipal carillonneur of Mechlin, tinkle down gently and timidly at first;


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then bolder in a mass they come till, like Sometimes the sounds were so low that of the unforgettable evening when Denyn an avalanche, they crash down with a we found ourselves bending forward to played on the carillon at Mechlin, and mighty roar. All of this the music sug hear them. They seemed to come from from the canal side I looked up at the gested. It was low, it was loud; it was an infinite distance, so ,faint and delicate little red casement high in the huge Cafrom one bell, it was from chords of were they. Then, at other times, great thedral tower where the great player bells; it was majestic, it was simple. And chords, in the volume of many organs, seemed to be breathing out his soul, in every note seemed to fall from above, burst forth rapturously!”

solitude, among the stars. Always when from such heights that the whole land

I hear the music of Franck-a Fleming heard its beauty. It was as if a great

The widespread revival of interest also, it may well be by no accident-I master had said: 'I am no longer content

seem to be in contact with a sensitive and to sit at my cathedral organ and give

in carillon music, Mr. Rice notes in pleasure to a few hundreds only; I must conclusion, has been inspired most of solitary spirit, absolute in self-communion,

weaving the web of its own Heaven and give joy to thousands.' So he mounts the all “by the devotion, genius and won- achieving the fulfillment of its own rapCathedral tower, and plays his sonatas, derful skill of Josef Denyn, greatest of ture." or his prelude, or his songs upon the bell-masters." He also quotes the great clavier, so that all the world may tribute of Havelock Ellis, who, in “Im

The best carillons in Belgium, ac-
“As the hour passed, daylight died, but pressions and Comments,” compared cording to the judgment of William

“As the hour passed, daylight died, but the music of César Franck to the art of Gorham Rice, are—or were—in the
the tower grew more distinct in the light
Denyn. Ellis wrote:

towers of the following: Saint Romof the full moon rising over the trees.


in Mechlin; the Belfry in We had programs which we passed in

Bruges; the Cathedral in Antwerp; silence to one another, and if there was “The music of César Franck always the Belfry in Ghent; St. Gertrude's occasion to speak, we spoke in whispers. brings before me a man who is seeking and St. Peter's in Louvain; the Cloth It seemed that if we moved or spoke peace with himself and consolation with aloud, the tower, the far-away light and God, at a height, above the crowd, in iso- Hall in Ypres; St. Martin's in Courthe music might all vanish. Nothing we lation, as it were in the uppermost turret

trai; the Belfry in Mons; and the Belhad ever experienced had been like this. of a church tower. It recalls the memory fry in Tournai.




REAT as the influence of mounted and spoken by famous actors (an ing young geniuses I still see when I meet
the moving-pictures has al- absolutely necessary part of high popular Mrs. Kendal and Ada Rehan. And to
ready been, George Bernard culture), the synchronized cinema and think that they and Ellen Terry might have
Shaw is convinced that in gramophone was their only chance. Al- been creating a thousand new parts while
the next few years this in- ready they can hear the singers of West- they were repeating old ones in tedious

minster Cathedral singing the masses of long runs that only wasted their talents fluence will become more and more

Palestrina; and only the other day the · and staled their enthusiasm! And think, exigent and widespread. Writing in substitution of fiber for steel needles ef- too, of the rehearsals in the open air inthe Metropolitan Magazine on “What fected an amazing improvement in the re stead of in a cold, sunless theater, with a the Films May Do to the Drama,” he production of such music, the old snarl T-piece to light the prompter. Think of declares that the film drama “will com- being softened and all but cured. When the gallops, the sousings in real rivers, the pete so successfully with the spoken they can see and hear Forbes Robertson's boatings on real salt waves, the fights in drama that it will drive it to its high- Hamlet equally well produced, it will be real aeroplanes they might have had had est ground and close all paths to it ex

possible for our young people to grow up they not been in too great a hurry to come cept those in which its true glory lies in healthy remoteness from the crowded into the world! What a life it will be —that is, the path of high human utter- also growing up as savages.” masses and slums of big cities without when all the theaters will be picture thea

ters, and all the players immortal.” ance of great thoughts and great wit, of poesy and of prophecy, or, as some

Then, too, the great actor will not

Bernard Shaw looks forward, too, to of our more hopelessly prosaic critics be condemned to the inhuman task of that delightful time when all the great call it, the Path of Talk.” But G. B. S.

