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IN MAKING LOVE IDDLER crabs have long been claw useful to the male fiddler crab in “The male waved, and at 12.17 p. m. the of great importance to stu- his love making.

As one

means of object of his attention approached and dents of evolution owing to settling the dispute, Professor A. S.

went part way into his burrow. He the definiteness of certain dis- Pearse, of the University of Wiscon- rushed up and tried to push her in, but tinctions between the males sin, investigated the subject in a col

she resisted. He then retired 3 inches

and stood motionless for three minutes and the females. The male bears an ony of these crabs in the Philippines, with his claw outstretched in front, then enormous claw on one side of the body verifying his observation later in a

sneaked up and again tried to push his which is in striking contrast with its colony on the Massachusetts coast. prospective mate into the burrow. She feeble mate on the opposite side. Since During the mating season, this stu- again resisted, he retired, and both were the time of Darwin, these crabs, known dent observes, in a paper contributed quiet for two minutes. The male then scientifically as crustaceans, have been to the last annual report of the Smith- approached cautiously and stood motionbelieved to supply evidence if not proof sonian Institution, a fiddler crab col- less with upraised chela close to the of sexual selection. The great claw ony is a most animated spectacle. If female for three and a half minutes ; and bright coloration of the male differ a female walks across the mud, every

then he again attempted to push her

down, but without success. He then markedly from the comparatively dull male stands at the mouth of his hole raised his claw and standing high on his dress of the female. One careful inves- and waves his big claw frantically up legs assumed a statuesque pose which he tigator is convinced that among some

and down, often accentuating such held for 10 minutes (I took his picture). fiddler crabs, at any rate, the males, who movements by squatting and stretch- The female, meanwhile, fed a little, moved are greatly in excess of the females, use ing with his walking legs. If a female away a couple of inches, then went part the big and beautifully colored “che- approaches, he makes every effort to way down the hole. When the male again liped” or claw not only for fighting induce her to enter his burrow, fre- approached, she dodged, but came back

The male stood with each other, which they do fre- quently dancing or posturing before and entered the hole.

over her for more than a minute. She quently, but likewise for the purpose her. Here is an actual instance of one of courting the females. There has, courtship, which is typical of the love- dodged away, again came back, and, the

male stood over her again. At 12.42 he it is true, been controversy over the making of these interesting crabs in went to one side of the burrow, she to the subject, for not all scientists think the general:

other; and they stood thus for four min

utes. At 12.46 the female moved away an inch, at 12.52 the male dodged quickly into his burrow, and the female went up to him, but a minute later she moved away several feet and finally went else

where. The male, however, was ?

soon consoled, for at 1.02 p. m., he was standing at the mouth of his hole waving at another female.”

The male made no attempt to use his great claw in holding the female. After his first rush, he had every appearance of proceeding with great caution—as if he feared a too arduous wooing might cause his prospective mate to leave. After every repulse he retired a little way and displayed his charms for a time before making another advance. Apparently he was attempting to “demonstrate his maleness.” In the Philippines, crabs were often seen standing motionless with outstretched claw for much twenty minutes. Perhaps such individuals were looking about for a mate.

Concerning the structural differences between the sexes, it may be affirmed that the chela or great claw of the male does not serve for burrowing or feeding. In fact, it is rather a disadvantage in either of these activities :



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higher animals in which the male possess eggs and young for a time, thus having ous and beautiful in order to attract the such aggressive organs, however, the opportunity to start a colony with them, female,' and that “it is used as a signal to females are protected and cared for to and through the aggressive adaptations of charm and allure the females.' Tho there some extent, but nothing of this sort is the males, which might enable stronger are perhaps such minor objections to such known among decapod crustaceans with individuals of that sex to gather a num a statement of the case, it is certain that secondary sexual adaptations. Thus, altho ber of females about them—their instincts male fiddlers do wave their claws, dance, many of the crustacea have two adapta- have prevented them from developing it. and pose in the presence of females. The tions which might fit them for colonial “Alcock believes ‘no one can doubt that evidence to this effect seems overwhelmlife-through the mother carrying her the claw of a male has become conspicu- ing and convincing."

