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NEW STAGE IN THE MOVIES
sister-in-law who are poseurs, would-be one had any doubt of that at the close of his dressing room after the performance, intellectuals and dilettanti scholars. Doris, the first act."
‘is that he is living to-day.' the daughter, has fallen in love with an
"That is good news, where can anarchist artisan who earns £5 a week.
For an example of a play whose find him?' Before the first act closes Wilfrid Cal- author has mastered the secret of get “ 'In the heart of every human beinglender, the “anarchist,' admits to the ting his work talked about and whose in every audience. There are dozens of father that he has been deceiving Doris. masterpiece has just been given in Hamlets in every audience I play to. I He is no anarchist and has a large in
New York, one must go to William will wager that there was a King John come. The second act is laid in the live
out in front to-night, more than one Con-
Romeos and Juliets. That is the secret
of Shakespeare's appeal. He wrote life “The last act, like an infinite number of matter to which the effort has given There is not a person alive in the world other last acts, is a very weak affair, not- rise let us select what Mr. Mantell said to-day who cannot find his prototype in withstanding the remark of young
an interviewer for the New York
one of Shakespeare's dramas.'”
And Mr. Mantell might have added Rose is about to marry the imitation “ 'The big thing about Shakespeare,' that even the Suffragettes are repreanarchist, but why all the excitement? No said Mr. Vantell, when I found him in sented in Shakespeare's gallery.
ARRIVAL OF A NEW STAGE IN THE ART OF
cers who helped him with their technical Nation” impresses the Rever- North and South preceding the war
knowledge. end Dr. Thomas B. Gregory, (life in the South on a cotton planta
"The assassination of President Linwriting in the N. Y. Ameri- tion and anti-slavery meetings in the coln, which brings the first part to a close,
also shows some extraordinary pictures can, sufficiently to make him North), lurid battle-scenes of the war
of the interior of Ford's Theater with affirm that it is by all odds the greatest itself, and the throes of the reconstruc- 'Our American Cousin' being acted, the thing that has ever come to New York. tion period. To quote further from
movements of the actors on the stage, of In this masterpiece of motion-picture Dr. Gregory:
the throng comprising the audience sugproduction, he says, we may see some
“The trench fighting before Petersburg gesting nothing but the great tragedy itthing of the possibilities of the art is also represented by a series of pictures self, with never a blur of artificiality anyas an educator of the human race
that are simply amazing in their produc- where in the pictures. through the most royal of the senses, tion of warfare as we know it in books
“The second part, with Reconstruction The historical drama called
scenes and the machinations of Austin "The Birth of a Nation," presented
Stoneman and his mulatto satellite, Silas
Lynch; the riding of the Ku Klux Klan through the medium of moving pic
and the saving of both the Camerons and tures in the Liberty Theater (New
Elsie Stoneman by this organization, is York) just eight years after Thomas
equally remarkable for its effectiveness Dixon's dramatic arrangement of his
as pictures and as dramatic representanovel, “The Clansman,” from which
tions of the course of the story. The asthis new piece was made, was acted
sembling of the masked riders and their on the same stage for the first time.
riding through the country and into the
town of Piedmont had the spectators of To create this wonderful spectacle
the play on their tiptoes with exciteof “The Birth of a Nation,” Mr. D. W.
ment; and no melodramatic trooper riding Griffith, the producer, employed the
in with the reprieve at the last moment services of eighteen thousand men
ever received heartier applause than did and women, and over three thousand
these pictured riders as they reached the horses. Miles of film were used to
Camerons and Elsie Stoneman just in the catch every detail. Cities were built
nick of time.” and scenes of historical interest were
That the story as told by the picreproduced in every particular. Battle
tures is true the Reverend Doctor fields were again laid out and regis
Gregory is ready to swear on the tered upon the camera. Mr. Griffith
Bible, the Koran, the Zend and all the and his forces were eight months mak
other "Holy Scriptures” put together. ing the pictures. They traveled over
He knows it is true because he lived the sections in which the story is lo
through the actual realities themselves. cated, and reproduced the scenes with
He saw the real carpet-baggers, the rigid fidelity. Thousands of works of
real “New Voters,” the real reconhistorical and official value were care
struction “Statesmen,” the real Ku fully read to get all the full and exact TIE VAN WIIO STAGED A PLAY WITH Klux Klanners. He is prepared to say particulars. It is no wonder, notes
18,000 CHARACTERS IN IT
that not one of the more than five Dr. Gregory, in the light of these
I). W. Griffith, producer of “The Birth of a
thousand pictures that go to make up facts, that the making of the great
the wonderful drama is in any essenpicture involved the expenditure of and war pictures. No photographs that more than $150,000. have come from Europe of the present
tial way an exaggeration. They are The scenes represent the welding of war can compare for thrilling horror and
one and all faithful to historic fact, sobering effect with these Mr. Griffiths
he says, so that, looking upon them, a loose union of sovereign states into
'composed' and which were 'fought' under a real nation in the Titanic forge of
you may feel that you are beholding his direction with that of the military offi that which actually happened.