playing his great parts for hundreds of orations and political speeches are looks as well for great developments consecutive nights, "nor to relinquish filmed and recorded for the benefit of in the possibilities of the synchronized his art under the strain of excessive Democracy—when “I shall be able to phonograph and cinematograph. "I and useless repetitions of his parts as tell my audiences what I really think have heard a film sing and wished it

an actor." We shall hear no more of of them without having the platform wouldn't," he confesses; but admits that the “fugitive fame” of the actor's art.

stormed by an infuriated mob.” He he heard a film talk through a short The Hamlet of Forbes Robertson, for

concludes: scene quite amusingly and

instance, filmed and recorded, may defully:

“I shall not be at all surprised if the light posterity, generation after genera- cinematograph and phonograph turn out “I have watched a long film drama and tion:

to be the most revolutionary inventions thanked heaven that the hero and heroine

since writing and printing, and, indeed, could not talk, for I knew only too well “If this come to pass, the actor's fame far more revolutionary than either; for that they would bore me with sentimental will spread both in time and space. This the number of people who can read is twaddle, and that if they once began that is occurring already. I have never seen small, the number of those who can read they would drive their audiences back Max Linder in the flesh; nor have I even to any purpose much smaller, and the numinto the circus, where the acrobats seldom. been within miles of the American Vita- ber of those who are too tired after a disenchant us by opening their mouths. graph company of players. Yet I am as day's work to read without falling asleep But I once saw an excellent film in which familiar with their persons and their act

But all except the blind and Sarah Bernhardt figured as Queen Eliza- ing as I was in my youth with Buckstone's deaf can see and hear; and when they bebeth. It was in a small town on the Welsh Haymarket Company or later on with gin to see farther than their own noses border, to which it could never have paid Augustin Daly's Company. Had the sci- and their own nurseries, people will begin any manager to bring so expensive a star; entific people been a generation earlier to have some notion of the sort of world and I realized that if the people there with their invention, all the young people they are living in; and then we, too, shall were ever to hear great plays handsomely could now see for themselves the enchant- see—what we shall see.”



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PESTILENCE UROPE has been, from a sani- may be excessive, according to the large populations depend for water may tary point of view, polluted. London Lancet, and perhaps the other be found in a state of the grossest polThe statement is made in one diseases of an infectious character may lution in Hungary. These accusations form or another by almost every not prove as virulent as some pessimists may be taken together with charges in medical journal abroad. The apprehend:

the Deutsche Medizinische Wochendanger of epidemic disease is described

schrift (Berlin) to the effect that the by an expert in the London Times as “Experience has shown that cholera is Russian troops have introduced into "very actual” and the precautions which one of the diseases liable to break out in

some portions of East Prussia diseases can be taken to provide safeguards camps or other gatherings where large of a peculiarly loathsome character. against the menace are necessarily re

of stricted by the prevalence of a general for military than for hygienic reasons. positions which have been chosen more

Sanitary science is practically unknown

to the Russians, it adds, the inevitable The armies of Germany and the The difficulty of adequately protecting consequence being that the appearance allies will be in a very different phys

of water-supply or providing of the Czar's troops in the theater of ical, material and mental condition in proper latrine accommodation in such cir war produced a scourge of pestilence August and the autumn of this and next cumstances is obvious. The history of unexampled in its severity. Antisepsis year from what they were last summer, cholera during the recent campaigns in and asepsis are alike mysteries to the observes Professor Simpson, of King's the Balkan peninsula is interesting in this hospital corps of the Grand Duke College, London, in The Lancet. Should connection. Many thousands of cases oc

Nicholas, we are asked to believe. This epidemics arise, they will not be con

curred in 1912-13 in the Greek, Serbian, fined to the particular armies that are

Bulgarian, and Turkish armies in the field. ignorance is shown by the prevalence
It is asserted that the infection was com-

of septic infection among patients in first stricken nor will the civil popula- paratively seldom water-borne, but was

Russian camps, even when the wounds tion in the devastated areas escape. mainly spread by contact with persons

are but slight. An extraordinary large Scarcity of food, it is further indicated, suffering from the disease, or with in- percentage of the Czar's troops in will play its part in reducing the resist- fected articles, soil, or excreta. It is the Mazurian district proved theming power of the populations to disease. stated on good authority that the infec- selves typhoid carriers. Smallpox rages The combination of war, flood and fa- tion was commonly associated with dirty among them. Thus does modern Rusmine must favor the spread of epi

hands. Tho at the present moment sia pay the penalty of her neglect of demics. Already “a terrible taint in the there is, so far as we know, no cholera

inoculation. Of the camp diseases, , air which characterizes the inundated

among the troops operating in Flanders

or northern France, the possibility of the typhus, malaria, cholera, dysentery and area along the Yser tells its own tale.” introduction of this disease cannot be typhoid fever, the Czar's armies in the Under this flood, it is said, lie a hun- lightly set aside, for the malady has been

eastern theater have never been wholly dred thousand corpses.