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LITERARY CRITICISM ON A MEDICAL BASIS ENIUS appears to the dis- nates as there are among artists, paint A creative genius may present a tinguished pathologist, Doc ers and musicians. The only reason inind of the first class; but this is not tor Robert T. Vorris, to be why we instinctively think of genius handed down to progeny. Men have nothing more than associa- in connection with literature and art is assumed that products of a highly de

tive faculty of a high order. because the geniuses in such fields are veloped plant or animal of any sort High order of associative faculty be- free to present a record of their feel were desirable, and that the plant or longs, he says, to the group of phenom- ings to the public:

animal furnishing such products was ena manifested by individuals whose

desirable as “The geniuses among bankers, engineers All our efforts have been towards es

a type for propagation. cell protoplasm has been sensitized be

and railroad magnates are obliged to have yond the mean degree. This sensitiza- their feelings checked up by brutal Boardstablishing such types among plants or tion is due to microbe influence, no

of Directors, and the application of their animals. Herein lies the fallacy when matter whether from direct toxic im- visions must have a very practical bear we deal with genius, because we are pression made by the bacterial prod- ing. There is no difference, let us say, dealing with variation from the mean ucts inside the system, or from liber- between the degree of genius of a given type. Mutation is constantly occurated endo-toxins or from “proteolytic” railroad president and of a given writer. ring among plants and animals as a end-result poisons. That is, the Sy'sThe railroad president has his visions

result of special stimuli. Variants tem may have some poison within, checked up by a board of fifteen directors

from a type do not have a tendency to chosen by the bondholders because of directly from without, or it may accu

dominate and to supplant the type their known responsibility. The writer, mulate poison, using the last word on the other hand, or the artist, is free to

form, excepting under conditions where comprehensively, by the action of cer

let his visions percolate through the minds variation has been in response to protain internal secretions. The main of the mass of readers whose responsibil- longed environment. Variations fact, that cell protoplasm is peculiarly ity belongs in no sort of classification. curring as a result of injury through sensitized through microbic influence Literature and art give an outlet for microbe toxin are not of the sort to of one sort or another, is the only both good and bad abnormal feelings, but establish a new desirable type among point that concerns Doctor Morris in railroad and bank management give an

men. Men may show practically a the argument. The highly sensitized outlet to little excepting the practical ap

creative type of mind while they are protoplasm of the genius is particu- and only when these are abnormally valu- actually clinically insane according to larly vulnerable to injurious toxic able. By “abnormal' I mean the feelings

the new classifications. The question stimuli

. At the same time it is par- of genius. The banker, engineer, or rail- of proportion enters here: ticularly responsive to impressions road president who is a genius must be made by facts upon a mind which is mentally sane in order to maintain his “In most of the stages of psychoses in tuned to the “vibrations” of a large position. The writer or artist may be most of the men who are actually clinnumber of related facts. The fact of eminently sane or he may be in some stage ically insane, not much work is done. this sensitized protoplasm being pe- his feelings go on record. Mistakes are of actual clinical insanity at the time when Otherwise the asylums would furnish a

great outpouring of minds of the first culiarly vulnerable to injurious toxic stimuli accounts for the observation unless we divide the question into two made in considering the question of genius class. When a genius gets as far as to

the asylum he is entirely out of gear as a that geniuses are so often ill men.*

distinct parts,-irst, the value of a genius ruler, but before that time, or after, when There are as many geniuses among to the race so far as his mental product on parole, he may do very remarkable bankers, engineers and railroad mag- is concerned; second, the value of a work of enormous value or of enormous

genius in so far as his physical product harm to society.
WAYSIDE NOTES. By Robert T. Morris, M.D.
Doubleday, l'age and company.
is concerned (his progeny).”

“If so many geniuses are insane it may be asked why we do not hear more of genius directly from the asylums. The answer is, because the converse of the proposition is not true. Many geniuses are insane, but not inany of the insane are geniuses. So far as that particular point is concerned, however, we may find at almost every State hospital some one or more inmates who are looked upon by the officials as men of very remarkable inentality, and who might exert great force in various fields of work in the world were it not for a psychosis which makes them as irresponsible as were Dean Swist, Rousseau, or Strindberg."

Drawn by Kattie Wakeman from a photograph taken at West Falmouth, Massachusetts.

The genius serves more useful purposes for the world than for his family or for himself, as a rule.




