« AnteriorContinuar »
into the field to attack the German en batteries at the front, we have an excel local power of the fortresses to defend trenchments and keep down the fire of the lent 6-inch heavy howitzer firing a shell themselves against a superior artillery enemy's howitzers. “These batteries,' wrote of 100-pound weight, and which has an attack. The lesson has been learned the Field Marshal in his despatch of Oct. effective range of 6,500 yards. Four bat- and we shall probably witness the ap8, ‘were used with considerable effect on teries of these howitzers were sent out to the 24th and following days,' and it was Sir John French at the end of last Sep- plication of its teaching in the altered largely owing to their fire that the enemy's tember. Then we also have a 9.45-inch conditions of defense of the fortresses howitzers were removed and the position heavy howitzer, which throws a shell of
the eastern frontier of France evacuated. Observe that Sir John French 280 pounds weight containing a bursting should they ever be seriously attacked did not ask for heavy guns, but for heavy charge of 53 pounds of lyddite up to a by the Germans. howitzers. We have an excellent heavy range of 7,650 yards. This howitzer is That the 42-centimeter howitzer exshrapnel-throwing gun now at the front in fired from a steel carriage resting on a ists there is thus little doubt, the shape of our 60-pounder 5-inch B.L. steel bed, which is carried with it, the opinion shared by that famed artillergun, which is effective up to 10,400 yards, howitzer and its cradle forming one load, ist, Major-General Desmond O’Callabut the gun is useless for attacking en the carriage and bed another, each load trenched troops since the projectiles, with being about 4 tons in weight. It would ghan, of the British field force. He their flat trajectory, pass harmlessly at a be as risky to take these huge pieces into suspects that the Germans have had high velocity over the entrenchments with- the field as for the Germans to take their
no more than two actually in the field. out producing any effect from their shrap- II-inch howitzers.
He writes in the London Times: nel bullets.”
“The French have no light field howitzer, as their 75 millimeter q.f. field gun
“These weapons require a concrete platBefore the war began it was known is supplied with high-explosive as well as
form to which the mounting is bolted that the Germans had six-inch howitz- shrapnel shell; but they have a heavy down, and their transport can be effected ers and 8.2-inch mortars—the mortar 6.1-inch (Rimailho) quick-firing howitzer only on very first-class roads and over is an exaggerated form of howitzer which is very highly spoken of, and which bridges strong enough to bear a weight of both of which pieces of ordnance had
fires both high-explosive and shrapnel 15 tons, or by rail. been seen at maneuvers. Nothing was shell, the weight of the former being 95
"It is the 28 centimeter (11.2-inch) known then about any heavier pieces pounds, and of the latter 88 pounds. This which has wrought all the havoc with than these. In a general way it was
howitzer is a powerful weapon, and also General Brialmont's steel cupolas. These
very mobile, being carried into the field pieces weigh only 6.3 tons, their total understood that Krupp had constructed
with carriage and mountings complete in weight in action, i. e., including carriage, some 28 centimeter (11-inch) howitztwo loads, each of 48 hundredweight.
recoil cylinders, etc., being. 14.8 tons. The ers, for he had already supplied the
"For the same reason as the French the wheels are encircled by linked steel plates, Japanese with a battery of these pieces Russians have no light field howitzer, their called girdles, which enable the howitzer which they used at the siege of Port field gun, which is perhaps the most
to travel on good roads and also serve to Arthur. It was not known how many powerful of its kind in Europe, having cushion the shock of discharge, for no of these howitzers were in possession high-explosive as well as shrapnel shell, platform is needed, the howitzer being of the Germans. The existence of the but it is understood that they have a large fired from its wheels. This is rendered 42-centimeter (16.68-inch) howitzers number of 15-centimeter (6-inch) heavy possible by the long recoil permitted by
howitzers throwing shells of 65 pounds in the hydraulic and compressed air cylinders was quite a surprise and many experts weight up to an effective range of 3,500 by which it is controlled. A hold fast in were dubious of their reality until offiyards.”
