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could embark her troops at Batum and add them the state of British nerves induced him to consent to to the Rumanian army. Rumania, by this time something spectacular. Sir Edward, it is made to aprelieved of her dread of Bulgaria, would next join pear, would be embarrassed if the allies did get to Conforces with the Serbian army. Thus must the Aus stantinople, for they would have a new apple of discord trian effort in these regions be neutralized. The in a barrel already full of that fruit. Moreover, France Russian army in the Carpathians, meanwhile, having no and Russia between them are forcing England to bleed longer the Austrians to reckon with, would resume the gold and she does not enjoy the experience. With a invasion of the Prussian province of Silesia. The mo heavy heart, then, Sir Edward told Théophile Delcassé
to get to Constantinople if he could. What came next is set forth in the month's despatches.
Has England Turned the Balkan
Scale Against Germany? ONCE the expedition of the allies against the Turk
had been decided upon, it became of the utmost importance to secure the cooperation of Rumania if not in the field at least in her policy. This implied some sort of guarantee to Bulgaria. Sir Edward Grey was very busy in these negotiations just after his conference with the present head of the Quai d'Orsay, notes the Berlin Vossische. Was he successful? Europe is debating that very question and time ought to answer it within a very few weeks, concedes the Paris Figaro. The French impression is that Servia will make concessions to Bulgaria in return for her own coming expansion at Austria's expense. Everything in these arrangements is too delicately balanced, thinks the Berlin Kreus-Zeitung. The allies find themselves at a standstill east and west. They undertook a wild adventure against the Turk, making a series of irreconcilable pledges to Balkan powers to keep their house of cards from tumbling. Bulgaria sulks because she is not allowed to occupy at once both Macedonia and the Dobrudga. Servia, Greece and Rumania agree in not listening to the suggestion—at least in that form. The diplomats of the allies have for weeks been bringing Athens, Nish and Bucharest to other views, England doing the mendacity while the others do the fighting.
ment Silesia fell into Russian hands there would be an end of the German resistance in the eastern theater of the war. The Kaiser would be in the position of Napoleon after Waterloo. Such was the prospect opened up to Sir Edward Grey by the fall of Constantinople, notes our Berlin contemporary, which professes to be vastly amused by such a display of romanticism in the allied imagination. Sir Edward was by no means convinced, we are assured, but the long deadlock in the West and
It seems to be a long way from one end of the Dardanelles to the other, too.—Indianapolis Neus.
The Sick Man of the East is getting no better fast.–Toledo Blade.
INFLUENCE OF THE WAR ON THE DOMESTIC
CRISIS IN RUSSIA AT
T the urgent solicitation of Premier Viviani, the They can get no lenses from Jena. Industries depend
two Socialist members of his ministry requested ent upon aniline dyes are at a standstill. Then, too, the the leaders of the Socialist group in the Russian Duma port of Archangel has lost its flourishing trade. Poland to cease their campaign against autocracy in Petrograd. is starving. Strikes have broken out in Petrograd, The Russian Socialists were not able to comply with Moscow and Odessa. Terrorism prevails. the request, according to both the Kölnische Zeitung and the Vossische Zeitung. German papers are de
Uprisings of the Unem
ployed in Russia. clared in the London Times to be quite too gloomy in GERMAN reports of Russian affairs are much con
, picture of the Petrograd scene which corresponds, the which rival Krupp as purveyors of the muniments of British daily thinks, to no reality whatever. There are war. The Czar's Minister of War intervened directly Russian dailies, however, to which the picture seems in this struggle, says the lossische Zeitung (Berlin). gloomy enough. For example, the Rietsch, the Russ Troops are on guard outside the plant. The workers kove Sloco and the Russky l'iedomosti, all important have been forced to return to their places by the police. dailies, dwell upon the acuteness of an industrial crisis Measures no less drastic have been taken in other inbrought upon Russia by the difficulty of importing from dustrial centers to cool the fever of the strike spirit. Germany the raw materials indispensable in some forms Russian dailies attribute the industrial crisis in the land of production. Experts like Professor W. W. Dmitrieff to that policy of economic independence of Germany are quoted as affirming that Russia can find no substi which official Petrograd is bent upon. There is to be a tutes for commodities vital to her needs if she is to re permanent financial boycott of Berlin. The Moscow main an active belligerent. The officers of the Czar's Viedomosti feels convinced that the influence of Gerarmy are inadequately equipped with field glasses. many in Russia is on the way to permanent extinction.