IN HUMAN HISTORY VERY now and then an item manufacture high temperatures and pres Frederick Accum, whose 'Treatise on Gas appears in a newspaper re

sures are required; in others the tempera- Lighting' opened the eyes of London to cording some new aspect of ture must be reduced, and a large refrig- the advantages of the new illuminant, the crisis in the aniline labo- erating plant is an essential feature of a

suggested the boiling of tar in a still, and color works.

the condensation and collection of the ratories. Gray hair, for ex

“Surely, then, it is abundantly evident volatile products. The process yielded ample, has suddenly become very fash

that the technical expert must be the pre two kinds of oil-one heavy, the other ionable in London and in Paris. The ponderating element in the dye factory, light and volatile. The heavier oil was tinting of the past is unprocurable. and that he must have a large share in the used as a preservative for wood that had Nearly a million workers have lost management and control. The British to be fixed underground, such as telegraph their employment in England alone be- custom of entrusting the management of poles, or submerged in water as the logs cause of the cessation of imports from large concerns to financiers, commercial of piers and bridges. The lighter oil was Germany. The German color indus- magnates, and men of affairs' has done found useful in many ways. A Glasgow try, observes London Nature, is prob- much to retard the scientific development chemist, Macintosh, used it in waterably the most complicated, the most

of our industries, and the adequate repre- proofing the clothing which still bears his sentation of the technical expert on the

It was used as a solvent in varhighly developed and the most profit- directorate is vital to the success of the nish making, and, as coal-naphtha, was able instance of applied chemistry in new scheme.

used for lighting purposes. The subsethe annals of science. The Germans

quent discovery of what this naphtha conabove anyone else have realized that This movement to reorganize the

tained was like the finding of a hidden in this field of human endeavor the sci- basis of what is a specialized depart- treasure, a rich treasury of colors which entific mind and scientific effort and ment of science rather than a business for myriads of centuries had been locked method must dominate. The boards of has directed the attention of experts in up in coal and its despised refuse tar. directors of their large establishments chemistry throughout Great Britain to The discoverer was Hofmann, of the are virtually committees of technical coal tar generally as the source of syn- Royal College of Chemistry. From the experts in intimate touch with their thetic dyestuffs. Only those who have naphtha he extracted benzine, and from respective specialties. In a word, the made a special study of the subject, benzine the most lustrous shades of vio

let, yellow, blue, and green are derived. trained man of science has come into adds our contemporary, realize to what

But it was Hofmann's pupil W. H. Perhis own in these great works. extent coal tar enters into the manu

kin (afterwards Sir William Perkin) who Neglect of applied science outside of facture of materials essential not only made the manufacture of benzine on a Germany has plunged the world into in great industries but in our minor commercial scale possible. He was only the aniline dye crisis. Great Britain every-day requirements. It is used not eighteen years of age when he produced in particular has taken fright, for the only in practically every manufactur- his mauve dye experimentally.” various branches of her trade now af- ing process where dyes are needed.

The discovery of benzine and the fected have an output of a billion dol- From it is obtained some of our nerve lars annually. The magnitude, immi- soothers, such as aspirin, and, on the various resulting dyes revolutionized nence and gravity of the crisis led other hand, it enters into the manufac- the color industry. Years before the to the formation in London of a com- ture of the most terrific explosives. had been obtained from the indigo

clever Perkin came upon aniline it mittee of chemists. The scientific side Indeed, coal tar may be described as of their coming labors is thus indicated one of the products which synthetic plant “anil.” Perkin was experimentby our expert contemporary :

chemistry has converted into a dire ing upon the artificial production of

human necessity. An expert on the quinine and in using the base known “We have, of course, a super-abundance subject writes thus in the Manchester

as aniline he obtained the coloring we of the coal-tar products which form the Guardian of coal tar:

call mauve. The discovery of mauve basis of the manufacture, but the manu

created a large demand for the artifacture of certain essential reagents, e. I., "Its discoverer, Johann Becker, a Ger- ficial aniline base and gave quite an unfurning sulphuric acid, tho already exist man chemist, more than two hundred expected value to Hofmann's benzine. ing, may have to be increased.

years ago laid the foundation upon which It yielded aniline by being treated with "Government assistance will be required one of the most remarkable stories of ap- nitric acid and with the borings of cast in regard to the provision of cheap alco- plied science is built. He discovered a hol, and the resources and skill of the method of extracting tar from coal, leav

iron powdered into a dust. Having chemical engineer will be heavily drawn ing the latter after the tar was extracted done its work in the aniline still, the upon to provide the essential apparatus. as useful as before for ordinary purposes.

