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are engaged in a death struggle." Such is the substance

Reparation for Sinking an

American Ship. of much newspaper comment. The N. Y. World thinks that the note is illuminating because it points out that WHEN the German cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich

came limping into the neutral harbor of Hampton there are no belligerent rights except those that have

Roads a few weeks ago she brought the news that been conceded by neutrals, whereas the nations at war have been assuming that neutral rights are held by high seas was one American ship, the Wm. P. Frye,

among the fourteen vessels she had destroyed on the sufferance and may be denied altogether. “Great Britain

laden with a cargo of wheat for British ports. Our is now put upon notice," says the Washington Post,

State Department has found in this event another occa“that the United States expects its innocent and neutral

sion for a diplomatic note to Germany. This note took commerce to pass to neutral countries unmolested, even

the form of an itemized bill of damages for the ship. through a cordon of British war ships; that the pre

Germany's prompt reply, tho justifying the action of tended blockade of neutral waters is unlawful and will

the German captain under the rules of war in general, not be recognized, and that if American vessels are held

assured payment for both ship and cargo through prizeup this country will demand full reparation.”

court proceedings because of a special treaty made a

century ago with this nation. This quick closing of the A New Outcry Against Exploits incident has been welcomed by the American press as

of German Submarines. (NSPA

satisfactory; but Germany's citation and construction of merchant ships Falaba and Aquila, with the major

international law is regarded as significant. Germany ity of their passengers, by a German submarine, has

is endeavoring to speak to the world at large, suggests characterized the comment of American newspapers.

the Detroit Free Press, and to notify other governments The loss of life of an American citizen on the Falaba

that its arrangement with Washington is not to be conhas been made the subject of diplomatic investigation.

sidered a precedent for them. “Germany is somewhat But that is regarded as incidental. The outcry is against

inconsistent in offering to pay for the Frye and at the this kind of warfare. The fact that it was a German same time holding that her destruction is proper," obsubmarine is not the important matter, declares the

serves the St. Louis Star. Chicago Evening Post; "the thing that was done is the thing against which the feeling of this nation revolts,

“Germany can not hold that it is wrong for England to

capture neutral ships carrying contraband to enemy ports and revolts justly. . . . No conditions can justify the

and at the same time hold that it is right for Germany to sinking of an unarmed, unprotected vessel carrying non

If the sinking of the Frye was proper, then the combatant passengers, without making every provision present British prohibition of all trade with German ports for the safety of innocent human lives involved in the is right, and we are not to be blamed for not going to war act.” The Brooklyn Eagle calls it “murder in cold with Great Britain over it, as German papers would like blood"; the Philadelphia Ledger, "a crime against to taunt us into doing. humanity.” The St. Louis Post-Dispatch points out

“But the fact is, that neither the sinking of the Frye nor that press comments on this horror equal at least in vigor

the British prohibition of trade by neutrals with Germany those printed concerning Belgium. That paper says:

is right. ... Germany's abandonment of the position she

has held and her indorsement of the British position does "Poor Germany! Her leaders must be blind indeed not

not in the least change wrong to right. We still must make

our voice heard in defense of the rights of neutrals.” to see that the inevitable effect of the policy of ruthlessness' enforced against noncombatants and neutrals as well as combatants is alienating world sympathy. Nations can afford to be beaten in honorable warfare. Nations have, with

The the moral support of others, risen to greatness from the

GRAPE-JUICE ashes of defeat. But no nation can afford to offend the

CLUB moral sense and humane sentiment of mankind. No nation is strong enough to survive on might alone. Leaders of a nation who ignore 'decent respect for the opinions of mankind' lead it ultimately to disaster—to a day of reckoning when it appeals for sympathy and support in vain.

“The German people, great in mind and heart, should grasp and understand this situation.”

do so.