RUSSIA AS A CENTER OF REACTION
The immediate effects are somewhat inconvenient, it gaged on Russia's side, it is painful to have even to conconfesses, but the work is in process of achievement. sider such a question as this, but nothing is to be gained It denies the accuracy of the stories of proletarian un
by ignoring it. The strength of the Allied cause lies in rest with which German dailies are filled. Those stories its justice; if feeling in this country is unanimous in supare reiterated, nevertheless, by the Neue Freie Presse
port of the war, it is largely because it is regarded as one (Vienna), which cites Odessa as a typical instance.
waged in defense of the rights of the smaller nations; if,
on the morrow of victory, the basis of a lasting peace is There the workers are shot and clubbed because they
to be laid it must be on these sure foundations. The matwant something to eat.
ter is, therefore, one which touches us nearly, and we can
only hope that any steps which have been taken are not past Difficulty of Getting recall, and that nothing may happen to disturb the complete Facts from Russia.
harmony and confidence which have marked all the rela'NGLISH newspapers, and especially the London
tions of the Allies and which constitute for all of them so Times, strive to convey an impression of a united
precious an element of strength.” Russia, sneers the l'ienna Neue Freie Presse, when, as it affirms, there is a marked repugnance to fight among the masses of the Czar's humbler subjects. They
Growing Scandinavian Concern at realize that England is really responsible for the world
Russia's Domestic Policy. wide strife, the Austrian paper remarks, and for that A FRIENDLY word to Russia on the Finnish quesreason all the well-informed in Russia hate England Great Britain, observes the Swedish Afton Tidningen.
tion would be quite worthy of the traditions of for making so much mischief. Official Petrograd is
The slightest incident the Russo-Scandinavian filled with terror because of the many important Ger
frontier, to quote further, "may throw the already man settlements in Russia. When it came to Armageddon, the bureaucracy opened a campaign against the
highly agitated Scandinavians into armed conflict with
Russia.” Considering the way in which Russia has German resident. Correspondence in German is for
treated and still treats the Finns, could the Swedes and bidden. German place names have been altered to
Norwegians expect to find in Finland a hostile camp? Russian equivalents. No Russian bank may lend money
Much might be quoted from Scandinavian papers in to a German on any security whatever. Meanwhile the subjects of Nicholas II. are surfeited with unblushing support of these discouraged comments. For instance,
the Stenska Morgenbladet notes: mendacities on the progress of the campaign against Germany. For instance, when the Russians retreated
"We read some time ago in an American paper quotabefore the advance of von Hindenburg, the Novoye
tions from an article written by a famous English author Vremya and its Petrograd contemporaries announced a who assured the Americans that the Czar had promised great victory for the Grand Duke Nicholas, who was freedom to both Poland and Finland. A bright future was at that very moment in straits near Warsaw.
soon to begin for those nations, and the whole of Russia was after the end of the war going to become a true home
of freedom. .. Suspicions of Reaction "What all those promises about the 'liberation of nationin Russia.
