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A POLICE EXPERT'S ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUE

OF BURGLARY RACTICALLY every burglary open it and enter. They generally ceek work in pairs; one standing in the hallis prearranged and the de the place where it is most likely that valu way to warn his partner of the return of tails planned, according to

ables have been left before the owner re the tenant, and, in case the thief is purthat famed detective, Inspec- tired, such as the tops of dressers or the sued, to trip the person in pursuit or to

pockets of clothing. In going from room divert him in some other way. They selCornelius F. Cahalane, tor

to room, they usually place some obstruc- dom leave a house together, but usually now in charge of the training school tion, a table or a chair, in such a position meet at a distance from the scene to disof the New York police department. that if the occupant should awaken and pose of the property and divide the proBurglars, he says, guard against the attempt to leave the room, he would trip ceeds.” ordinary precautions which they think over the object and make enough noise to a live policeman will take to prevent

warn the burglar that his presence had Many flat thieves work by hiring a their crimes or to capture them. Do. become known. Unless they are sure that

room or rooms in a residential section not imagine, warns Inspector Cahalane,

no alarm has been given, they will seldom of the city and as near the roof as that every burglar or thief wears

leave by way of the street; usually they possible, particularly where the roofs peak cap, box coat, sweater, striped back yard and remain until there is an opsecrete themselves on the roof or in the

in the vicinity are of about the same trousers or bull-nosed shoes, so typ- portunity to escape.”

height. They use scuttles and fire-esical of stage burglars. They realize

capes as a means of getting into buildthat to dress in such a manner would

Flat thieves are not as desperate as

ings and convey the plunder over the arouse immediate suspicion and, ac

the ordinary run of burglars, but they roofs to their rooms. In this way they cordingly, dress and carry themselves

are burglars too, and they manage to avoid the danger of being detected in in a manner least likely to attract at

steal considerable property. As a rule the street. tention. They do not, as most persons they will not enter an apartment while

More ambitious than the flat thief fancy, carry burglary tools on their

anyone is at home. They profit by the but in something of the same class is persons at all times. They know that knowledge that housekeepers generally the loft burglar. Loft burglars are the it is not only a violation of the law, hide their money and valuables in a

most feared by merchants, for when but that it is circunistantial evidence as

nook where they think a thief will be they make a haul it is usually a big well. Hence burglars carry tools no

least likely to look-under rugs, legs one, amounting to thousands of dollars. longer than is absolutely necessary. of tables, between mattresses and beds, They are necessarily the brainiest of Sometimes they hide their tools near

in sewing machine drawers, and the burglars for the reason that their work the scene of the contemplated burglary. like. A flat thief requires only about requires more and better planning. If they have tools in their possession five minutes in an ordinary flät, and Plans are often made weeks in adand think they are going to be searched, when he is through it looks as though vance : they will try to hide them or throw

an earthquake had shaken the building.
Tools are
carried fre-
He starts by pushing the furniture to

"A loft is selected after a study of its quently in musical instrument cases.* one end of the room. He turns the

location and the quantity and quality of

the stock carried in it. Weeks are then rugs over, empties the contents of bu“There are many different types of

spent in becoming familiar with the habits reau drawers into the middle of the burglars, who resort to various means in foor, where they are examined, throws thwart or discover them, particularly the

of persons who might be in a position to plying their calling. The burglars most

mattresses to the floor, cuts them open watchmen and patrolmen on post, and the dangerous to society are those known as ‘Dutch house men.' They are the most

if he has not already discovered the customary time of opening and closing the desperate. They always work heavily hiding-place, turns vases and bric-a- building, noting the person to whom this armed and to accomplish their purpose or brac upside down and, in this way, has duty is entrusted. to avoid capture will take life under the every part of the flat searched in a

"A Saturday afternoon or night is genslightest provocation. They usually op- short time.

erally selected for the entry. Sometimes erate in an inhabited dwe ng, and to gain

Flat thieves are usually young men

it is necessary to gain entrance through entrance, secrete themselves in some part between the ages of sixteen and thirty clamber back over the roofs. When the

a building three or four doors away and of the building or grounds until they think the occupants have retired; then, if years:

loft selected is reached they do not hesinecessary, they make their way to a roof,

tate to cut through a wall to get one of fire-escape or porch, and get in by prying