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Dr. Dernburg as spokesman in this country for the German attitude asserts that passengers on the ships that were sunk had ample warning against taking passage on ships sailing into the war zone. The loss of life is regrettable but he is unable to understand the outcry in view of England's purpose to starve 70,000000 Germans, non-combatants and civilians, to death. The N. Y. Sun replies: "All war is terrible. A blockade that seeks to starve a nation is terrible, but it is an act of war. It furthers the purposes of war and tends to its speedy conclusion. The drowning of non-combatants is more horrible, for it is not war at all; it can have no utility in promoting the military aims of the combatants. It is not rational severity; it is mere cruelty.”

WELCOMING A NEW MEMBER

-Kirby in N. Y. World

THE ALLIES ON THE OFFENSIVE

307

EUROPE'S MILITARY EXPERTS ON THE IMMEDIATE

FUTURE OF THE WAR SPECIAL effort was made by the great general staff thus on the eastern front, the Kitchener armies, sup

in Berlin to keep track of the movements of General porting the reinforced battalions under Joffre, will either Joffre and General Foch during the past weeks, accord rush on the German left in Belgium or execute a “coning to a student of the situation who writes in the Paris ception" through Alsace which is involved in some mysGaulois. German anxiety grew out of reports concern tery. In fact, assuming the accuracy of hints by the ing a council of war in which not only French and military expert of the Débats, to which the military British military magnates were supposed to take part, expert of the Berlin Kreuz-Zeitung attaches importance, but at which members of the staff of the Grand Duke the new aspect of the war may result from a southern Nicholas gave their views. The gathering may never movement by the French and British instead of the have taken place. If not, there was a careful com northern drive about which so much has been written. parison of views among the allies on the eve of that This is one of the secrets of the war which has been campaign in which, for the first time, they will assume very well kept. Every military expert in Europe seems the offensive on every front. The offensive entails a to know that Germany holds her line in France and much closer unity of action than has characterized the Belgium strongly. Two thirds of her army are still strategy of the entente powers hitherto. This unity is there, if we may believe the military expert of the to be, as the Figaro says, the “conception” of the new Manchester Guardian, who lias been most careful in his phase. There will be no forward movement in the west statements and whose predictions have often been veriuntil it has been timed accurately with a corresponding fied. France, on the other hand, is said by some stumovement in the eastern theater. The general staff in dents of the war abroad to be holding her finest inBerlin will no longer find it so easy to entrain divisions fantry to the south of Paris. The idea that she has and rush them from one frontier to the other because abandoned all idea of a movement through Alsace is battles will be too nicely timed. The history of opera not so generally held by the experts now. tions on land, the experts of the allies think, ought to present some novel features in consequence. The Ger

How Germany Will Conduct mans suspect what is coming, the London Post reports,

Her War on Land. and their spies have been unusually active in France. GERMANY ought to have a million. freshly-trained

troops by this time to throw into the fighting line

in the west. British and French military experts, at Holding the Germans on

Two Fronts at Once. any rate, admit the possibility. The Germans will be THEORETICALLY the spring campaign will be making a great effort in northern France within the

simplicity itself, for the military experts of the next few weeks, we are warned by the experts of no allied press seem to be in an unusual state of agreement. less than three London dailies. The situation has Russia is to exert the severest armed pressure upon changed so little since last autumn, to follow the expert Hungary and Silesia, and she is nerved for that effort of the Manchester Guardian on this point, that all the according to both the military expert of the London reasons impelling the Kaiser's armies to attack the Times and the military expert of the Paris Temps. allied line as far as the sea apply with equal force now. Austria will be of little use in the emergency, we are Germany may be hampered somewhat by her greater asked to believe, seeing that Italy will certainly have responsibility just now for the defense of Hungary; come in, or, through the threat of coming in, will balk but, on the other hand, her position in Poland seems plans to relieve Cracow. While Russia presses the foe greatly strengthened. She has not captured Warsaw,

nor, for that matter, has she captured Paris yet; but the exigencies of a prolonged war render the capture of

even a large city relatively less imRUSSIA

portant than it was. The general

staff in Berlin will think itself justi

OWARSAW
LONDON

fied in sparing enough men from Po-
land to strengthen the army detailed
for the defense of Hungary. The
idea that German military energies

are to be directed into a campaign WV CHAMPAGNE (PARIS

against England primarily must be

dismissed. The expert of the GuarFRANCE SWITZO

dian is convinced, as are most of his

brethren in Europe, that France is

: RUMANIA in for a fierce struggle in the north. ITALY

He writes:

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A BRITISH VIEW OF "THE ENEMY TERR:TORY” TO-DAY The black patch indicates the enemy territory from France to Poland. Austrian Galicia occupied by the Russians is shown and also the small slice of Als ice occupied by the French. The principal points where the Allies have driven the enemy back dı ring the past month are indicated.