alities' mean to Russia, the Russian statesmen are proving S CANDINAVIAN dailies of importance have of late
in deeds in Finland. There was published recently the procommented pessimistically upon “the final over
gram for the complete Russification of Finland, the comthrow” of the freedom of Finland. Russia has ad
plete annihilation of Finnish nationality and culture—a vanced her bureaucratic administrative machine to the
program showing better than anything else how shortvery frontier of Sweden, it is charged, and the fact it- sighted the Russian statesmen are and how little those self is evidence of the prevailing spirit in Petrograd. phrases are worth with which some radicals and liberals There appears to the Manchester Guardian, a close abroad are trying to cover real facts. What are English student of Russian affairs, to be some doubt as to the
liberals now saying? That question was asked lately by precise character and effect of the Russian official docu
the radical Norwegian government organ, the Dagbladet, ment announcing the series of sweeping changes which
commenting upon the impending blow to Finland. Indeed,
one may ask, what are they saying?” have given rise to “this widespread alarm.” It has been described as a “ukase” but in form at least it seems to the liberal British daily to be merely the report of a
Scandinavian Disillusion on the commission appointed some years ago to consider the
Subject of Russia. whole question of the government of Finland. “As RI
“As RUSSIA is teaching the Scandinavians the imporsuch it would be subject to ratification by the Duma
tance of military preparation against her sinister and the sanction of the Czar.” But the fact appears to
designs upon human liberty, to sum up in a phrase the our contemporary to be that it has actually received the gist of much comment in their
newspapers. No benefit Czar's signature before being submitted to the Duma
whatever has accrued to the Finns from the fact that and not only so, but that it is already in course of en
they showed their loyalty to Nicholas II. to-day as they forcement in Finland. Obviously, comments the great
showed it during the Crimean war, laments the NorrManchester organ of British liberalism, the matter is
kopings Tidningar. Loyalty and sympathy have not one of deep consequence not merely in regard to Fin
helped, it says. "On the contrary, Russia has found land itself, but also as bearing upon the whole policy
the opportunity very suitable for dealing the final blow. of Russia in regard to liberty and human rights:
From western Europe she need not fear troublesome
letters written by jurisconsults and friends of free"What prospect can there be of the establishment of
dom." If they live in England or in France, they will local liberties in a reconstituted Poland if the ancient lib
be "very tame," adds this newspaper, or else they will erties of Finland are meanwhile to disappear? At a time keep silence, "and the Germans are enemies.” Besides, like this, when all our interests and sympathies are en who would listen in a world war to the suppressed cries
of a small nation, strangled by the fist of the all power motes to petition the government to close the monopoly ful? The indignant Scandinavian organ proceeds: shops. These petitions were complied with. But the dif
ficulties, often foreseen, of such a situation manifested “But we Swedes, we free folk on the Scandinavian pen themselves "in the perversity and weakness of human insula, we must not shut our eyes to what happens. On .nature.” In some instances, after an abstinence of sevthe contrary, we can in all this read the fate that may be
eral weeks, the peasants decided that they could not enours should we not be prepared if and when the hand of
dure enforced temperance any longer. They petitioned an enemy will be stretched out to get at our throats. Our
to have the liquor shops opened again. "It was evident safety is, thank God, not yet that of the disarmed.”
that legislation or no legislation, the desire for strong
drink could not be suppresed in a day." The great A Policy of Terrorism by
necessity, the British daily says, was “another attracRussian Bureaucrats. HOSE who would comprehend what the liberalism
tion." It was provided by the war. “Russia, as all the of the Czar on paper becomes when translated into
world knows, from being one of the most drunken naactual fact should note with care the progress of recent
tions in Europe, automatically and at once became a events in Finland, declares the Socialist Berlin Vor- people of total abstinence.” wärts. Since the beginning of the war prominent Fin Why don't the Turks Hobsonize the Dardanelles ?—Chicago nish citizens, including the Speaker of the Finnish diet, Evening Post. have been arrested in Finland and exiled to Siberia by
Russia is determined to have Constantinople. Map-makers of
the future will probably spell it Prjconstanzymtinopmyslgrad.administrative order. Finnish newspapers have been Charleston News and Courier. suppressed by the same process, and the Finnish press forbidden to reproduce or even to mention the manifesto to the Poles. However, those Russians who believe that Russia is on the eve of liberal reforms do not base their opinion on “the illusion that the Russian government has already given up its reactionary policy," to quote a well-informed writer in the London Nation. A new liberal spirit, for all that, has come into the political life of Russia, “altho the old spirit is still very much alive." The present Duma, adds this writer/in touch with the facts—is far from being a radical one, yet in spite of the mutilated electoral law and the efforts of the Russian government to obtain a packed Duma, it still reflects the changed attitude of the Russian people and has already on several occasions voted against the government. The war must, he argues, strengthen progressive tendencies in the Duma. Russian liberal newspapers, while conceding that Finland has been dealt with in a reactionary spirit, point out that the new program of the Czar there is "entirely out of date and at variance with present political circumstances,"
circumstances," belonging more to "the past than the present.”