“They gain entrance by ringing the their number into it; if necessary, they open a skylight or jimmying a window vestibule bells and, if no response is made, will drill through the floor from the loft sash.

they assume that no one is at home, ard below or through the ceiling from the one “ As a rule, householders fasten win- enter the hallway and proceed to the above, lowering the first man down with dows leading to fire-escapes or porches, apartnient selected. If the door is locked, a rope. The door of the loft is then but are careless about the other windows. they either use a false key or jimny it opened from the inside if the circum‘Dutch house men' know this failing and open. Or, they may watch persons leav stances warrant it. often take advantage of it. They fasten ing their apartment, and enter during “The loot is carefully selected from the one end of a rope (which one of them their short absence. If questioned, they most valuable stock. Packing cases are may have carried wound around his body) try to represent themselves as peddlers, constructed from material lying about, to a chimney on the roof and drop the agents, inspectors of telephone, gas, water filled, and nailed shut. other end over the ledge. One of them or electricity, or mechanics. They usually “They are now confronted with the will lower himself to the desired window, bundle together the proceeds of a theft most difficult task, that of getting the

and carry it to the street, passing through packing cases from the building. The POLICE PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE. By Cor the halls with an air of bravado, so as property is seldom moved at night. They nelius F. Calialane, Inspector of Police of the City of New York. E. P. Dutton and Company. not to excite suspicion. They generally fear that the appearance of a vehicle at

them away.

*

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NEW

THE

TECH.

an unusual hour in a section of the city

Their favorite method is to select a where loits are located would arouse sus

residence along some street-car route, picion. Instead, if, as a result of their

enter it during the day-time, if possiprevious study, they know that the loft

ble, and remain secreted in area ways, will be opened at 7:30 a. m., a vehicle will be brought to the front of the building at

back yards or on roofs until night, then about 7:20 a. m., the door opened from

force an entrance through a window, the inside by one of the gang dressed as

door or roof scuttle when the occua porter, and in the most bold and daring

pants have retired. After securing the manner the cases will be loaded on the

plunder they open the front door and wagon. One of the gang may even engage

wait inside until a car passes.

Then the patrolman on post in conversation,

they run out and board a moving car, possibly within sight of their activities.

watching meanwhile to see if they are The bogus porters, if the circumstances

pursued. Sometimes they ride almost necessitate it, will go back into the build

to the city line before getting off. They ing and escape by way of the roof or through an adjoining building."

are afraid that if they pass a brightly lighted street corner they will be ob

served and for this reason they use the Safe burglars know as a rule the

strect-cars. particular make of each safe on which

If there were no receivers of stolen they intend to operate. Like loft bur

goods there would be but little burglars, they plan far in advance and

glary of these or any other kinds: come prepared to break through any part of a building in order to get to

“A thief will not steal unless he knows the safe. They have been known, when

that he can make some profitable disposiworking in an exposed position, to

tion of his haul. make a pasteboard safe, paint it to im

"It is comparatively easy to dispose of itate the original, shove the genuine

jewelry, but a thief must know positively safe into an inner room and leave the

where he can immediately dispose of substitute in its place. Others do not

bulky property that he cannot readily con

ceal. Usually such stuff is immediately resort to this subterfuge, but simply

sold to unscrupulous dealers who carry bodily shove the safe into a position

goods of the same kind in stock; for inwhere they can not be observed from

stance, a quantity of stolen cloth may be the street and begin operations. They

sold to a dishonest dry-goods merchant. try not to use explosives. The easiest

In some cases, however, a store or flat is way, the combination, is tried first. If

rented in advance of a burglary or theft this fails, the weakest part, the bottom

and the loot stored in it. The receivers

YORK'S EXPERT ON or back, is tried. The ordinary safe is

NIQUE OF CRIME

are then visited in turn by the thieves, turned upside down and the bottom or Inspector Cornelius F. Cahalane is one

shown samples, and bids are requested. the noted instructors of detectives appointed to back is cut out with a tool they call a

In this way they dispose of the goods the metropolitan police force, his study of the

more profitably."
"can opener." If the bottom or back

methods of burglars and thieves being scientific
resists, they drill a hole near the com-
and practical.