- From the London Mail

"Looking back on the campaign of last autumn which followed the Battle of the Marne, we now see that the chief cause of the failure of the French and British turning movements against the German right was the great superiority

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IN

of the railway within the German lines, which enabled the in Flanders or anywhere else this month is, they argue, enemy to concentrate much more rapidly than the Allies sheer madness. The Kaiser's troops, we read in the could. Much has been written of late about the excellence

Berlin Kreuz-Zeitung, will continue to hold East Flanof the French operations at the eastern end of the frontier, and one reason may be that here the French are much better

ders and the territory gained in France. Poland will served by their railways. Flanders, French and Belgian,

not be wrested from the Germans by the Russians, who is somewhat inconveniently situated between the French

have been driven out of East Prussia and who can make northern railway system, which is a little too far west for

only occasional irruptions there in the near future. The the purposes of the Allied operations against the German contempt for the Russian is based partly upon his inright flank, and the main trunk between France and Bel- adequate military equipment, for the forces of the Grand gium, which is in the hands of the GerBut on the eastern frontier the

TURNHO French system of defence had been care

DÜSSELDORF fully thought out and is excellently sup 8pOVER

ANTWERP ported by the French railway system. That, no doubt, is one of the many rea

BRUSSELS sons which led the Germans so persistently to put their main strength on the right wing. Moreover, they have there the advantages of more open country, which is favorable to rapid movement such as the German Staff delights in.

JENS
These arguments in favor of a
paign against the western end of the
Allied lines are as strong now as ever
they have been, and it is quite possible
that the new offensive will follow the
same general directions as that of last
autumn.”

EMETZ
MANTESORI

Z
Has Germany Lost Her First
Confidence in Her Army?

PARIS
N ONE important respect the com-

ments of German military experts on the war by land have been modified. There is no longer a profound contempt for the military capacity of the British. The military expert of the Hamburger Nachrichten, like that of the Berlin Vossische Zeitung, concedes the high value of

CLAMECY the new material in the British ranks.

GRAY
The period of training has been in-
adequate, they agree, but the fighting

HALL Braigele come
Semesse LIEGE Eupght, dusterersi,

Sudraksha) quality is there. The fine and soldier

Nayenthe ly qualities of the British troops are admitted by the expert of the Frank

Preven ARRAS Avian Borchery Venlo Palapeli uzeti furter Zeitung likewise; but he notes

lectean Aranesti Chimay have that the original expeditionary force was composed of tried professional

Dragas soldiers, whereas the Kitchener armies

Searbong are raw levies still. “Of the former there can hardly be any left, and as

Sur louis to the latter, how can they have been made fit for battle in such a short čime?” These commentators on the situation reveal no suspicion at all Samo PARIS that the German armies are anything but invincible. Certain London dailies are in the habit of quoting doleful extracts from Berlin newspapers, implying that the first confidence of the Germans has gone; but this idea is not confirmed by the comment of the mil

LANGRESS itary experts of the fatherland. They

Pablo Tonnerre Chomillor profess to be aware that large bodies of troops have been transferred from England to the continent, but all talk

THE GERMAN WESTERN BATTLE LINE SIX MONTHS AGO AND NOW of 750,000 British on the firing line

The upper sketch map indicates, the position of German troops last September. The lower one

shows the comparatively slight changes all along the line at the present time..

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SHOOTING A WAY THROUGH THE DARDANELLES

309

Duke Nicholas, says the Berlin Post, have had no arms and no ammunition worthy of the name since the war began and they are not likely to get any for a long time. France is soon to be expelled from the little of Alsace she yet retains.