ALLEGED PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPOSSIBILITY OF A SPIRITUAL
FACTOR IN LIFE | ROM the very earliest times, as the dividing line between organic and the material body? Do we not know philosophers have discussed inorganic.
that our actions are controlled largely the special characteristics of “The whole problem is nevertheless a
by mental processes and can not thereliving bodies, and they have survival of medieval modes of thought,
fore be a necessary product of our matried to establish a fundamen- possessing no greater reality than the
terial organization ? tal difference between the organic and soul. It rests upon a totally false concognate problem as to the site of the
“Notwithstanding these truly formidathe inorganic. They have likewise ception of the relation between mind and ble difficulties, philosophers and men of tried to draw sharp distinctions be matter. It is based upon the assumption science boldly affirmed that all manifestween human beings and the rest of that the universe exhibits two agencies, tations of life were subject to the same the animal world. They regarded the by which all events are brought to pass. uniformities and inevitable sequences, universe as graded in successive and The one agency is that dealt with in our which had received the name of natural distinct orders of priority: man, ani- mechanics, physics, and chemistry: it laws. They asserted that all conduct or mals and plants, minerals. works by an absolutely uniform and in- acts are the necessary outcome of our
material organization, and that they are Between each of these classes there variable procedure, which has been to
some extent analyzed, crystallized, and not in the smallest degree affected by was supposed to be complete discon
formulated as the laws of science. The mind or any similar entity, in so far as any tinuity. The theory of evolution broke other supposed agency is the spiritual: it such entity is a separate thing from our down one of the great divisions—that works in a wholly capricious and arbi bodily functions. Thus there arose two between animals and man. The prog- trary manner, displays no kind of uni- separate schools of thinkers, one of whom ress of science now threatens speedily formity, and is by its very nature in- affirmed that all the manifestations of life to break down the other great division capable of reduction to any scientific are physico-chemical in character, while —that between organic and inorganic. laws.”
the other alleged that a mental or spiritual The assertion is made, at any rate, by
force acts in cooperation with the material Many classes of events, previously
forces known to science, which forces the distinguished Professor Hugh El
unaccountable and arbitrary, fall into alone are inadequate to furnish an liot, whose work in biology and chem- their place in the expanding system of planation of the observed phenomena. istry, as well as physiology, has tended scientific laws. They were perceived The latter school are now commonly to put him forth as the champion not to be haphazard after all, but to fol- known as vitalists, while the former have of the materialists in contemporary low strictly uniform sequences, so that often been described as mechanists.” thought. It may be admitted, he writes in simple cases their occurrence could The whole subject has now been carin London Science Progress, that there with entire confidence be prophesied ried to a far higher level of discussion is complete material continuity in evo
beforehand. For these classes of by the advance of physiology, and the lution from the most primitive forms of events there was no further occasion question has become definitely a physinorganic matter to the most advanced for the assumption of spirits, which ac- iological problem. It is obvious indeed forms of organic matter; and from the cordingly were discarded as a means of that the agencies at work in human properties of the most elementary sub- explanation. But many other classes activity can be properly investigated stances to the manifestations of the of events remained, not so easily cor- only by the science which deals with highest forms of life.