A careful thief destroys, as soon as binations and try to disturb the tumblers

possible, all marks of identification, but sufficiently to turn the lock. As a last bakers are making their deliveries, so as

if he has not done so, the receiver takes resort a hole is drilled and charged not to excite suspicion.

“Burglars who break store windows and that precaution as soon as the stolen with explosive. To deaden the report side-lights work in pairs and are very property comes into his possession. Inthe safe is wrapped with material tricky. Their outfit' in most instances spector Cahalane gives a point on the found on the premises or with blankets brought along. A lookout is generally a heavy piece of cloth, such as part of a general reader is unfamiliar.

consists of a long piece of heavy wire and subject of stolen goods with which the stationed on the outside to signal in bed comforter, which they carry wrapped the event of peril. Safe burglars, like about their bodies.

"Verchandise handled under unusual burglars who break windows or side "A store is selected which displays ar conditions should immediately suggest relights, wait for the rumble of a pass

ticles of some value in its windows. The ceil'ers to you. For instance, if you saw

habits of the man ing vehicle to deaden the sound of an

on post are learned,

a large quantity of silk being taken into explosion.

and at an opportune moment during his a small retail store, or saw the delivery

absence they will throw a padded brick or Store burglars generally gain en

being made from a hand-truck or from iron through the window or side-light, trance through a rear or side window: having first placed the comforter on the liveries, or by persons who, from their

a wagon not ordinarily used for such destoop or walk to catch the broken glass appearance and manner of handling the "They travel in gangs of two or three, and deadlen the sound. Or, they may use

merchandise, did not seem to be engaged one always on guard, and steal from the a glass cutter to remove a section of the

in the business; or if you observed boxes till, cash register or small safes. They,

window. This step accomplished, they of shoes being taken into a barber shop, too, have their work planned in advance, dart into a nearby hallway and wait to

or a great quantity of food being deand know just what to do when they see if the breaking of the glass has at

livered to a dwelling, it should arouse enter. tracted attention. If they find it has not,

your suspicion. “The loot is seldom removed through operations are resumed and the contents "Remember that persons engaged in a the front of the building; it is carried of the show-window extracted by means

legitimate business are constantly devising through the rear yards or over the roofs of a stiff wire, the tip of which has been

ways and means of advertising themof an adjoining building and thence to the bent into a hook.

selves. They want everyone to know that street.

“The store selected is often covered by they are engaged in a certain business, “If the booty is too bulky to transport the crooks for hours, sometimes from an

and located at a certain place, and invite on their persons, a push-cart is hired or adjoining precinct or post, awaiting a inspection of their stock. They do not stolen for the purpose, or

a milk or
suitable opportunity."

paint their windows to hide the contents bakers' wagon is pressed into service,

of their store, or arrange the interior so sometimes with the consent of the driver, The sharpest and most successful that the stock will not be in plain sight, and the goods moved early in the morn- burglars of late have been foreigners, or deny prospective purchasers the priviing, during the hours when milkmen and some of whom can not speak English. lege of examining their stock.”

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FORECAST OF A REVOLUTION IN THE AUTOMOBILE

IN THE NEAR FUTURE HAT may amount to a "Many people think that the whole mined speed has been passed, and puts revolution in the auto

trouble of the electric lies in the storage current back into the battery.
mobile industry was the battery. This is not so. It used to be

true. Batteries would deteriorate with
subject of a forecast by
the famed consulting en-
alarming rapidity. But the perfecting of

“This is not a perpetual motion scheme. gineer, Charles P. Steinmetz, recently. the Edison battery has not only provided when the motor is acting as a generator

it is not putting in as much current as He told of the impending predominance has also led the lead battery makers to a very satisfactory battery in itself but

it took out of the battery when it was of the electric motor vehicle and of its improve their product by reason of com

climbing the hill. It is not quite as good

as that. But it does give the battery a triumph over the gasoline car for most petition, until the lead battery is also

real help, a boost,' as it is called techof the purposes to which the motor highly satisfactory today.” vehicle can be put.

nically, of considerable proportions. For The immediate cause of this prophecy, made through

The real source of trouble has been I have found that the motor begins to send

instance, with a car of a certain weight the New York Times, was the perfect- complexity of structure and consequent back current to the battery when the ing of a device for the improvement of great weight. Now, we are told, by a down grade reaches 27/2 per cent. If you electric automobiles.