Russians Still Longing
for Strong Drink. V ODKA continues to aggravate the
domestic problems vexing Russia as a result of the war. The manifesto through which Nicholas II. divorced his government from partnership in the drink evil costs the Russian treasury a net profit of over $350,000,000 a year, as the London Times calculates. The reform was welcomed by the
THE LOOKOUT MAN ON OUR SHIP OF STATE peasants at first. Throughout the em
Counsellor Robert Lansing, captain of the crew of Commodore Bryan's State Department pire, our contemporary explains, the ship, who wrote the United States protests to Germany and Great Britain, prepares our interpeasants assembled in their village $7,500 a year.
national law briefs, and diplomatically steers between Scylla and Charybdis. We pay him
PERSONS IN THE FOREGROUND
THE DIPLOMATIC COUNSELLOR GENERAL OF THE UNITED
STATES IN ANXIOUS TIMES HE United States as a neutral graph, and new form of explosives. It Lansing ?” and an answer with a yell in these war days sets up a
has made mechanical motive power an of “Amherst! Lansing! He's all public plea for at least the absolute necessity in military operations. right!" One does not easily think of “core” of international law.
The old strategy of surprise has given its like happening in a nation where What chance do we stand place to mobility. The petroleum prod
long-trained diplomats abound. Nevucts, essential to rapid motion in the air, of getting anything more than the
ertheless it serves the purpose of a on land, and beneath the sea, are as necesanswer from all combatants: “There sary to a modern army and navy as arms
personal introduction to the American ain't goin' to be no core”? Much and ammunition. New devices for com- public which he has not had before. depends, Americans think, upon the munication and transportation are used Robert Lansing's appointment to ofputting of our case before the public now for the first time in war, and new fice as the successor of John Bassett opinion of the world at large; which modes of attack are employed.
Moore a year ago attracted comparais only another way of saying that
“The result is that neutral nations have tively little attention. Assuming that our diplomatic intercourse with other had to meet a series of problems which
there is wisdom in trying to keep out nations is traditionally quite openhave never been solved. The liability of
of trouble, it is none the less true that error, the danger of unintentional parfaced compared to the policy of se- tiality, and the constant complaint of one
such a policy does not lend itself to crecy practiced before the in
or another of the belligerents make the spectacular performances. But it was Europe. And with the publication of path of neutrality rough and uncertain.” generally recognized that no amateur the clearly inoffensive but incisive
hand phrased the notes of protest to protests of the United States to GerFor any lawyer to admit that legal Germany and Great Britain.
It was many and Great Britain against inter- precedent may be lacking for any side recalled that Counsellor Lansing had ference with the rights of neutrals on of a case that he may be called upon practiced international law since 1892, the high seas, came the emergence of to advocate, strikes the layman as not notably as associate counsel for the the diplomatic author, Robert Lansing, altogether an unhopeful sign of pro- United States in the Behring Sea official Counsellor of the State Depart- fessional quality. Mr. Lansing's note Arbitration, 1892-3; counsel for the ment.
changed to that of confidence, how- United States before the Behring Straightway the New York City ever, in describing the recent reor Sea Claims Commission, 1896-7; soAlumni of Amherst, the college which ganization of the machinery of the licitor for the United States before gave him academic birth, after the State Department. Rapidly it had to the Alaska Boundary Tribunal, 1903; manner of such metropolitan associa- be changed from the ordinary peace counsel for the United States in the tions of enterprizing and loyal sons of basis to one which had been able to North Atlantic Coast Fisheries Arbicolleges and universities, discovered a meet, he said, “not merely daily ques- tration at the Hague, 1909-10; agent banquet speaker to whom honor was tions of neutral rights and duties, but of the United States in the American due. His speech, carefully written the new responsibilities of a veritable and British Claims Arbitration, 1912and convincingly read, displayed none diplomatic clearing-house of the world,” 14.