related with any recognizable laws; the nature of organic functions: view the manifestations of life are
and for the explanation of these spirconsidered as simply the physical and itual influence was still retained. As
“The mechanist begins by pointing out chemical properties of the highly com
these more complex events continued that the whole course of science has led plex substances composing living mat
to the adoption of material forces alone, to yield before increasing knowledge, and the regular and uninterrupted substiter:
the conception ultimately arose that all tution of material agencies for the spirit"It is alleged on the other hand that events are in reality the product of ual agencies so copiously invoked by unthis continuity is only a material con natural law. No sooner was this con civilized races. Whereas in former times tinuity: that living bodies manifest a men ception reached than it was applied to every kind of natural event, from the tal or spiritual life of which no counter
the most extreme case of arbitrary movements of the planets to the blowing part exists in inorganic bodies : that this
events—the activities and conduct of of a wind, were attributed to spiritual new spiritual factor appears for the first
man. time somewhere in the evolutional chain, difficult to believe that human thought set up a material agency in its place.
It had always been extremely agency, the progress of science has in
variably contradicted that opinion and and that at the point of its appearance there must be a true discontinuity, which and behavior were controlled by the
Whatever the universe may be in its ultiabruptly and fundamentally severs those ordinary material laws of cause and mate character-and that is a question bodies which have it from those which do effect, and, in short, that all human ac
which does not concern us—the isolated not have it. Opinion has differed widely tivities were simply a special manifesta- events occurring in it hang together on as to the precise point at which this sup- tion of physical and chemical processes strictly materialistic lines. The univerposed transition has occurred: Descartes which, altho of incredible intricacy, yet sality of cause and effect is broken in not placed it between men and other animals. worked out their effects with the same
one single instance. He regarded all animals except man as fatal and absolute necessity that char
"In so far as the functions of living soulless machines, devoid of sensation or acterizes the most elementary phenom- of observation and experiment, they are
beings have been brought within the range any kind of feeling. Lamarck placed it between his classes of worms and insects,
ena of the inorganic world. Such a be- found to conform with the most absolute where he imagined the earliest traces of lief, moreover, seemed to be directly rigor to the uniformity of law which holds a system appeared.
Modern contradicted by introspection; for are good in the inorganic world. The older philosophers are inclined to place it at a we not conscious of possessing a mind vitalists used to urge that an organism is still earlier stage, and in fact to mark it altogether separate and distinct from a center of activity, a perpetual fountain
there is the spiritual cause, followed by fit functional condition, the effect is traveling forward in the direction conW’AR UNDER WATER
253 of energy, that it creates mechanical pendent upon the original stimulus and of our analogy of the billiard balls we power, which outside the organic world follows necessarily and fatally upon
may visualize the process. Each ball can neither be created nor destroyed. that stimulus by means of some nervous
passes on its motion to its next neighbor They knew this by introspection : we can
as described. All at once, in the midst raise our arm by an effort of the will- frocess of a physico-chemical nature.
cf the series, one of the balls, instead of Given this reflex arc preparation in a the material creation of energy. But the
ferred upon it, moves off at a totally new answer was obvious. It is not the will bound to follow the cause, and the angle—at a right angle to the line, for inthat moves the muscle, but the nerves
whole process works with the same in- stance—and carries off the impulse perrunning to it. It is not even the will that evitable certainty as the law of gravi- haps to some other series of balls in the stimulates the nerves. They are stimu- tation:
neighborhood. Or we may suppose that lated by other nervous processes within
a ball, before it has been struck, moves off the brain, and with these processes the "In order to obtain a conception of a of its own accord and begins hitting spiritual will has no more to do than nerve impulse, let us take a large number other balls, thus conferring upon them a an inert and accompanying shadow. The of billiard balls and arrange them in a motion which had no material origin. nervous processes are the counterpart of straight line at a few inches' distance from "Were such an event to occur on a bilthe will, and indistinguishable from it. each other. Let us now propel one of the liard table, we should at once assume When we say that the will moves the arm, balls at the end of the line against the some peculiarity in the table or in the the true facts are that the cerebral proc center of the next ball. What happens ? niake of the ball, to account for the pheesses associated with the will effect the The end ball gives up its entire motion
But by hypothesis all physical movement. The organism thus presents to the second ball: the end ball comes to explanations are ruled out. We are in the no exception to the law of conservation a dead stop, while the second ball carries presence of a miracle: ghosts are at work of energy. It is found by actual experi on the motion to the third. In this way --genuine ghosts which no investigation ment that the quantity of energy emana the original impulse travels right down can ever convert into rats—good, honest ting from the organism is precisely equal the line: each ball in turn takes up the ghosts which cannot be precipitated by to that absorbed into the organism mainly motion from the one behind it, and passes any known chemical reagent.” in the form of chemical energy in the it on to the one in front, immediately food. The organism as whole is coming to rest itself. At the end of the
Now this is the event, says the scienproved to be a machine for the trans- experiment all the balls will remain in
tist whose words are here set down, formation of energy, in which the food is the same straight line and at the same
which the vitalists allege to occur. The the fuel."