British Impressions of

German Optimism. WHII

HILE German military experts modify their first

ideas regarding the ease with which the foe can be disposed of, London military experts incline to warn their readers against the facile optimism with which the spring campaign is regarded by the allies. The immediate future in the western theater of the war is certain to strain severely the resources of France and Great Britain, admits the military expert of the London Times. He has no doubt of victory; but he is not sure that it will come this summer, because, to be decisive, the Germans must be driven from Belgium, and it remains to be seen how the Kitchener armies will endure such an effort. The military expert of the London Post takes pains also to set forth the factors that may tell against the allies. Germany may even hope that, before the effects of British pressure by sea and allied pressure by land are really felt by herself, France will be exhausted and Russia will sue for peace or at least welcome it:

“This is the German hope; and in this belief Germany will fight on without any thought of making peace as long

as she occupies the North of France and Flanders. For .
that reason we must strain every nerve in the actual prose-
cution of the war on its military side. Not until they have
got the enemy out of Flanders, France, and Poland, can
the Allies afford to sit down for a little and light their
pipes. That is why optimism on our side is misplaced and
dangerous : let us always remember this, that Germany will
consider herself victorious so long as she is able to fight
her Battles on her enemy's territory. And here it must be
confessed that progress is slow, and that France and Bel-
gium suffer bitterly. Here in this country we are apt to
be deceived because we are in the habit of judging success
by the sea, whereas the Continental nations measure war by
the land. We British have been much doubted on the Con-
tinent: intriguers everywhere are constantly saying that
time we shall tire of this business and abandon our Allies,
and that our efforts are half-hearted and self-centered. In
reply, we can only ask our friends to believe in our good
faith a little longer. France is unconquered, and we be-
lieve unconquerable; her armies are better to-day than ever
they were. As for Russia, the German General Staff can
no longer affect to despise her armies; upon the contrary,
they must feel a creeping of dread when they consider a
Power which moves forward rather like the tides of the
sea than the operations of a finite army. For Russia can
never be exhausted. Although Poland has been devastated,
the true Russia has not yet been touched, and while Ger-
many fights with tremendous exhaustion of effort and ma-
terial, the waves of the Russian armies move forward tire-
lessly and to infinitude.”

Some of the belligerents seem to think that it is the duty of a neutral to help them hold the other fellow down while they pound him.—Deseret Evening Ncu's.

What would happen if Uncle Sam got his correspon lence mixed and sent the Kaiser à note intended for Carranza?—Charleston News and Courier.

SUSPENSE OF EUROPE OVER THE FATE OF

CONSTANTINOPLE UNLESS the feets of the allies have by this tine in France and Poland and the taking of the Dardanelles.

made good their passage of the Dardanelles into “The answer is that the German battle line extends, the Sea of Marmora, a situation of great difficulty will tho not without breaks, from the Yser to the Tigris.” soon confront the three powers. The reverse, as the The allies are striking where that line is most vulManchester Guardian admits it to be, in what are called nerable, and the downfall of Constantinople will elimthe “Narrows" of the Straits, entailing the loss of im inate the Turk and provide Russia with that path to portant British and French ships, had a bad political the sea for want of which she remains the crippled effect for the allies by confirming the arguments of fighter of the war. Germany realizes the gravity of those Balkan neutrals who think Germany will win. the fall of Constantinople and moves heaven and earth Even the most optimistic London daily now admits the to prevent it. crucial importance of opening the Bosphorus and giving

Determination of the Allies to the ships of the allies a right of way from Odessa to

See the Dardanelles Adventhe Mediterranean. “The whole fortunes of the cam

ture Through. paign may depend upon it," writes the competent mili HOWEVER chagrined the allies may feel at the tary expert of The I’estminster Gasette (London). checks they sustained in the Dardanelles last Englishmen are too prone to ask, notes the London month, their inspired organs dwell upon the certainty Times, what connection there can be between the fronts of success.

Despatches in Paris dailies to the effect

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Types of German beauty scattering flow

The conquerors.