diplomatic clearing-house of the world,” 14. He was also one of the founders of the arts of oratory; but his con besides those of a banker, transporta- of the American Society of Internafrères report that his well-restrained tion agent and medium of communica- tional Law, associate editor of the ability and power impressed them. tion for Americans abroad. Inciden- American Journal of International
A much wider audience of news- tally he insisted upon the advantage Law, and joint author of a text-book paper readers was quick to discern the to-day of securing individual initiative, on government. Reciting his record, seriousness with which the Counsellor personal force, and sound judgment in a New York Evening Post writer takes both himself and the unprece our foreign diplomats rather than the estimates Mr. Lansing as an habitual dented difficulties of an extraordinarily results of a routine promotion system client-taker to whom the President or delicate situation. Hear him:
of diplomatic service. This revealed Secretary
This revealed Secretary of State outlines a case in
the “special pleader” type of lawyer in general terms. Whereupon Mr. Lan"It is my duty, as many of you know, the Counsellor of State, according to sing,"with expertness and accuracy, to deal with the questions of international the New York Times and various transforms it into international law law and usage, which are arising every
critics of the Wilson-Bryan adminis- with a clearness and lucidity of style day in our relations with other countries.
tration. These questions are of absorbing interest
But on the whole, Mr. Lan- and a directness of purpose which not and many of them are extremely complex sing's statement to his alma mater's only serves the people of the United because this war in its magnitude and “boys” was accepted as an enlighten- States well, but, at the same time, methods is different from all the wars
ing if not inspiring interpretation of pleases his immediate superiors imwhich have gone before. One can look anxious time, when Americans mensely.” in vain for precedents in many cases. In could hardly be appealed to in vain to fact, we have to abandon that time- join in the toast he proposed: “To
“It takes a special pleader to keep peace honored refuge of jurists and diploma
our Country. May she continue in in some families, and the Wilson political tists, precedents, and lay hold of the bed rock of principle. Diplomacy to-day is
family is one of them. This is the prinpeace—with honor." Observe a certain naïveté and un
cipal reason why William J. Bryan frewrestling with novel problems, to which
quently walks down the corridor of the it must apply natural justice and practical conventionality connected with this State Department to the office of Robert common sense.
kind of roundabout diplomatic Lansing. It is one of the reasons why “This great conflict has introduced the “coming out” party. One can almost Robert Lansing walks down the same corsubmarine, the aeroplane, the wireless tele- imagine a vociferous call of "Who is ridor two or three times a day and makes
himself comfortable in the office of Wil- law, which is something of an achieve- tingly regarding diplomatic affairs of liam J. Bryan. It is the sole reason why ment in itself. When the important state. We are assured that he is a both Mr. Bryan and President Wilson neutrality resolution giving President man of strong common sense, good rely more on Mr. Lansing than they ever
Wilson unusual powers over shipping manners, wide and valuable personal did on Mr. Moore, and there is no doubt in the world that it was the sole reason
from American ports was sent to Con- acquaintance; one of the quietest, most why Robert Lansing becomes 'Acting Sec- gress in the last days of the recent modest men in Washington, temperaretary of State' more often than any sub- session, it excited considerable com- mentally splendidly equipped for his ordinate officer in the State Department ment that neither the President nor the work, thoroly human in thought and has ever been, and why he often sits in Secretary of State, but Robert Lan- action, kindly and sympathetic. “His the Cabinet in the absence of Mr. Bryan.” sing, sent the communication to the gray eyes twinkle, and his face lights The Pacific Northwest is reminded House requesting its passage.
warm smile on the slightest by the Seattle Post-Intelligencer that cited still more comment that when the provocation. He likes to be of service, Mr. Lansing cut his eyeteeth in the resolution struck a snag in the Senate and is of service, and goes about the business of international relations in and had to be remodeled, a hasty con- job so simply and earnestly as to win the seal claims case at Victoria. That ference at the White House ensued, confidence without seeming to try to he a life-long Democrat and it was Lansing not Bryan that do so.” He belongs to the Metropolidiscovered about the time of his re took part therein. The explanation tan Club in Washington, the Chevy cent appointment, according to this made in the press reports was to the Chase Club in Maryland and the Black far-away newspaper. This Republican effect that Mr. Bryan was found to River Valley Club in Watertown, journal remarks:
be in bed and “it was not thought nec N. Y., his native town. "Mr. Lansing is a diplomat as well as a
essary to wake him.” A Secretary of Watertown is the prosperous county
State whom it is not thought necessary diplomatist, the distinction being that a
seat of rugged Jefferson County, which diplomatist is a diplomat who has a job.