This is an

en- delightfully simple method, these dis are running down the hill at full speed tirely novel power plant, forming an advantages have been done away with: this motor-generator will put back as integral part of the rear axle, upon

much current as it takes to run on the which Doctor Steinmetz has been at “This desirable effect has been brought level when the grade reaches 5 per cent. work as consulting engineer. This new about by the introduction of a principle If the control is set at half speed it will invention, which Doctor Steinmetz feels new to electric motors; new, at any rate, charge full power likewise on

a grade is to make such important inodificato motors for vehicles. The motor in

of 77/2 per cent.

“The last-named condition would be tions in automobiles, was not originated this novel rear axle has both field and

armature free and revolving.

Hereto- that most usual under ordinary running, by him, but in a measure

owes its

fore one or the other of these constituent because, unless the hill is long and straight existence to his inspiration. It was

parts of the electric motor has always anü the road surface good, one does not not until he had declared his faith in been stationary. But by the simple idea

want to run down it at the rate of, say, the promise of the electric motor car, of having them both revolve, see what thirty miles an hour. The half-speed first at a meeting of the Electric Ve a host of benefits are brought about.

position will give a rate of fourteen or hicle Association of America and later "In the first place, the field turns one

fifteen miles an hour. When that speed in another address before the annual of the vehicle's rear wheels and the ar has been passed the motor will begin to convention of the National Electric mature turns the other; hence the motor charge the battery and also to act as a Light Association, that the invention

acts as its own differential, and this deli- brake. This is a most important feature,

cate and at the same time heavy part of for it means that nearly all hills can be was brought to his attention and attained its development. Its importance the motor becomes part of the rear axle the ordinary car is banished. Secondly, negotiated without the use of the ordi

nary brakes and with none of the discomis indicated in the statement of the instead of being mounted under the car

fort or bother incident to their use. New York Times that it may bring or on some other part of the frame. This

“This will be a feature of value not down the weight of electric automo does away with another entire unit which only to the user of the electric pleasure biles to one-third of the present figure must be taken care of, and eliminates, as

car but also to the owner of the light and reduce the item of cost at least well, the shafting from the motor to the delivery wagon or the heavy truck, beproportionally, putting this type of car rear axle, the bevel gearing, and the

cause it is a safety feature and makes

the electric still more 'fool-proof' in the within the range of a very moderate housings for these parts. income. Simplification, reduction in

“Thirdly, this arrangement leaves the hands of the unskilled or, at least, not the number of parts and great reduc- entire underbody of the car free, so that mechanically educated driver.” tion in weight mark the new device, venient place, and it also ends the neces

the battery can be put in the most conwhich is the invention of Harry E. Dey, sity for such a rigid structure (which

Mr. Steinmetz is not sanguine that a New York electrical engineer. In the

the new motor and control will have means heavy structure) as will keep evwords of Doctor Steinmetz himself, as erything in place, prevent whipping of operation of the car, altho he looks

a great deal of bearing on the radius given in the New York Times:

of the shaft, and keep the bevel gears in
mesh. The battery need no longer occupy

for some increase because of the much “The trouble with electric car making the space under the seats or a special lighter weight of the vehicle—he hopes at present is that it is all piecework. compartment in the front, and all the to get it under 1,000 pounds—and the Each car is a little different, each person space above the level of the frame is consequent smaller consumption of wants some special detail, and the pro left free for other uses."

power. The average daily mileage of duction is by hundreds rather than by

most cars, when not touring, is, say, tens and hundreds of thousands. That

In addition to these advantages, this thirty miles a day—a distance far withis all very well for the purpose of the

novel motor is more efficient. The idea in the limitations of the present batspecial, luxurious, and consequently cost

of having both armature and field re tery. For touring purposes with the ly, machine, but it is not the method which

new electric, an extra or additional has made the low-priced gas car such volve doubles the output of power, ala wonderful success.