distances from one another as at first, vitalists ascribe it, no doubt, not to bil
except, of course, for the last ball of all, liard balls but to processes in the brain Modern researches into the physiol- which will travel away with precisely the which can not be seen; but that makes ogy of the nervous system indicate that same velocity that was originally im no difference. Their main contention is the reflex arc is the functional unit of pressed upon the first ball.
that the physical sequences are hung the system, and indeed that the system
"Now this, of course, is a very rough
up and diverted, and that events pursue has been built up in the course of evorepresentation of the nervous impulse. It
a course which is contrary to the malution by the multiplication of reflex symbolizes the fact, however, that, in the nervous impulse, something is passed on
terial nature of the particles concerned. arcs, and their superimposition upon from molecule to molecule. That some
But if it be alleged that the mechanistic one another to a degree of almost in- thing is not motion, indeed; it appears to proposition is difficult to imagine, it finite number and complexity. In the be some kind of electromotive change: may be replied, thinks Doctor Elliot, simple, typical reflex arc — which by but whatever it is, the molecule or other that the vitalistic proposition is imposthe way
is an abstraction nowhere unit of the nerve-substance passes it on, sible to imagine. For the mechanistic found in nature, tho none the less a and then immediately reverts to its for- proposition, the only requirement is a useful conception-a stimulus at one mer quiescence.
machine of enormous elaboration and end of the arc is conveyed down an
"Now the vitalistic conception requires “afferent” nerve to the central ganglion, propagation of impulses a vital or spir- developed brain appears to be. For the
and affirms that at certain points in the complexity, just such a machine as the whence proceeds a further impulse along itual force intervenes and causes a di- vitalistic proposition no machine is an “efferent” nerve to, say, a muscle, version of the current from the channel necessary at all and the machine which which thereupon undergoes contraction. into which the material forces would be we actually find for the transmission The contraction of the muscle is de- themselves have guided it. With the help of impulses appears to be a redundancy.
LIMITATIONS OF THE SUBMARINE IN
ACTUAL OPERATION EALOUSLY guarded as are the ence in the aptitudes of men mechanic are made always. One must state consecrets of submarine tactics, ally and because of the extreme nov clusions cautiously, but these seem justimore particularly as regards elty of the tactical problems presented fied to our expert. the method of discharging the by war under water. There is, fur A more optimistic tone pervades the
torpedo and the use of dry and thermore, the paradoxical difficulty of remarks of Germany's noted naval exwet batteries, it seems possible to many making submarine sink swiftly pert, Count Reventlow, who writes in experts in Europe to set down defi- enough. Most landsmen have an im- the Berlin Deutsche Tageszeitung that nitely certain limitations besetting this pression that the submarine tends to the submarines of his country are all type of craft.
The capacities of the go to the bottom unexpectedly—and adapted to warfare on the high seas. submarine have so caught the general it does. A more serious difficulty is He does not go into details on the imagination, as the naval expert of the presented by its tendency to rise unex- ground that he must not give valuable Paris Figaro remarks, that an exag- pectedly, if there be a failure to co information to the
He does gerated idea of its possibilities pre- ordinate all maneuvers. Vor can this scout the inference that torpedos are invails. Nevertheless, all sorts of lim- type of boat travel many hours at its capable of discharge at high speed and itations are imposed upon the subma- utmost speed without rising to the sur- long range from German submarines. rine. The most conspicuous of these face. It is disconcertingly visible at He makes great claims for the supeconcerns the human factor.