dust was used by the gas maker to A great number of chemists will

. be He applied to coal the process of destruc- cleanse his coal gas from sulphur and needed to work out the details of known tive distillation, a process by which any then it passed to the manufacturing processes, first on the laboratory scale, organic substance can be heated and de- chemists, who burnt the sulphur out and later on a bulk basis, and the well- composed in a retort and the resultant of it and produced sulphuric acid-a equipped laboratories and staffs of the gases, liquids, and solids collected. cycle of operations whose beginning universities and larger technical institu "Evil-smelling and unsavory as this tar

and end was the utilization of waste. tions might well be pressed into service is, it is the rough material from which for much of the preliminary work. Many many valuable substances are obtained

At the present time almost every chemists will also be required for de- substances the most diverse in character, color and shade of color is derived veloping new processes and other research triumphs of the chemist's patience and

from aniline. The processes employed work, because of no other industry can it skill, indispensable factors in the most es

are innumerable and the names of the be so truly said that stagnation spells sential arts and industries of life. They dyes endless. The modern kaleidofailure.

include a wide range of colors and an scopic attractions of Ascot and Hyde "The great complexity of the manufac- equally wide range of perfumes, flavors, Park, Fifth Avenue and Central Park, ture of dyestuffs is not due to the use of and medicines; various kinds of burning the Bois de Boulogne and the Champs a large number of raw materials, the di- and lubricating oils, photographic develop- Elysées, are in a great measure the rerect products from coal tar being only ers, asphalt for pavements, and, as alnine or ten. By chemical treatment these

sult of the researches of Perkin. A ready stated, the most powerful exploare, however, transformed into 250 to 300 sives.

society summer-gathering without its different intermediate products which, in "When gas was being introduced as a

aniline-tinted dresses and parasols their turn, yield some 1,200 chemically new light in the early days of the last would startle us with its gloom and distinct dyestuffs. In some processes of century, tar was almost a waste product. not even a party of Roman emperors,

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robed in togas of Tyrian purple, could the last thing in the world to suggest Diabetic patients use saccharin, Fahlberg's restore the color scheme.

new-mown hay, yet Perkin made the per wonderful product, many hundred times 'Hofmann wrote that at no distant fume from a tar product. One of the the sweetening power of sugar. Carbolic date England would become the great- most popular natural perfumes, cumarin, acid is separated from the oil of coal tar est color-producing country in the

not so much used now as some years ago, by many successive distillations, and in world, sending blues to indigo-growing vernal grass or woodruff. It is now made killing carbolic is used. It prevents mor

made from vegetable substances, surgical operations a spray of germIndia, distilled crimson to cochineal- from carbolic acid. A most widely used tification and saves life. Quinoline, antiladen Mexico, and fossil substitutes for flavoring for cooking purposes, vanilla, pyrine, and other fever assuagers are quercitron and safflower to China and was prepared from a bean. It is now ob- made from coal tar, and various antisepJapan. Hofmann was a better chem- tained from the vanillin of the gas works, tics and food preservers are also obtained ist than a prophet. France first took and even this vanillin can be made into from it. Things that fifty years ago could up the manufacture on a large scale,

a heliotrope perfume by the addition of only be produced in the laboratory in the but France, like the rest of the world, oil of almonds, while the latter can be smallest quantities can now be obtained soon fell behind the scientific German produced by treating benzine with an in huge quantities from coal tar, things with his superior genius for synthetic acid. Huge quantities of this oil under mutually antagonistic too. There is hardly

the name of essence of mirbane are used a department of life into which the prodchemistry:

every year in the manufacture of scented ucts of coal tar do not enter, and, seeksoaps.

ing for romance in the most unlikely and "The products of coal tar are not con “In medicine and surgery, too, the prod- prosaic quarters we surely find it here in fined to colors. The smell of coal tar is ucts of coal tar have been beneficial. chemistry."





KEPTICAL as has been the degrees' elevation. A small revolving gun was borrowed by the Germans and attitude of the allies to the crane is used to pick the shells out of the they seem to have used it in some of alleged monster gun in the ar

ammunition wagon and place them on their operations. tillery of the Germans—forty- the loading tray. It is not known what