front anchors the carriage. A special cial mention was made of them in the
transporting wagon is provided, adapted Berlin wireless message of November
for mechanical transport, from which the
In the light of these facts it is corist, in which it was stated that these
howitzer is readily shifted to its firing rect to say that for tactical purposes carriage. It is capable of being fired up masterpieces of ordnance were manu
in the field the allies are as well pro- to 65 degrees of elevation and has a maxfactured six years ago.
vided as the Germans with light and imum range, at 43 degrees, of 10,900 yards. used at the sieges of Namur, Liege and heavy artillery. For the attack and The shell weighs 760 pounds and carries Antwerp, and possibly at Maubeuge. defense of fortresses and entrenched a burster of 114 pounds, high explosive. It is unlikely that any pieces of such positions, on the other hand, the Aus
It is said that shrapnel do not form part large caliber were brought down into tro-German forces have in their 11-inch
of its equipment, but this is open to France so far as the Aisne, for in
doubt." howitzers—assuming them to have a case of retreat they must have fallen sufficient supply of these pieces—more into the hands of the allies.
Newspaper readers are aware of the powerful weapons than are at the disAltho the allies have no howitzers
scare that agitated London recently in of caliber corresponding to the 11-inch posal of the allies. Owing, however, consequence of the discovery of con
to the want of mobility of these pieces crete foundations in factories. It was and 16-inch howitzers, they are well
their use can be neutralized by an acsupplied, as far as quality goes, with
affirmed that these factories medium howitzers, which until recently directed as to prevent them from betive artillery and infantry defense so owned controlled by influential
Germans. were intended for siege use only but ing brought into action near enough buildings were concrete beds strong
The foundations of the which the circumstances of the cam
for their fire to be effective. For what- enough to hold the heaviest howitzer paign have brought into the field: ever reason, the defense of Liege, la
cluring a bombardment. One factory “In addition to our 4.5-inch q.f. field mur and Intwerp did not take this site commanded a whole district in howitzers, of which we may have some 20 form, reliance being placed on the
London. The Germans would arrive at the capital of the British empire with their howitzers ready for In available site would be seized and London would go the way of Antwerp. Major O'Callaghan, whose words are quoted above, investigated a number
of these sites after they had been vi ve
seized by the police only to discover that they were not available for any artillery purpose. The rumor that cer
tain tennis-courts were in reality conTIIE GREAT KRUPP
crete foundations for howitzers proved This new and monstrous piece of ordnance is said to have been offered by the inventor to the British War (ffice and refused.
THE EXTINCT APES AS GUIDES TO THE ANTIQUITY
OF OUR ANCESTORS T IS a matter of common knowl- the Simiida and the Hominidæ are alto- including Keith, Reid, Moir, Rutot, and edge that altho the great discov- gether trivial, compared with the vast others, trace H. sapiens far back into the eries of the last half century have
range of mammalian structure. Hence, in Pleistocene, discover Pliocene and Mioswept away all the old concep
terms of geological time, Hominidæ may cene eoliths, and place the origin of the tions of the recent origin of man,
have appeared very soon after the higher human tribe in the Miocene or even in the those discoveries have not thus far pro
apes, even if the Darwinian theory be Oligocene.”
true. Whilst if the mutation theory be vided anything approaching a definite correct, the interval might be even shorter.
Without discussing the direct evisolution of the problem of the age of For instance, a quarter or a third of the
dence from the technical standpoint, mankind. Indeed, the divergence of Pliocene would appear to be sufficient in
Professor Thacker feels bound to state opinion among scientists is probably terval, whatever be the true theory of that he agrees with those scientists who greater to-day than it has ever been. evolution.
are skeptical of eoliths, and he thinks, In Science Progress (London) the dis
“As already stated, anthropologists dif- too, that the alleged proofs of the great tinguished English zoologist, Professor
fer very widely on the subject of human antiquity of man proper are well-nigh A. G. Thacker, approaches the question antiquity. The more cautious school give valueless.