tho it does not double it relatively to battery can easily be taken along. “You know the difficulty with either the amount of current fed to the mo Moreover, there is a constant imtype of car has been to get not merely tor. But it lends itself to other uses provement in the facilities for recharga cheap car but a good cheap car. The and to a type of control invented by ing batteries. It is an easy matter for early gasoline cars were cheap. Prices Mr. Dey which also marks a big stride a garage to introduce an isolated chargwere about $1,000 or $1,200. But they forward. This new control does two ing plant. Garage men are competent gradually became more expensive as the highly desirable things. It greatly les- to run such an isolated plant. An isomakers found that the demand was for

sens the reduction in speed when lated plant in connection with a pribetter vehicles. It was not until the plan climbing hills, which has always been vate house is likewise not a difficult of huge production, with a minimum of frills but a maximum of performance in

a drawback of the electric vehicle, and matter mechanically. Beyond the cost the product, was put into operation that it turns the motor itself into a brake of installation such an outfit is not we got what we had been looking for on the down grade and even makes it much of an expense. Take, for exthe good car at a low price.

act as a generator, when a predeter- ample, an average city where the

PHYSICISTS TRIUMPH AT PARIS

339

charge for lighting current is 10 cents four, six, and eight cylinder gasoline on the car, as in climbing hills, making a kilowatt hour. For thirty miles a day motors in our automobiles nowadays speed, and so forth. It would be what about three kilowatt hours of current is because the two-cylinder, two-cycle we term in trolley-car service a 'floating’ would be required, at a cost of 30 cents. motor did not prove efficient. There battery, floating on the system and render

ing help when needed, but chiefly perFor cities or towns where the current are thousands of two-cycle gasoline en

forming the all-important service of alis of the alternating type the installa- gines of the stationary type at work, lowing the gas engine to work under tion of a transformer would be re and it is really the better and more nearly constant load.” quired; of cities like New York, economical type. where the current is direct, even this

With this novel electric power plant A much smaller and lighter engine would not be necessary.

we could probably get back to the two- of only two cylinders could be used. The new type of power plant, adds cycle motor for automobiles, to be used In addition, carburetor adjustments Doctor Steinmetz, is applicable to any in conjunction with the electric motor would be at an end because the carbukind of vehicle. There are many minor and with a very small storage battery retor would not have to meet varying uses to which it could be put. There between to act as a buffer, as it were. conditions of load. Also a much in feare now electric lawn motors and there

rior quality of fuel could be used. is no reason why this new invention have an equalization of the load on the

"With such an arrangement we would should not prove superior in this field. gasoline engine. It would drive a gen

“It is probable that fuel nearly as low

ir the scale as unmixed kerosene could be Then there is another application of the erator at a practically constant load. The used with satisfactory results in a car in device—its use a gasoline-electric little storage battery would act as a sort which the power plant was of the comoutfit. The only reason why we have of reserve supply in case of extra stress bined gas-electric type described.”

as

A NEW DEVICE FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE

STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

M

UCH of the discovery and occasion to M. Matout to chronicle this lent to a 5 per cent advance on the magmost of the great researches rejoinder in Paris Nature is a superb netization to which iron is susceptible; have been made, a Birming- instrument, we read, designed by Pro- and tho the percentage appears so insigham University bulletin re fessor P. Weiss of Zurich.

nificant numerically, it is of the highest minds us, with simple appa The electro-magnet of a laboratory importance in increasing the strength of differs as much from the electro-mag- the field approaches, let us say, 50,000

the ratus altered by investigators who knew

magnetic field. As the strength of exactly what they wanted. The late nets ed in industry to pick up heavy units (or gausses) the difficulties of inSir George Darwin, for example, made objects as an astronomical telescope creasing it multiply geometrically. In the the experiments for his investigation differs from a field glass. The size is first place the difficulties of adding a few into loose earths and their pressures not its commanding feature, altho this hundreds of units to the strength of the a topic of the first importance to en one stands over five feet high and field are complicated by two consideragineers—with the aid of a biscuit box, weighs a ton and a half. It is capable tions. The conductors become very much a wooden drawer and a few pounds of of producing between its poles the most hotter; the magnetization becomes harder sand and gravel. In a London labora- powerful magnetic field yet achieved.