Allegorical car showing the War God protecting Belgium. ers ahead.

PLAN OF A TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION IN BERLIN (FRAGJENT)

Spirit of Gernian

Kultur
-Paris Rire

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that two of the battleships were actually beyond Galli this “crisis,” a dispute among the allies that may have poli turned out premature. “The one thing that the a most serious effect upon the future of the campaign. allies dare not face in a persistent attack on the Dar In truth, were one to accept the reports in Berlin dailies, danelles," says the London Times, “is failure”; but there would be reason to suspect that the allies, ever failure, according to the Frankfurter Zeitung, is all since undertaking to get through the Dardanelles, have that has yet been achieved. Seldom has the flat con been rent almost asunder by their own jealousies and tradiction between the two sets of facts regarding this bickerings, Russia dreading that she will not be allowed

to hold Constantinople when they arrive and England fearing they will never arrive at all. The British public quite misconceived the gravity of the whole expedition, as military experts in London remind their readers. Even after the fleet has effected the passage of the Dardanelles, it would

be folly, they add, to expect a triRÉVEKCE

umphant progress across the Sea of CONQUES

Marmora to

to Constantinople itself. INVASION OF RUSSIA

“The attempt to force the Dardanelles ranks among the greatest naval enterprises known to history," says the London Post. “The results of suc

cess will be immensely important, not GETTING EGGSASPERATED

less momentous the consequences of THE "BROODING” EAGLE: "If some of these eggs don't hatch out soon, I shall begin to get annoyed !”.

failure.” The fall of Constantinople - London John Bull

will be the beginning of the end of war found so striking an illustration as in the Dar Germany as a military power, observes the London danelles adventure of the allies. German and Austrian

News. The Berlin general staff has devoted every dailies have been printing news supplied by the Turkish energy to prevent such a catastrophe by providing government in Constantinople itself. While London adequate land forces on the spot. To expect speedy dailies contain rumors of the Sultan's flight into Asia, triumph for the allies in such a contest is sheer stupidBerlin papers have him attending the mosque in his ity. It adds: European capital. It is no longer possible, concedes the naval expert of the Berlin Lokalanzeiger, however, “The agitation in Italy, which has resulted in numerous

demonstrations and one serious riot, is likely to grow rather to refer to the operations of the allies in the straits as "bluff," altho some of its German contemporaries per

than fade as the operations in the Dardanelles move to their sist in doing so. This authority lays stress upon the

climax. Italy is intensely interested in the future of the

Balkans, and the collapse of Turkey would hasten the difficulty of the land operations. If Great Britain and

crystallization of Italian opinion. We here should underFrance possessed enough soldiers of trained capacity,

stand that Italy's policy will be decided simply and solely he adds, they would long ago have undertaken a land

by her estimate of her interests. The sentimental argucampaign without forcing the Straits. Russia las

ment for intervention, tho very loudly trumpeted, has a proved incapable of effective assistance. He concludes: limited appeal. To southern Italy Trieste and Trentino

are names only. In northern Italy, where they are names “Altogether, the task of achieving a serious military re

of power to some elements, the Socialists and the Clericals sult is most difficult. There is no sign that even the conditions preliminary to such a result could be realized. It is highly probable that the allies considerably overestimated their own effectiveness by sea and underestimated the fighting strength of the fortifications in the Dardanelles, besides reckoning erroneously upon the help of Greece. It may be also that they underestimated the general firniness of Turkey and undertook the whole attack because the pressure of the Turkish army upon the Suez Canal caused anxiety, and in the hope that a serious attack would find Turkey weak and submissive."

Anxiety of the British Over

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merce by the middle of this new month; but Russia will remain sealed as much as Germany herself if the allies do not get to Constantinople. Petrograd was told, says the Berlin Kreus-Zeitung, that the task would be impossible without military aid, which the Czar agreed to find. There was some failure of cooperation between the land and sea forces, with the result that the losses of the allies, both in ships and men, have been very heavy. France, at a critical moment, did not send troops from Africa, and there exists, at

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