The guns in the outer forts of detwo centimeter and little means are used for ramming the shell

fended cities, as the expert in the Lonhome. over or sixteen and a half to seven

"The whole siege train for this gun is

don Spectator observes, are protected teen inch-there is now in the French necessarily very large. Besides the gun

either by chilled cast iron cupolas or technical press ample evidence that truck and ammunition wagon, there are by forged steel turrets. These are sursuch gigantic artillery has been put to a locomotive and tender, a carriage for rounded by aprons of cast iron, or steel actual use by the Kaiser's forces. It the gun crew, and a wagon containing blocks, designed to protect the ring on seems true that drawings of this mys a petrol engine to drive the various auxil- which the cupola or turret revolves. terious gun in the London Engineer iaries-hydraulic pumps, a dynamo, and so Below the turret are various vaults of

forth. The whole train cannot weigh less ferro-concrete, some containing mawere made under difficulties and do

than three hundred tons. Altho it is prob- chinery and the shell hoists, and others not afford precise details. It is a fur

able that the shells, which contain an ab-
ther fact that the mechanism of this
normally high proportion of explosive, are

serving as shelters for the garrison. gun is in important respects a secret

comparatively thin, they cannot weigh When a cupola or turret is struck by still. Nevertheless, the weapon has much less than three-quarters of a ton.

a 748-pound shell, fired from an elevenseen service, for it was turned out by One need only bear such facts in mind to inch gun, it is sure to be penetrated. the Krupps to the number of eight at come to the conclusion that the move But high-angle fire from howitzers is least. This artillery seems, from what ments and firing of the gun must all be uncertain. Some forts in the war zone the British technical organ reports, to extremely slow. A few stately rounds a

were destroyed not because much damhave been handled by specialists from day. would be all that it could accomplish. age was done to the cupolas, which of

For nearly all purposes a smaller piece fered a small target, but because the the great works at Essen, the average

would have great advantages, even on the German artillery officer not having assumption that the use of the largest pos

ferro-concrete mass was broken up. been het into its secrets. One observer sible artillery was necessary. In only one

The cupolas resting on the concrete bebeheld the guns in the Cologne Station, case in a hundred where siege artillery came jammed and would no longer reand he obtained a fairly correct notion is required could the 42 centimeter be volve, and the vaults themselves were of its structure, if we may rely upon used. It could not be carried over make- laid open to shell fire. The alleged particulars supplied by the Paris Génie shift bridges nor on inferior roads; the poisoning of the garrison of some forts Civil. The gun is said to be mounted damage done to both a siege train weigh- by the fumes of the melinite shells was, upon a sort of gondola truck, fifty-nine ing three hundred tons would be very

says the London Engineer, purely imfeet long. This truck is sectionalized great, even if it did not break them

aginary. Picric acid, says this techdown.” to facilitate the negotiation of difficult

nical authority, generates, when it derailroad curves. The gun carriage is It is by no means certain, notwith- tonates completely, a certain volume of borne by a roller ring, some nine feet standing recent newspaper despatches, carbonic acid and carbonic oxide, but in diameter, being rotated by hydraulic that the forty-two centimeter gun was the blast and subsequent inrush of air power. The gun is elevated as well as actually employed in battering down the are so violent that little danger of sufturned by hydraulic power. Further, Belgian forts. A smaller gun could focation is to be apprehended. When as revealed by an expert in the London have done the work, and probably did. the picric acid is partly burned and Spectator:

As the London Engineer points out, partly detonated, as is usually the case,

forts have been built on the principle the fumes are pungent and disagree"When it is in action hydraulic jacks are placed under the truck, thus relieving the

that the largest weapon likely to be able, but not dangerous. The same rebogies of all weight. The gun is fired brought against them would be a nine- mark applies to trinitrotoluol and similar by electricity from a distance. The shell

, inch howitzer, throwing a shell of some explosives. It must not be supposed, which is said to be nearly five feet long, three hundred pounds. It seems quite the expert of the London Spectator is charged with picric acid, and has a probable that the famous Austrian warns us, that the French are without range of nearly nine miles at forty-five twenty-eight centimeter or eleven-inch a counterpart to the big German guns.

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CIVILIZATION'S SAKE HE voice of the sociologist resents an acute phase of prevalent so nature and live together in well-ordered joins that of the religionist in cial disorders, the sociologist defines groups. It is, in large measure, the subcrying out that western civ- the real social problem as the problem stitution of a 'subjective environment of ilization needs a great social of human living together. That this

ideas and ideals for the objective environand spiritual awakening. Has problem is fundamentally spiritual is

ment of material objects; and cultural

evolution is possible only through the · not the present war shocked us into a Professor Ellwood's repeated conten

continuity of this subjective environment, sense of the need? Listen to l’rofessor tion.

that is, through the continuity of ideas Charles A. Ellwood, of the University

and social values. Civilisation, in other of Missouri, before the Sociological So