to 'pump in,' as the iron magnet becomes

‘saturated with magnetism. A 5 per cent. tory to-day some of the problems of The conditions which have to be satis

increase in the capacity of the ferro-cobalt heat and work interchange in the hu- fied in producing a strong magnetic field

to receive magnetism is equivalent to an man subject are being worked out with are first, to insure that the electro-mag- advantage represented by the multiplicaapparatus including the frame of an netic winding—if one may so term the tion of the current by four. The ‘magancient bicycle and a discarded shav- winding of the wire through which the netic fields' of the future will be strengthing-soap tin. In some of the investi current passes about the magnet-shall ened by apparatus which is capable of gations of the physicists, however, and not become too quickly heated by the absorbing still more electric current, and notably among those which are con passage of the current; and secondly which can be kept cool while the current cerned with the properties and behavior to obtain a magnetic circuit at the

is passing. It had been hoped that further

advance would lie in the cooling of the of the atom, the apparatus tends to poles which shall be susceptible of as

conductors towards the temperature of grow more and more elaborate. In a high a magnetism as possible.

absolute zero by means of liquid helium, description of the new electro-magnet

Now the, first of these conditions, because it has been shown that the condesigned for the physical laboratory according to an expert's report in the ductivity of metal conductors increases over which Professor Jean Becquerel London Post, has been complied with (and their resistance lowers) as temperapresides, M. Matout offers an apology by Professor Weiss through the me ture is lowered. But Dr. Kamerlingh in the form of an anecdote for this dium of a device like a water jacket: Onnes has lately dissipated these hopes state of things. Professor Becquerel

by showing that at a certain point this had been telling an official of the

“He has wound his bobbins not with super-conductivity ceases abruptly and inFrench government of the growing ordinary wires, but with a fine tubing of comprehensibly when a certain value of needs of the laboratory as new methods copper, through which cold water con

the magnetism or strength of the magtinually passes.

The bobbins are wound netic field is reached. of investigation arose when he was inwith a thousand turns of tubing, and are

"Possibly, however, other means may terrupted. “Yes, yes, but surely in divided into ten sections—parallel to al

be devised for increasing the strength of earlier days the most magnificent dislow the water to pass in at the center of

fields. coveries were made with apparatus al- each and pass out at the periphery—and

“They are the chief instruments at presmost insignificant in character. Had connected in series for the passage of the ent not merely for solving the problems the scientists of those days greater gecurrent. The core thus never gets hot.”

of the effect of magnetism on light—to

which Becquerel applies them—but those nius than those of to-day?" To which

The second condition is complied of the structure of the atom. Professor Becquerel responded: “Monsieur, in olden days, Jean Bart won

“That structure has been tentatively with by pointing the poles of the magnet with ferro-cobalt:

held to consist of a central elementary splendid naval victories with wooden

magnet, or magneton, with a ring of elecships.” The electro-magnet which gave' “This ensures a magnetization equiva trons.”

E

the

of

of trench types.

recesses

.

HAS INFANTRY LOST

LOST ITS POSITION AS THE

QUEEN OF BATTLE ? VERY newspaper reader has Gaulois, we study the German concep can be brought right up into the firing learned by this time that the tion of battle in its tactical aspect from line. Such procedure is a direct conbelligerents in Europe agree the opening of the present war, we tradiction of the French Napoleonic at all points regarding the are astounded to find that infantry is conception of infantry as the queen of

strategy of the great war. not the queen of battle to the Kaiser's battle. The stress upon artillery in Germany's theory of a short, swift commanders. No doubt they would German tactics accounts to the French campaign, crushing France before Rus- agree with the theory as a theory, but experts also for the unprecedented sia could act effectively, is, as the mili we do not find them acting upon it in waste of infantry in Flanders. The tary expert of the Paris Gaulois ob- practice. Military experts in Europe lives of foot soldiers have been sacri

note again and again the tendency of ficed remorselessly, altho great care is
the von Klucks, the von der Goltzes taken not to lose artillerymen or caval-
and the von Falkenhayns to make ar rymen without adequate result. The
tillery rather than infantry the queen conclusion seems to be that, whatever
of battle. Guns of the heaviest caliber their professed theory, the Germans
and of quite unprecedented range are no longer regard infantry as the queen
accumulated at points of vantage, not of battle.
apparently for the sake of protecting