to waken in a critical matter of that borders the eastern end of Lake OnWhy shouldn't he be? He is a son-in-law kind is surely to be congratulated on tario and the outflowing St. Lawrence, of that famous old diplomat, John W. the able assistance he is fortunate the boundary line of a hundred years Foster, former secretary of state under enough to command.
of peace with Canada and Great BriPresident Harrison, former foreign ad A classmate of Robert Lansing at tain. County historians say that the viser to the emperor of China ; a gentle- Amherst remembers that he always name Lansing was originally spelled man who has had his fingers in many an
made a pleasing appearance, was good- Lansingh in Holland, which might suginternational pie. Mr. Foster, from a
gest an ancestral Dutch neutrality in beautiful home in Washington,' which he looking, well dressed and popular. He shares with his daughter and Mr. Lansing,
learned team play as quarterback and the blood. Counsellor Lansing is the looks out upon the diplomatic situation in captain in class football, and was given only son of John Lansing, with whom Washington with shrewd and far-seeing to practice in long - distance punt- he practiced law in Watertown, and eyes. If Mr. Lansing follows his father- ing, tho he never made the varsity his grandfather had been elected counin-law's advice he will make no mistakes.” team. He ranked as a thoro student, ty judge and State senator. From law
The Washington correspondent of especially interested in psychology and practice in a small city of 20,000 to the Providence, R. I., Bulletin, refer- allied subjects as taught by the famous Counsellor Generalship in international ring to this genial father-in-law, de- Professor Garmon, but
received no law for a neutral nation of 100,000,000 clares that it is perhaps not too much special class or college student honors. souls is certainly magnified American to say that not one of the diplomatic Mr. Lansing is now fifty years of opportunity for presenting cases before notes goes forth from the State De- age, of medium height, hair slightly the bar of world-opinion. If he finds partment these days without having tinged with gray, a well-groomed per- himself without precedents he may first passed under the eagle eye of "the sonality one would notice in any group take chances of making some. And yet diplomatic fox.” Which, if true, we
He has won out with the he has been seen at his state departobserve might be interpreted as evi- newspaper men by giving them what ment desk after diplomatic calling dence of democratic ability to get help they call a “straight steer” to prevent hours, calm as a fisherman, with a flatfrom an old-time Republican father-in- them from making mistakes unwit- bowled briar pipe in his hand.
VON HINDENBURG: THE MOST SPECTACULAR
FIGURE IN THE WAR ULKY of body, raucous of difficult the task has proved in reality, his father was a Prussian officer, as voice, purple of visage and so much so that he is already a legend- are his two sons to-day. His favenerable in years, Marshal ary figure. His gall-stones, for ex vorite beverage is not Munich beer, Paul Beneckendorf und von ample ! Remedies have been sent him according to the Berlin Post, altho
Hindenburg, owing to his by every mail, and now it is made to the Bavarians insist that it is. Even campaign against the Russians in appear that he never suffered from the strategic importance of his battles the Masurian Lakes, has sprung into them in his life. The famous anecdote is disputed, the Ilondon News professworld-wide
Newspaper which summons him from retirement ing to despise the victories he has won despatches have for weeks given de- at the Emperor's peremptory command at such enormous! cost. tails of the hero worship accorded is only another invention, says the Hindenburg illustrates to the milihim by the Germans. Streets named Neue Freie Presse (Vienna). He was tarist Vienna Zeit an important truth in his honor, busts of him in ginger- eager for the fray. The Saxon claim about the great war, which has not rebread and songs of which he is that his mother was a Saxon is mere ceived the attention it deserves. The the theme
prove how completely moonshine, adds the Neueste Nachrich- dominant personaliziés are all old men. he has captured the imaginations ten, because he is a Bavarian by an The Grand Duke in Russia, Kitchener of
in the Fatherland. How cestry, this last statement being con in England, Joffre and Foch in France easy it seems to get his personality tradicted again in the Berlin Vorwärts, and Hindenburg in Germany have down in black and white, says the which makes him out a Prussian. At passed middle age. This development Berlin Vossische Zeitung, and how any rate, he was born in Posen and flies in the face of theory. War should