He can not, therefore, be from a point of view which appears
true man only a small fraction of the to have been neglected, altho recent implements (ranging over about the latter Pleistocene, limit themselves to paleolithic accused of prejudice in favor of the
extreme views. But when the extreme discoveries tend to emphasize its im two-thirds of the Pleistocene), and the advocates of the opposing theory set portance. He deals with the antiquity most they will concede is that humanoid
out to ridicule the attempt to find eviof the stock from which mankind is be- beings may possibly have existed as early dence of man-like apes in the miocene lieved to have arisen.
as the Late Pliocene. The extreme school, geological period (Miocene HominiAt the outset he notes that such a phrase as "the antiquity of man” is a highly ambiguous one. It may mean either of two very different things. On the one hand, the expression may refer to the date of the origin of the existing species of man-true man—while on the other hand it may denote the length of time which is supposed to have elapsed since our ancestors ceased to be arboreal and became mainly ground-living creatures, with the consequent transformation of the hinder hands into feet. The foot is the chief peculiarity of the Hominidae or immediate ancestors of man, and hence any ape-like being who possessed feet could lay claim to some kind of humanity.
This distinction is germane to the present subject because, to begin with, the known antiquity of our species is a very different thing from the known antiquity of the four fossil species of the human tribe, and because, in the next place, we must recognize that while the existence of
any given period has virtually no bearing upon the antiquity of real man, it has
niost important bearing upon the probable date of the appearance of those half-human creatures who were his forerunners.
"We have to suppose that the Hominidæ and the Simiidæ have originated from
common ancestor, which closely resembled both families in its anatomy. The much-discussed common ancestor was certainly biologically near both to man and to the chimpanzee, tho not necessarily geologically near. Indeed, the creature in question would probably have been correctly included in the Simiidze—which is not to say, of course, that any known member of the Simiicæ, fossil or otherwise, is ancestral to man.
“Now it follow's from this that the presence of Simiidæ in any period implies the possible existence of primitive Hominidæ slightly later. I say advisedly ‘slightly later.' The differences between
ALICE B WOODWARD
at the British Museum, and although a "fancy sketch" is plausible.
dae) on the ground that what is styled phylogenetic tree. The notoriously gib- Darmstadt. This bone, which is wonderthe highest mammal could not have ex
bonoid characters of the lowest of the fully well preserved, is longer than the isted when proboscidians had primitive
known Hominidæ, the Javan ape-man, are corresponding structure of the gorilla, but teeth, deer only simple antlers and
thus explicable. Perhaps we should call is much more slender and more man-like
the common ancestor a gibbon if we could in form.” horses three toes, it appears to be time
meet him in the flesh. We should thereto call a halt in the process of destrucfore expect the gibbons to be more ancient
The gibboned group we find are still tive criticism. If we had no than the higher apes, and this is now
more ancient. All the living gibbons direct clue to the problem, the argu proved to be the case.
are usually included in one group, ment from the general evolution of the “Nothing is known of the history of the known technically as Hylobates. This Mammalia would be legitimate, altho gorilla, or of that rare African ape de- genus dates from the Miocene. Very singularly inconclusive. But since we scribed by Giraud Elliot as the pseudo- little was known of the extinct gibhave fossil apes to guide us, to discuss
gorilla, but the remains of a species of bons until quite recently. The Hyloelephants, deer or horses is illogical chimpanzee and of an orang have been
bates could be traced back along with recovered from the Lower Pliocene of Inand misleading dia. This fact alone is impressive enough,
the greater apes to the middle Miocene Simian relics have been found in
but the higher apes as a group are much period, but no farther. It was clear, various strata from the Oligocene to
older than the chimpanzee. Several great however, that the primitive gibbonoid the Pleistocene, but the relics consist
apes lived in Europe during the Middle stock must be older than the great apes. in most cases merely of lower jaws. and Late Miocene and during the Plio- It was to be inferred that primitive It is important, therefore, to speak of cene. The best-known genus is of course apes existed at least as far back as the the Oligocene and Miocene apes with that famous animal Dryopithecus, which lower Miocene. That such an inferall due caution. is known from jaws discovered in the
ence would have been sound is now Middle Miocene of France, and from an“The lower apes, collectively known as other mandible, or rather one ramus of a
triumphantly established by the disgibbons, probably stand nearer
mandible, found recently in the Upper covery of the two branches of a small common ancestor of the Simiidæ and the Miocene, near Lerida, in Catalonia. . .