While some British experts are inthe advance of infantry so much as clined to take the same view, the THE RECESSED TRENCH

to render the enemy's position untenThrough courtesy the Manchester able. The German commanders seem Guardian, we give this and following diagrams

to have so little confidence in their in

fantry from a tactical standpoint that serves, a commonplace to the million. this arm of the service is dominated Tactically, however, as this same ex- by the artillery. pert points out (agreeing here, appar

An illustration of this German con SHELTER TRENCH WITH SANDBAGS ently, with the brilliant British war ception is provided by the expert of

(a) Second communication trench.
(b) Shelter

cut under parapet enexpert, Spenser Wl'ilkinson, in the Lon- the London Saturday Review. When

trance and arranged between sandbags. don Post),' the war is fought along German infantry advances to take a (c) Sacks arranged to give cover from back

Small opening left between two diametrically opposed conceptions. position by assault, the lines are often blast of shells.

sacks for men to crawl through. The Germans, owing to the organiza- raked from the rear by a galling fire tion of their military machine, exploit as a means of urging the men forward one tactical conception, whereas the to the enemy's trenches. Retreat under weight of French and British military Allies have quite another. The differ- such circumstances means death. The opinion is against the Germans on this ence may be summed up, we read, in troops must go forward because the detail. The London 11ail does, indeed, the assertion that infantry is the queen raking fire in their advances say that this is a war of shells. “Arof battle. Napoleon, altho an artillery steadily. The result is that the German tillery has ousted the foot-soldier from officer himself, subscribed to that doc- troops arrive at the enemy's trenches his position of primary importance.' trine completely. With him the infan- pellmell, breathless, seeking a refuge. This is not the typical idea. The con

spicuity of artillery in this war is due, try was the foundation of every tactic- rather than a fight. al conception. The artillery, while de When it is remembered that the mili- the London Times expert thinks, to the veloped and strengthened, was an ad- tary magnates of Germany are for the accident that the inventiveness of the junct, the cavalry remaining also sub- most part artillery officers and that the age is so mechanical. Machines have ordinate. The "execution” devolved Krupps have fostered the tactical con been improved beyond all precedent in

the past forty years and a gun is a maalways upon the infantry. There has

chine. The expert of the London Post been no change in military doctrine on

notes too: this point since the Napoleonic age, as an expert tells us in the Journal des Sciences lilitaires. Even the organ

“It may be observed that modern con

ditions are especially favorable to the of the great general staff in Berlin, the

massing of large forces of artillery, beAlilitär-Ilockenblatt, has never dispu

cause howitzers, owing to their high angle ted the proposition that in fantry is the

SANDBAG LOOPIIOLE

of fire, combined with considerable range queen of battle.

(b) Sandbags.

(8,000 yards approximately), can almost If, now, observes the expert of the (c) Sticks and brushwood).

always fire with safety over the heads of (d) Sandbags with loopholes.

the attacking infantry and can continue (e) Elbow rest.

their cooperation up to the final stage of ception they exploit in battle, it is not field-guns was, and is, dependent on the

the attack. Similar action in the case of to be wondered at, think French and existence of favorable positions in rear А.

British experts, that infantry las of the attack. Howitzers can, moreover, ceased to be the queen of German bat- be brought into action at closer intervals tle. This may be the outcome of the because, owing to their long range, it is teaching of such German tacticians as unnecessary for them to change position General Klingelhöffer, who explains in during the attack; whereas the field-gun, the Jahrbücher für die Deutsche rice

to cooperate effectively, may have to adthat the moral and material support

vance to closer ranges as the infantry DIFFERENT KINDS OF GUY FIRE of infantry can be supplied only by spaced to allow room for limbering up.

progress. Light guns must be widely (a) Shrapnel shell fired from field-gun, time the artillery The infantry can be

Howitzers can also fire from behind vil(b) Shrapnel shell fired from howitzer, with energized only when it knows that the lages, woods and other intervening ob

artillery is close at hand. (c) Lyddite shell fired from howitzer, percus

Thus the stacles, which might restrict the frontage Germans adopt the view that artillery available for field-guns. On the whole,

rear

(a) Bank of earth.

B

.

fuse.

tire fuse.

siun fuse.

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