times even when submerged. It lacks riority in size and mobility of the craft perience of one commander helps an- mobility in action to a surprising ex under Admiral von Tirpitz's orders. other very little owing to the differ- tent. No doubt, vast improvements Such claims greatly astonish British
experts who, in some instances, seem flected by the explosion of a shell close hatch covering the mouth of the conto contradict the Count. In the words, by it and some feet under water. The ning-tower should be screwed down and for example, of the expert of the Lon recent loss of a German submarine in the submarine hermetically closed, ready don Times, writing on the subject of the North Sea, when a British cruiser
to sink. mobility, "about fourteen knots is the shot away its periscope and thus obliged total submergence is not accomplished by
"To many it may appear strange that highest speed of the most modern sub- it to come to the surface, then blew letting still more water into the ballast marines on the surface when propelled away its conning tower and sunk it, is tanks, but entirely with the aid of the by their internal combustion engines.” a case in point. It is anticipated, how- propellers and rudders. A submarine has There are, he admits, submarines now ever, that the worst enemy of the sub two, and sometimes three, pairs of rudunder construction with still higher marine will be the aeroplane, especially ders; one pair of ordinary vertical ones speed on the surface, but not one can in clear weather. It is easier to see to guide her to port or starboard, and a approach her own surface speed when a considerable distance beneath the sur
horizontal pair to cause her to dive and
rise. submerged, the maximum speed being face of the sea from a height above it then considerably reduced. Moreover, than from near the surface. Scouting beneath the surface, the horizontal rud
“In order to make the submarine dive the radius of action when submerged aeroplanes, if not flying too high, will
ders are deflected when the boat is prois small, being only about one hundred be able to detect and report submerged ceeding at full speed. The action of the knots and this at a still further reduc- submarines which would be invisible water against the rudders is such that the tion of speed. The reason for this is to ships unless the periscopes chanced bows are forced down and the whole that when shut down the only source to be seen.
vessel slides under the surface. The prinof power available for propulsion is The embarrassments of those aboard ciple is much the same as that of steering from the storage batteries, of which it the submarine itself are in some re an ordinary surface vessel, where the is possible to carry only a limited num spects greater than those aboard her force of the water against the rudder
causes the vessel to swing to right or ber, owing to their great weight. target. That noted student of the sub
left." The uninitiated imagine, adds this ject, Lieut. Charles W. Domville-Fife,* expert in the London Times, that sub- dwells upon them thus:
From this it will be seen that a submarines can travel long distances while
marine is held below the surface only remaining always invisible. The truth “'It will be readily understood that any by the action of her rudders on the
delay in disappearing be-
passing water. Should the propellers tacking would be a great driving her along cease to revolve and danger to a submarine in the vessel slow down, she automatically action. For example,
rises to the surface because the rudders number of hostile torpedo no longer have any effect. And of the
boat destroyers are scouir many complicated problems involving B
ing the sea in advance of a submarines, the motive power and profleet, and are discovered at pelling engines have been and are still daybreak by the submarines, the most profound puzzles. It is quite which are waiting to attack impossible to use a petrol engine when
the fleet behind, approachDiagrammatic sketch showing a submarine diving. A. Surface ing at a speed of thirty running submerged. A second motive B. Submarine boat. C. Water in ballast-tanks.
knots an hour. A hurried power, an engine, with its additional tube.
dive beneath the surface is space and weight, has to be carried to
necessary if the waiting sub- drive the submarine when under water: is, according to him, that they can go marine would avoid detection, which below only over
a distance of some would, in all probability, mean destruc “For this purpose electricity is used in fifty miles from their base and back at tion by the quick-firing guns of the de- almost all types. But electricity, again, a slow speed unless they rise to the stroyers.
has many drawbacks. It costs in weight surface. When traveling on the sur
“When a submarine is traveling on the nearly thirty times more than other mo
surface, she is in what is technically tive powers, and is extremely dangerous, face they are plainly visible and would known as light condition, that is to say,
for should salt water in any way gain be an easy prey to any other type of with her water ballast tanks empty, but access to the storage batteries, chlorine warship. Now the confidence of some
when it is required to sink her so that gas would be given off in large quantities, persons in submarines would be jus- only the tiny platform or deck, and con altho in the more recent vessels of the tified if and when these vessels could ning tower are above the surface, water British, American, and French navies this travel long distances in the submerged is let into these ballast tanks, and the ad- danger has been minimized by enclosing condition at a fair speed. ditional weight causes her to sink into the the batteries in air-tight cases.