ape's jaw in the Oligocene of Fayum, Hominidze than do the higher apes—the "Perhaps the most striking of all simian Egypt. The creature differs from the chimpanzee and its kin, which seem fossils is a solitary femur, found in the Hylobates in having extremely small represent a more divergent twig of the Lower Pliocene at Eppelsheim, in Hesse- canine teeth.
LOCATING THE SECRET OF THE CONTROL OF
HEIGHT IN MAN
HY should one man at gland, such, for example, as a gland physical results which need not detain us tain a full stature, an of the stomach, posseses a tube or duct here. Thus, at the base of the brain we other be short, and yet serving to convey the secretion manu possess an organ the one part of which is another attain a medium factured by the gland to the point without doubt largely concerned with kidheight? In connection where that secretion is needed, it is not
ney function and the other largely conwith this query concerning the growth so difficult to obtain the secretion, to
cerned with the phenomenon of growth.” of the human skeleton, it is interesting analyze its properties, and to state the
Small as it is, the presence of the to see, observes the London Standard, uses of the gland. But when a gland pituitary gland is essential to life. The what light modern research is able to has no duct? Several such exist in organ has been removed experimentally shed on the cause of the variation. the body.
and the loss has proved fatal in a few The actual processes that occur when
“The theory in vogue is that these days. The posterior lobe may be rea bone is growing can be very accu glands form internal secretions' which moved and, provided the whole or part rately seen and studied by microscopic mix with the blood or lymph in which the of the anterior be left, life goes on. methods and have been well known to glands are bathed, and that these internal But a striking effect is produced when investigators for a considerable time secretions produce the various effects a fraction of the anterior portion is past; but the cause that either greatly which we now know to result from the taken away.
The body becomes adior moderately stimulates these proc- activities of the various glands. One such
pose among other things. In addition, esses has been occult to many. ductless gland, possessing remarkable
when the operation is performed before functions, is a very small structure situAt the present day it is possible to
ated at the base (or beneath) the brain, adolescence a condition of infantilism give an answer, a little tentative, per
known as the 'pituitary body.' Roughly persists. The injection of an extract haps, yet one going a little nearer to speaking, it may be considered as being made from the anterior lobes of other the root of things, as to the reason divided into an anterior and a posterior animals relieves these symptoms and why one man grows but moderately or portion; each exercizes a different effect prolongs life where the whole anterior wly another reaches, say, the stature
on the processes of the body, and each lobe has been removed. The important of the giant. A giant, as a rule, is
shows a different structure under the mi- bearing of these results in dealing with accounted a man who grows to croscope.
cases of defective growth and infantil
“There seems little room for doubt, ism arising in the human species from height of seven feet or over. Cases
from the results of experiment and eviare known of individuals attaining a
deficient pituitary secretions may be dences of disease, that the anterior porheight of eight feet. According to
tion of the pituitary body pours an in- readily surmized. some accounts, even nine feet is the
ternal secretion into the blood which in We are now in a position to see that height reached, altho there is some fluences growth in a remarkable manner. the inordinate growth of the bones conlittle doubt as to the correctness of For the sake of completeness we may note stituting a man a giant, or the amount the measurements in such extreme that the posterior portion subserves en of growth determining his height geninstances. tirely different functions. When an ex
erally — assuming, of course, the abFor a long time a certain number of tract of this part is prepared—and it is
of any disease affecting the used in modern medicine—and injected glands in the body, known as “duct
growth of the bones-is in all likeliinto a vein, it causes a great rise to occur less," have furnished an attractive yet
in the pressure at which the blood is flow- hood due to the greater or the lesser elusive problem to physiologists. Noring, dilates the arteries of the kidneys,
amount of internal secretion produced can it be said that their functions are and stimulates those organs to extreme
by the anterior lobe of the pituitary as yet adequately explained. When a activity, together with one or two other body.