An effort is occurring in the eastern seat of war, in free since the war began, this authority being made by some medical author- Galicia and other parts of Austria, as says. Little or nothing is done to ities to effect an inoculation against well as in Hungary. Austrian reinforce- sterilize offal and refuse. typhoid of large populations. The ques- ments, it is reported, have before now

Conditions in Galicia and Moravia, tion of the flies, which breed at an unbeen sent to help the Germans in Belgium

as reported in the Medizinische Wo

, precedented rate within the war zone, sibility of a cholera carrier being included chenschrift (Munich), make definite is likewise pressing. Trenches are alive

in the drafts sent from eastern Europe and menacing the westward progress of with insects. to the west. If trenches occupied at one

cholera if the Russians be not checked. Contrary to a general impression, the time by the Germans and Austrians were While German medical officers struggle pestilence, whatever be its form, will, taken and reoccupied by the Allied troops to stay the approach of pestilence, they when it comes, afflict the civilian popu- it is possible that specific fæcal matter are libeled in the press of the allies by lations more terribly than the troops. might be in these trenches. In that case, insinuations that they disseminate disInoculation against typhoid has shown the same method of contracting cholera

ease germs among the troops of the itself efficacious in the case of men in that occurred in the Balkan camps might foes. This is a very silly charge, we the field. Cholera in camp is no such

also easily occur in Flanders and northern read, seeing that the ultimate effects of

France. But we know that sanitation is scourge as it was owing to the precau- rigorously enforced in the British army,

such a course would be as dangerous tions taken with drinking water and to

so that we have every reason to anticipate to the one guilty of it as to anybody the measures adopted with a view to at that the danger is reduced to the smallest else. The general health of the German least partial immunity. The civilian dimensions. What applies to the diffusion population to-day, it reports in conclupopulations will suffer in these respects of cholera in camps and trenches would sion, is exceptionally good. The fatherbecause the able military men of Europe apply equally well to the spread of enteric land, thanks to the advanced state of its have been drafted to the front. Every fever and dysentery in the same circum- sanitary science, does not dread the active surgeon of eminence abroad is stances.”

pestilences already scourging the allies. to-day performing some service in con Cholera in some portions of the thea- British medical science was in a state nection with the campaign. Such are ter of war is on the increase, according of disgraceful unpreparedness for war, the conditions which make the outlook to the reports in the Presse medicale we read also. The efficiency of the for the civilian so serious as the sum- (Paris). It fears the sanitary science German experts is shown by the fact mer brings its threat of dire peril, ac- of Austria is inadequate to the strain that when they regained possession of cording to a writer in The British Med- laid upon it by the stress of war. Bod- regions temporarily held by Russian ical Journal (London). Nevertheless, ies have not been buried in the Car- troops the spread of infections introthe alarm at the prospect of cholera pathian region. Streams upon which duced by the enemy was checked.



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HOSE who have followed the "Originally fuses were short metal tubes of the shell is known. The rest is a

bombardments screwed into shells and filled with a slow-

matter of human calculation. Nothing and shellings of the past burning mixture. These were rough con

is easier in theory. In actual practice, month must have wondered,

trivances which often acted irregularly, the gun may be on a moving platform

and there was much difficulty in producing called a battleship, rising and falling in notes the expert of the London Chronicle, at the comparatively lit

good percussion fuses. The system is now
entirely different, and, tho not infallible in

a storm. On land, the enemy may have tle damage effected by a hurricane of working, is usually remarkably accurate.

the range and be dropping his own explosive projectiles. The Dardanelles “It would be impossible and is unneces

shells about your eyes and ears while sary to describe every kind you make your calculations: of fuse, and we must confine ourselves to the general prin “In modern long-range firing it is usual ciple as embodied in modern to employ two rings of the detonating practice, premising that, as in composition. One of these can be rethe German combined shell, volved so as to bring a special part over there are in

use combined a hole which communicates with the extime and percussion fuses. plosive chamber. The other is ignited

The operating mechanism is by the flash of the detonator, and having HH'

known as the needle pellet, burned round to a point ignites the first-
which, being set free, strikes mentioned ring, and so the detonation is

and explodes the detonating brought about.