On acThe doubtful precision of the tor
sea until her back is almost Aush with the count of the weight and the space repedo fired from a submarine is dwelt surface—this is known as the awash con quired, it is impossible to install a very dition.
powerful electric engine in a submarine upon by this authority. The warships sunk by such fire were all stationary traveling awash, a
“It is not difficult to perceive that when (compared with the size of the boat), and on the surface of the sea.
wave might at any thus both the speed and radius of action It is well
moment roll along the tiny unprotected are curtailed. known that even with guns, the per- deck of the submarine, break over the "If this division of power between the centage of hits is small, and that there mouth of the conning-tower, and descend surface and submerged engines could be can be little doubt that with torpedoes, like a waterspout into the interior. Were overcome, and the whole space made which can only be fired in compara- this to happen a terrible disaster might available for one powerful set of engines tively small numbers, the percentage result, for it must be remembered that suitable for driving the vessel both on the will be still less. Even if the protec
when traveling awash, a very little addi- surface and when submerged, not only tion of battleships against torpedo at
tional weight would cause
the submarine to plunge betack be not improved, it is still too
neath the surface. In order much to count upon the annihilation
to obviate this risk it has of a battleship that keeps moving, how become a rule that when ever truly a submarine comes within proceeding with this small range. A submarine can, of course, be margin of buoyancy, the sunk by gun fire. The course of a tor
ODD FISH * SUBMARINE ENGINEERING OF pedo, when betrayed by the bubbles To-Day. By Charles W.
This is the plan of the exterior of a submarine boat, showwhich rise to the surface, may be de
ville-Fife. Philadelphia: Lippin. ing usual arrangement of (A) horizontal rudders (for diving
and rising) and (B) twin propellers.
E. Deflected horizontal rudders,
THE BEASTS THAT HAVE TEMPERAMENTS
would the mechanism of submarines be inevitability of sinking. Any material in- sudden increase or loss of weight would simplified, but a very considerable in crease in the small margin of what is upset the balance and so cause the vessel crease in both speed and range of action known as positive buoyancy must be ac to either dive or rise with dangerous rawould naturally result. ..
companied by a corresponding increase in pidity. "The reserve buoyancy of a bmarine the power of propulsion, otherwise it "This would be the effect produced in the awash condition-or diving-trim as would be quite impossible to drive her when a torpedo was discharged were it is called in the British flotillas—is neces under, or, in other words, to overcome provision not made to counter-balance sarily very small, amounting to little more the vessel's natural tendency to float on this sudden loss of weight by means of than two or three pounds in a thousand, the surface.
compensating-tanks, into which sufficient which in a 300-ton vessel means a differ "For these and other reasons a sub water is pumped to compensate for the ence of only about 100 gallons of sea marine when running submerged is in loss of weight incurred by the discharge water between the ability to float and the such a delicate state of equipoise that any of each torpedo.”
THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PUZZLE OF THE HYPNOTIC
STATE IN ANIMALS HAT the magicians did She remains quite passive until she is re cording to the careful, accurate obin ancient days before stored to earth. It is very interesting to server Mangold, the characteristics of Pharaoh in the way of note that older females, who have paired, human hypnosis are that it is a sleepturning sticks into snakes do not pass into katalepsy, but turn fiercely like state, induced by suggestion; that has often been done on the forceps. In the same connection
it implies a correspondence of some since, or its converse in turning snake it is worth recalling that when we lift a
sort between the hypnotizer and the shore-crab, holding the shield between into stick, but it remains in great finger and thumb, and wave it in the air, patient and an increased amenability to measure a physiological puzzle, declares it becomes imınobile, but the two sexes suggestion; that it involves a controlled London Nature. If the cobra in its dispose their limbs in different ways, the power of locomotion and of righting the threatening attitude be deftly caught female bending them in over the abdomen, body, a change in muscular tone-from behind the head and gently pressed, it as if protecting the eggs. The familiar initial increase to somewhat sudden desoon becomes stiff and will remain so case of the fresh-water crayfish is in
crease—and a change in sensitiveness for a considerable time, either coiled teresting, because the creature does not which may amount to insensibility to up or drawn out straight. It has passed pass suddenly into hypnosis, but usually
pain. into the strange state of animal hyp- be fixed in any position of equilibriumresists for a considerable time. It may
"Suggestion is a psychically-conditioned nosis. In the seventeenth century the
on its head, on its back, or even in its effect, for which the physiological stimJesuit father Athanasius Kircher de- normal pose. The stick-insect, Dixippus, ulus seems to be inadequate. Little is scribed the remarkable experiment of which feeds at night, normally assumes known in regard to the hypnosis of the the imaginative hen. He laid a hen its protective immobile attitude under the highest animals, like dogs and cats, the on the table, held it firmly for a little stimulus of light, but a mechanical stim- amenability of which to human influence while, and drew a chalk line in front ulus also serves. Schmidt has recently is well known, but in ordinary cases it of its eyes. The result was that the shown that the insect can be fixed in any
may be concluded, according to Mangold, hen remained as if in a state of cata- grotesque attitude for hours on end. It that animal hypnosis differs from man's
in the absence of the suggestion, the raplepsy. Czermak showed in the nine- has been shown that the transition from
one state to the other can in this creature port, and the deeper stages. It may be inteenth century that this feat could be be effected almost in a moment."