been drawn into fighting alliance with depth of his humility, the prostration and prelate in the Russian Church is conON THE TRAIL OF THE PILGRIM SOUL
OF RUSSIA RITISH searches after an in "It is told, for example, of one saintly their places in battles, sometimes with terpretation of the Russian prelate that his humility was ambitious the robe of death under their coats of spirit are not to be won
and gigantic. In his case, meditation led mail, again shaming the Czar, who dered at
to the most bitter and piercing penitence. faltered before the Tartars. The spirit, whatever it is, has When he wished, after a long life of
career of a great seventeenth-century prayer and mortification, to express the Great Britain. The Church, it ap- horror which his inmost soul felt at the sidered typical: pears, is the mother, not the tool, of sight of itself, he could not do it by orthe Russian empire. Therefore, Rus- dinary language or signs. He sought
“This was Nikon, who had for many sian religion is very real tho very within the lowest depth a lower still, and years' prayed and fasted, enduring the difficult in some respects for the Eng- ended in what may be called a rude bar severest rigors of monastic life in the lishman to understand. Sir William baric act or a majesty of self-abasement. depths of the North. Called by stress of Robertson Niccoll, a. D.D. and
The dying saint anathematized himself; he circumstances, he often emerged as LL.D., tells us all this in a leading burial, and ordered it to be cast out like forbade his body the rites of Christian courtier and companion for a king. He
was a man of native elegance and reeditorial in his British Weekly, on
the carcase of a beast in the desert. His finement, an eloquent and impassioned “The Pilgrim Soul of Russia." It is
friends dared not trifle with the awful preacher, and a successful administrator. based chiefly upon Mouravieff's writ
command. For three days his lean body With all their asceticism the Russians have ings and the recent travel sketches was exposed on the plain to the beasts of always loved ritual and ceremony. Nikon by Stephen Graham, and it compels prey. But no beast touched the sacred was no exception. In his cathedral he attention.
corpse. After the third day his friends carried the pomp and beauty of devotion Russia's religion, says Dr. Niccoll, came, and his unviolated remains could no to its greatest height. For two years he
was in sole charge of the government of is the religion of a country which is longer be excluded from a grave."
Russia, ruling both church and state. But Eastern inuch as Western—both Disciples gathered around such spir- when his public work was over he fell European and Asiatic. “It is colored itual persons, and hermitages swelled back in a moment on his hermit life. All by circumstances, and especially by into monasteries, which became mis- through the glittering show of it he had the aspects and scenery of the great sionary centers. From time to time kept up his monastic character and habits. land. Vastness is the attribute of the great saints appeared. They were Power, occupation and splendor never imNorth. The immense spaces of Rus- called out into the world, for the paired his asceticism. In his last days he sia, the lengths and breadths of her monasteries became the centers of worked, tho old and emaciated, like a landscapes, her moors and wildernesses, Russian civilization, order and unity.
common mason, on building a church.” her vistas and her long, interminable lines, correspond with the fire and church in Russia, the church founded the have us remember, loved best to dwell
"So far from the state founding the Russian saints, Dr. Niccoll would mystery of her inner spirit.”
state. The church was the mother of the in caves which they hollowed out with The chief figures of the Russian empire, and not its tool. The metropoli- their own hands, and thus to share the Church have shown a vigorous, ascetic tans and patriarchs were laborious, ardent, spirit, a simple-minded enthusiasm, a
lot of their Master, who descended to enthusiastic rulers and champions of the whole-hearted and passionate faith. church. The church was their only care
the lower parts of the earth. They The hermit spirit arose from the deep on earth, the only object of their love.