“The business of fuse-setting is evi"In percussion fuses this is dently a very important matter in giving

brought about when the head effect to shrapnel and some other kinds W'

por of the shell strikes some ob- of fire. Fuses are prepared with the utCURVES

structive object, and fuses of most nicety, and the burning rings are Certain kinds of shells are intended to burst

this kind are adapted to operate on shells marked for various ranges, any one of upon impact with an obstruction and others be coming into contact with objects offering which can be set. As ranges are fore they reach the ground. In either case there various degrees of resistance to their rected by observing the falling of the must be a fuse, in the first case a percussion fuse and in the other a time fuse. b B, in air;

flight. Base percussion fuses are com shells, so are time fuses altered to adapt b'B', in vacuo; a A, elevation of gun; hn', monly in use, and the operation begins them to the required range. Atmospheric H H', maximum heights attained by projectile; when the gun is discharged.

and other conditions may affect the rate WW', WW”, ranges.

pressure in the gun pushes Inward a of burning of the time fuses, and the ut

pressure-plate, which plate drives forward most care must be exercized to preserve forts were in some

cases shelled all a spindle, and the spindle acts upon a cen them from all influences affecting their day with trifling results. In Flanders trifugal bolt. As the shell spins round stability. It must be understood that in trenches have been shelled for hours the bolt is withdrawn, and the needle pel- the case of_time as of percussion fuses

different nations have special fuses of without entailing an appreciable loss of let, being freed, strikes the cap when the life. This seems odd until we remem

shell comes into impact with a resisting their own.” ber how difficult of solution is the prob- operate by the shock of discharge and the surface. There are other fuses which

The gunners insist, when ammunilem of making an explosive explode at

revolution of the shell, and others again tion fails to explode with due timelithe right time. Obviously, when a

which act only on striking the object by a ness, that the fault is with the makers. shell reaches its mark or the place disc being crushed in, whereupon the The manufacturers of ammunition rewhere it is to operate, it must explode needle explodes the detonator, and the ply that the gunners can not shoot acif it is to do serious damage. Some latter the explosive contents of the shell.”

curately or else they plead that the times it refuses to explode. At others

In saying that the fuses are remark- ordnance is defective. Fierce controit goes off but hesitates so long that able for their accuracy, we must not versies have raged since the war begun measures can be devised to neutralize overlook the human element. How around this very topic, and, if deall shock. The utmost ingenuity has

ever accurate the fuse in time, the spatches from some European capitals been displayed in contriving mechan- marksmanship has more and more to may be relied upon, some scandals isms to bring about this detonation.

do with its effectiveness. No substi- have developed. It would seem from That they are not always successful

tute for a human gunner has ever been recent expert testimony embodied in an has been seen in the case of some of devised, and that fact defeats the time- article in the engineering supplement the shells fired by the German ships liness of the fuse. In the which bombarded British coast towns.

case of time fuses, the Some of the air bombs on both sides have also refrained from exploding.

operation actually begins

when the shell is discharged Certain kinds of shells are intended

from the gun.

The neeto burst upon impact with an obstruc

dle pellet instantaneously tion, and others before they reach the strikes the detonator and a

a ground. In either case, there must be a fuse—in the first place a percussion ignites a length of slowfuse and in the second a time fuse. burning composition — deIn the German combined shell the por

scendant of the old slow tion which acts as shrapnel bursts with

match—usually contained in a time fuse, scattering its destructive

a metal ring. When this contents on the area below, while the slow-burning composition reaches


The operating mechanism is known explosive head continues its flight and special point, touching a powder chan

needle pellet which, being set free, strikes and is burst on striking some object by the nel, the shell is exploded. The range explodes the detonating cap. In percussion fuses

this is brought about when the head of the shell action of a percussion fuse. When the having been determined, it is for

strikes some obstruction. f, trajectory; s, center shell is employed against air craft, both the gunners to set the fuses to burst of gravity; c, arc of precession; k, direction of portions are detonated by time fuses. at the required moment. The velocity

deviation; a a, axis of projectile; a' a', axis after precession through arc of 180 degrees.

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