duced in animals without a cerebrum, performed with birds, and that the
which indicates that the psychological chalk line was quite unnecessary. The
In a case like that of the stick-insect factor is unimportant. Physiologically veteran entomologist Fabre teils us that we can not but regard the kataleptic considered, however, the more typical he and his school companions used to habit as of protective value. It adds to forms of animal hypnosis must be ranked put a whole flock of turkeys to sleep the safety which the protective form beside human hyptiosis, and studied in this with their heads tucked under their and the protective color also help to light, wings. Animal hypnosis can also be in
The creature behaves as if it
“The resemblances are many. The sleepduced in mammals (guinea pig, rabbit, knew, for it almost always disposes it- like state is induced in man by suggestion mouse, squirrel, bat, dog, cat) and this self parallel to the twig to which it is chanical inhibition, but in both cases sen
or psychical inhibition, in animals by meis usually effected experimentally by attached. A student of this subject also sory stimuli may assist. These stimuli fastening them to a board and turning points out that when it lets go on being may be optic (fixing the gaze on some this suddenly upside down. Frogs are touched, the elongated, straight dispo- object), or tactile (stroking the skin), or readily susceptible and newts will also sition of the appendages makes it easier otherwise. Sometimes absence of submit.
for it to slip down among the twigs. wonted stimuli may induce the state, as
In another organism the sudden pas- in the case of absolute silence. The “In backboned animals the state of im- sivity of the female is of importance awakening may be brought about by mobility is scarcely known except in artificial conditions, and can scarcely be of in reproduction, and a similar thing has sounds, shaking, currents of air, or elec
tric shocks; or it may occur spontanemuch importance in life. It is otherwise, been noticed in the case of the octopus. ously. There is great specific and indihowever, when we pass to the analo
In many cases, however, it seems quite vidual diversity in susceptibilty; the easier gous death-feigning' or katalepsy in cer- impossible to maintain that the kata
the inducing of the hypnosis, the deeper tain beetles, water-bugs, stick-insects, and lepsy is protective at all. Thus Fabre and more lasting it is. The muscular spiders. The immobility occurs in natural notes that one of the large ground- tonus changes characteristically (now conditions, and it seems often to save the beetles, which a snake sends into a last- great stiffness and again 'waxy flexilife. The case of the female Galeodes is ing katalepsy, is voracious, well ar
bility'); resistance to fatigue is increased. of special interest, since the more than re- mored, nocturnal and unpalatable. What Reflexes are to some extent affected by calcitrant female passes into a convenient has it to do with “death feigning"? the altered tonus. Sensitiveness to touch hypnosis when she is suddenly seized by Cases of this sort suggest that the and to pain may be greatly lessened, and
operations may be performed during hypartificially in the sexually mature female kataleptic tendency may be simply an
nosis. But the senses remain awake, and, by gripping her suddenly in the dorsal accompaniment of a certain type of except in the deeper phases in man, memregion of the abdomen with a pair of fine nervous constitution and that it is only ory partly persists. Anemic symptoms forceps and raising her from the ground. occasionally turned to advantage. Ac are sometimes observed."