were of those who confess themsclves individual impulses and cravings of
There were high saints among them, and strangers and pilgrims on the earth holy minds. “The primitive Russian
there are well-attested incidents of lofty and declare plainly that they seek a saint had the power of intensity rather
Christian flights and ascents in grace, of country. than of grace and finish.
humility, rigor, and perpetual devotion. His reli
Turning to the fresh modern witness Many of them were called to occupy posi- of Mr. Stephen Graham, Dr. Niccoll gion was grounded on abstraction and
tions of great splendor and power, but finds great vividness and true feeling separation from the world. With they looked back with longing and fond fixed, rooted, tenacious and single- regret on the contemplative life they had
in his description of a recent pilgrimeyed faith, he longed to look into the led, and coveted a return to it. Many did age to Jerusalem in the company of mysteries revealed and yet to be rereturn to cells and hermitages and caves,
thousands of Russian peasants, who vealed, and he cared for nothing else. putting on the Schema (the robe of were urged on to their hard journey by It is this spirit that rests upon Russia's death). The metropolitan Theodosius, in some deep religious force they could forests and lakes, her wide plains and withdrawing from the See, took with him not understand. These men had risen her rolling rivers."
a poor, feeble old man to his cell, and above the lowlands and materialities
tended him as a servant, washing his sores The high ambition of these holy men
of life. Many of them were called as a pattern of Christian humility. His courted desolation, observes Dr. Nic
suddenly from movement in the successor, Philip, wore heavy irons on his coll. They were at home the mortified, emaciated body: they were dis- depths of their spirits. To quote Mr. farthest shore of solitude and in the covered at his death and hung over his
Graham: most inaccessible caverns. It is not tomb. The Russian people attributed to wonderful that there was a certain them miraculous powers, as if the inten
"The incurable drunkard of the village wildness and exaggeration in their sity of grace had overflowed into the out- picks himself up out of the mire one afterlives and deaths.
noon, renouncing drinking, and starts off Grace assumed in ward world and acted on nature.”
for Jerusalem. The avaricious old mouthem heraldic and mystical dimensions. Hermit saints, we are told, took zhik, who has been hoarding for half a
century, wakens up one morning, gives all Why do you waste your time making this sche, who was
a great student of his money to someone, and sets off beg- long journey when you might be earning Russia through the eyes of Dostoievsging his way to a far-off shrine. The re- good money in the fields and the towns? ky, 'that profound man,' noted what served and silent peasant, who has hidden Then a peasant would answer: 'I don't
he called 'an excess of will in Russia.' his thoughts from those who loved him know. You speak too fast. It seems God all his days, meets an utter stranger one didn't make man only to work and earn
There is something volcanic about the afternoon, and with tears tells the story money, like a horse or a cow. And did Russians, which may be found beneath
not God live and die in the land that we the surface even of the quietest and of his life, and reveals to him the secret of his heart; he also, perchance, starts on are going to ?!”
stupidest." a pilgrimage. In Russia, as nowhere else
And when the Russian pilgrims in the world, it is the unexpected and
That is the secret, comments Dr. reach Jerusalem they visit and pray mysterious which happens.
Niccoll. “They believe that Jesus was at the sacred shrines, accepting the “Why didn't you remain in Russia and Very God of Very God. They know identifications without question. Pilput the money in the bank, or buy books full well that Earth 'holds as chief grims who die on the journey are acand learn what is going on in the world? treasure one forsaken grave. Nietz
counted most happy.
PROTESTANTISM FALLING BEHIND THROUGH
ECAUSE of a greater Roman birth-rate has fallen to the extent of California and Kentucky, where the
of the Roman showing that the well-to-do artisan Dr. Booth shows that in every one of Catholic Church. For the birth-rate has declined, in the last them the birth-rate is excessively lowsame reason, that Church has been as- thirty years, by 52 per cent.! Seeing lower even than in France — and in cending toward a predominant position that the Protestant churches draw three of them, Indiana, Maryland and in Great Britain and gaining in France their members mainly from these very California, there is an actual excess of and Germany. In Russia, the land of classes, we have not far to seek for deaths over births. On the other hand, the Eastern Church, the annual excess an explanation of the empty Sunday- the five States of New York, Rhode of births over deaths is much greater schools.”