"Man's social life, like individual charac

words, is at bottom the creation and transciety (London), whose stirring address ter, develops about two poles—one, the

mission of ideal values by which men material conditions of life, and the other, regulate their conduct. It is, therefore, appears in the Journal of Sociology: the psychic controls over life, which are

essentially a spiritual affair and cannot be represented by values, ideas, and ideals. “In any constructive program for the No one who has investigated the social

measured by changes in the material enfuture we must recognize that certain rot

vironment, prone as we may be to measconditions of the present would deny for ten stones were laid in the foundations of

ure it thus. While human society was an instant the importance of the material from the start psychic, it is manifest that western civilization, and that these must conditions of life, especially of economic only in its higher developments does it be removed ife the whole superstructure is conditions, upon our civilization, and so not to fall. As examples, we need only

become so dominated by the psychic that upon this European war. point to the materialism, individualism, the importance of the material conditions in the beliefs and ideals of its members

But admitting it may well be called spiritual

. Likeness and hyper-nationalism of the nineteenth of life, no one has shown how these concentury, which the twentieth century also

becomes finally even more important than ditions can be controlled except through is apparently starting out to take as its ideas.

the likeness of impulse, habit, and feeling

Unless the psychic element can practical guides. These doctrines are so

which was the original foundation of exercize some control over economic concially negative: materialism, because at

group-life." ditions, for example, a melioristic attitude bottom it denies the reality of the spiritual toward the problems of our civilization is or psychic elements which alone make

For the anarchy that prevails even impossible.” civilization possible; individualism, be

in the United States regarding the cause it denies the reality of the common We face the very

forces which value of the family, property, governlife, upon recognition of which must rest undermined Roman civilization: com

ment, morality or religion, etc., Prothe sense of social responsibility and ob

fessor Ellwood prescribes the antidote ligation; hyper-nationalism, or national mercialism, individualism, materialistic

of humanitarian ethical control in order egoism, because it denies the common life standards of life, inilitarism, a low esof humanity and the unlimited obligation timate of marriage and the family, to achieve any social order worthy to of nations to humanity. Yet we have agnosticism in religion and in ethics. be called civilized. been trying to build the delicate and com According to Professor Ellwood, those A hopeful note is sounded from the plex structure of a humanitarian civiliza- who attribute the social disorders not sociological standpoint by F. S. Martion upon these socially negative and to egotistic, socially negative doctrines, vin in the Hibbert Journal, for he is destructive doctrines.”

but to biologic or economic necessities, sure that science will grow and fellow

miss the correct analysis. While bio- ship will spread. He does not doubt It is no wonder to Professor Ellwood

logic and economic conditions act as that man is born for ultimate unity and that such social doctrines have been

stimuli, the real roots of civilization holds that all real progress consists in breeding a mass of barbarians within

are always in the mental attitudes and an approach to it. The main stream of the gates of western civilization. Nor conscious values of individuals. Pro- history is the growth of a world-comdoes he discover either in history or fessor Ellwood maintains that the unity munity of men, but not one resting prisociology any assurance of continuous

of human groups of all sizes is essenprogressive social evolution. Conflicttially a psychic or spiritual matter. any form of political unity.

marily on political action or aiming at between peoples and classes may in- Destroy the psychic element in it and definitely accelerate the process of re we would have no society. Further, “There is a stronger link than the lapse toward barbarism.

A different the psychic or spiritual elements in political, bonds that will hold men and social philosophy must prevail if our

social life are not wholly derived from generations together tho empires crash civilization is to be saved from going the immediate environment, but have

and states destroy themselves in paroxdown in a series of hopeless conflicts a life history of their own.

ysms of hatred and conflict. This true between classes, nations, and

and permanent bond is the community of What ople must be led to accept, as "What makes civilization? The level

all mankind in the structure of thought Professor Ellwood sees it, is "an ethic of civilization in social development is not

which has arisen from the free interaction which shall teach the individual to find reached until in addition to all of the in

of men's minds in all the periods of their his self-development and his happiness stinets, habits, feelings and sentiments growth, and rides supreme above all

differences of color or nation, climate, in the service of others, and which will which unite men into groups we have forbid any individual, class, nation or certain socially coordinating, unifying government, or age.” even race from regarding itself as an

ideas and ideals. For essentially civiliza-
tion is the discovery, diffusion and trans-

The essentially social character of end in itself apart from the rest of mission from age to age of the knowl

reason has not been sufficiently realhumanity."

edge, beliefs, ideas, and ideals by which ized, according to Mr. Marvin. SciBack of the present war, which rep men have found it possible to conquer ence or systematic knowledge is, like


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