Island, Massachusetts, Michigan, and than in all the Protestant countries in In France, where the general birth- Connecticut, in which the Roman the world put together. Present-day rate is lower than in England, Dr. Catholic and foreign element is well Protestantism, which in practice stands Booth finds Roman Catholic districts represented, make
very different for a declining birth-rate, is thus being which show a higher rate than the showing of higher birth-rate (22.0 to driven back in all the great centers of usual English country district. And 25.0 per 1,000 compared to 13.0 to 16.0 civilization, according to the conclu- he quotes the opinion of M. Leroy- in the first group), and a very marked sion of Dr. Meyrick Booth, a scientific Beaulieu "that the Catholic Church excess of births over deaths in each contributor to the Hibbert Journal. tends, by means of its whole atmos State. He has brought together data only re- phere, to promote a natural increase Definite statistics for other important cently made available bearing upon the of population; for, more than other States are said to be lacking, but those connection between religious belief and types of Christianity, it condemns given indicate a remarkable increase the movement of population, which, he egoism, materialism and inordinate of the foreign and non-Protestant secpoints out, is much more intimate than ambition for self or family; and, more tion of the American people as comthe sociologists of a few decades ago over, it works in the same direction pared with the Anglo-Saxon and would have been willing to admit. through its uncompromizing condemna Protestant section, an increase which
In England, for example, Mr. Sidney tion of modern Malthusian practices.” Dr. Booth says must result less in abWebb has shown that town-dwelling Dr. Booth says that Germany shows a sorption than in a gradual alteration of alone can not be held to account for similar condition, tho the differences national character, customs and beliefs. declining birth-rate, because the fall in there are less marked.
Numerous other observations many country districts has exceeded The situation in the United States is cited by Dr. Booth to bear out the that in some of the largest cities. Nor attributed to the influx of large masses conclusion that the Anglo-Saxon Protdoes luxury account for it, since the of European Catholics who cling tena- estant element, which has all along decline is quite as marked in many ciously to their religion, and to the formed the core of American civilizapoor districts as in well-to-do centers. much greater prolificity of these stocks tion, is now a diminishing quantity. Compared with rapid decline in Eng- as compared with the native population. For instance, the number of children land during ten years, the Irish birthrate rose by 3 per cent. and the Dublin “The New England States, the original per marriage in Massachusetts in the
years 1870, 1880, 1890, was: native home of American Puritanism, are now rate by 9 per cent. English towns and important centers of Catholicism (Mas
stock — 2.2, 2.2, and 2.4 respectively; boroughs of London, where Jews or
sachusetts shows 1,100,000 members of the foreign stock—4.4, 5.0, 4.3 respectively. Roman Catholics are most numerous, Roman Catholic Church and 450,000 mem
In Boston, 1900, the native birth-rate show the smallest decrease in birth-bers of all Protestant Churches com was 18.2, foreign 31.1; in Providence, rate. Other figures covering approxi- bined !). In Illinois there are about a mil- the same year, native birth-rate 16.0, mately twenty years exhibit a Roman lion Roman Catholics, while the strongest foreign 31.1.
In Connecticut, 1900, Catholic birth-rate of 6.6 children per Protestant body (the Methodists) cannot "there were 173,000 married women, marriage, against 3.74 among the
show more than 300,000 adherents. In of whom 66,000 Protestant landed families. From the New York state we find 2,300,000 Catho- whites; and in that year these 66,000
were foreign-born “Catholic Year Book” a birth-rate of
lics and about 300,000 Methodists, while
gave birth to almost exactly the same 38.6 per 1,000 is contrasted with the than 200,000.”
number of children as the remaining general rate of 24.0 for England and
107,000—a little over one-third of the Wales. Says Dr. Booth: “It would From statistics representing the five married women in the State thus proseem that the English middle-class States of Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, ducing half the children.”