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Creating a New Art
"In analyzing our sales records we had noticed that orders from some lines of business would predominate at certain periods of the year. We selected a number of lines of business sold to that showed this characteristic and had them investigated. It developed that at the time the orders were placed the concerns were either beginning or were in the middle of their busy season. This condition naturally led to the obvious conclusion that at certain periods of the year most concerns likely to buy our goods than at other periods.
“We took our sales records for the preceding five years and listed every line of business sold to. Then we investigated these lines of business to find out their busy seasons.
We found that but few lines of business transact an equal volume of business the year around. The great majority have busy seasons such as April to September; February to November; July to October; Spring: Fall; July to January; September to December, and so on. This investigation as a whole showed that we had ample live prospects for every month in the year.
“Our next step was to operate seasonal advertising and selling campaigns. Instead of appealing to all our prospects the year around, in a hapliazard manner, we now concentrate on each line a little in advance of and during its busy season. Naturally a firm is more likely to be in the buying mood when its factory is humming with activity than during the dull seaSon.
"As a result of these seasonal campaigns we have now eliminated almost entirely rush seasons and dull seasons in our business. To-day our sales not only average about the same each month of the year, but also show a goodly percentage of increase each month.”
USINESSES which have to contend with the element of fashion
generally experience pronounced unevenness of sales. Seldom are their annual sales spread evenly over the entire twelve inonths. Instead, they have to work under forced draft for a few weeks or months; then, when the rush is over, lack of business compels them to close down either partially or entirely until the next fashion or sea
At the Centennial Exhibition As the culmination of all this, at Philadelphia, the exhibit of the Bell exhibit at the Panamathe Bell System consisted of Pacific Exposition marks the two telephones capable of talk completion of a Trans-contiing from one part of the room nental Telephone line three to another.
thousand four hundred miles Faint as the transmission of long, joining the Atlantic and the speech then was, it became Pacific and carrying the human at once the marvel of all the voice instantly and distinctly
between New York and San world, causing scientists, as well as laymen, to exclaim with
This telephone line is part of Starting with only these feeble
the Bell System of twenty-one instruments, the Bell Company,
million miles of wire connecting by persistent study, incessant ex nine miilion telephone stations perimentation and the expendi
located everywhere throughout ture of immense sums of money,
the United States. has created a new art, invent Composing this System, are ing, developing and perfecting; the American Telephone and making improvements great and Telegraph Company and Assmall in telephones, transmitter, sociated Companies, and conlines, cables, switchboards and necting companies, giving to every
other piece of apparatus one hundred million people and plant required for the trans Universal Service unparalleled mission of speech.
among the nations of the earth. AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY
AND ASSOCIATED COMPANIES
For Liquor and Drug Users
The Dennison Manufacturing Company, tag makers, also manufacture a line of Christmas cards. Not so many years ago they had to contend with seasonal business in its worst form. During the three months preceding the demand for holiday goods they would be forced to work at nerve-racking pace, and even then would often be unable to fill many orders on time. This
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condition arose through retailers hold-
“Glasses can be
made becomingCompany is no longer at the beck and
It's simply a matter of the call of fashion; nor do they suffer from
right selection. With our a condition that necessitates crowding
complete stock of high grade the output of a year into a few weeks
American Optical Company
lenses and mountings I'll or months. The company now spreads
make glasses a great deal its Christmas output over
more becoming to you than year and keeps its factory running
tired, strained eyes.” evenly.
Ask your oculist, optome
trist or optician-he knows. Here is the way it is done: Instead
AMERICAN OPTICAL of trailing behind fashion, the Denni
(A) son Manufacturing Company now sets
E salesmen out to submit these designs to
CE retailers eighteen months in advance of
PLN the Christmas season for which the cards are intended. Then they begin manufacturing the cards in quantities based on trade demand in the past, and keep them in stock. Rush orders no longer trouble this company, for filling orders is now simply a matter of shipping. This plan has enabled the Dennison Manufacturing Company to equalize their Christmas sales and to STILLWELL CALIFORNIA HOME keep their force steadily at work the
BOOKS The Crane Company used to be lip against the problem of rush work and consequent uneven production. This condition exists particularly in bridge construction work. They have overcome it to a large extent by putting the TYPEWRITERS ALL PRICES matter frankly to customers and discouraging rush work whenever possible. In periods of general business depression, instead of keeping some men at work full time and laying others off, the entire force is kept employed by AMERICAN WRITING MACHINE CO., Inc.,345 Broadway, N. Y. cutting working hours from fifty-four hours a week to thirty-two.
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ANY FIRMS solve the prob-
new lines or by widening their
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Ask for “Your Move" tions, with almost universal depression, the International Harvester Company The New Jersey Zinc Company is using the surplus time of its men to prepare for the future. The effect of Room 408, 55 Wall St., New York the large number of horses that is be- For big contract jobs consult our Research Bureau ing shipped to Europe will later be felt on farms in the United States. There will undoubtedly be a dearth of horses
It will not.
SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF SLACK SEASONS
in the future for agricultural use. To meet this future condition the International Harvester Company is keeping its surplus men busy on building engine-driven farm machinery to replace horse-drawn machinery.
The Pullman Company is also meeting present conditions by doing future work. The wood facings on old cars are being replaced with steel facings. And, incidentally, the company is taking advantage of the lull to train its cabinet makers to handle steel work. In emergencies, also, the Pullman Company handles work at cost in order to keep its force busy.
This Dial Shortens The Business Day
(For Thousands of Busy Americans ]
ULL PERIODS can often.be overcome by adding new lines
that will sell during the customary slack season. A typical instance of this is a coal firm that adds an ice department. But while all business will not find such an easy solution as this, the plan is practicable and is in wide use.
In its early days the Robert A. Johnston Co., of Milwaukee, manufacturers of candies, experienced a dropping off of business during the summer. The public appetite for chocolates is naturally not so great during the summer as the winter. To offset this condition they manufactured a line of candies, such as butterscotch, peanutbrittle, and the like, which would sell when more heating candies would not. This plan solved the problem of a slack summer season. Johnston's business is now spread evenly over the entire year, and the full force of workers kept busy all the time.
Slack periods in a factory are often the result of lack of careful planning of production. This is particularly true where a large number of parts enter into the finished product. Certain parts will often be manufactured in excess. When this condition arises, the department that makes these parts is often closed down until the other departments have caught up.
The McElwain Shoe Company operates twenty factories in the New England states. As a result of careful planning of production these factories are kept running with the same force
has been adopted by such representative American businesses as Sears, Roebuck & Co., Standard Oil Co., of Ohio, Solvay Process Co., Hydraulic Pressed SteelCo., Baldwin Locomotive Works, New YorkCentral Railroadand scores of others equally well known.
They have chosen it, (1) for its economy-a net, clear saving in money on operator's salaries and instrument rentals sufficient to pay the entire cost of the equipment within a very short time—(2) for its saving of time—which is even more important-(3) for its sturdy reliability—(4)foritsincompar.
able convenience—(5) for its secrecy(6) for its constant 24-hour service.
Without“pushing," without elaborate sales effort, without advertising until recently-the Automatic-Phone has forged its way ahead by sheer superiority. 37.4% of our sales for the last 10 years have been additions to equipment already installed.
Request This Booklet Our booklet “At Your Finger's End" tells how the Automatic-Phone is used and why it has been chosen. Request it now. Please address Dept. 36 and mention the number of telephones you use.
Automatic Electric Company
(Makers of 500,000 Automatic Telephones in Use the World Over)
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throughout the year.
One factory makes the heels, another the vamps, another the soles, and so on.
All parts are kept moving along at a uniform rate. Instead of heels coming along in seven days, vamps in seventeen, and other parts lingering to, say, twentyseven days, all move along at the same rate—none waiting for another.
As a result of this system of dovetailing production, the company is able to keep its entire force busy all the time. And, furthermore, it has cut the time it takes to fill orders. Where it used to take, say, twenty-seven days to fill an order, it is now done in seventeen days. The company also claims that it turns out a better product than before, because by keeping men continuously on the job, they are at all times at their highest efficiency.
can be easily connected up-one in place of your push button at your desk, and the other where the bell or buzzer is-at your office boy's or stenographer's desk. All you have to do then is to telephone for what you want, instead of waiting for your clerk to come to you for directions. This simple arrangement saves time at both ends of the line. It costs little to install and no more to keep up than your present push buttonbuzzer arrangement. A convenience you cannot afford to be without.
PERSONALITY: A CASHABLE
(Continued from page 206) comparatively small profit makes a personality appeal—that of being in the same boat as the man he is selling.
Manufacturers of the 8,500,000 “Bell” Telephones
463 West Street, New York 500 S. Clinton Street, Chicago
We will ship you these Inter-phones by parcel post, all ready to connect, on receipt of $8.75. Your money back if not satisfied. For full particulars and directions for attaching these Inter-phones, write for
HEN it comes to the third
point, that of the language
employed to tell the tale, the Johnson policy is in line with the celebrated anecdote of Henry Ward Beecher, who, when told of an grammatical expression that he had used, replied: "Grammer doesn't stand any chance when it gets in my way.” The policy of "farmer" Johnson has been to tell the story forcefully, naturally and philosophically. If grammar stands in the way of doing this, well, it's that much worse for gram
The personality that uses “farmer’s” grammar in selling to the farmer is one of the personality points that differentiates Johnson from the large number of other manufacturers who build similar goods. By far the greater bulk of business literature concerns itself with fineness of expression.
There is a rule of expression which this incubator manufacturer has grasped intuitively—the principle being, “The value of expression is in an inverse ratio to the value of the message.” The formulator of this rule goes on to say that we welcome news of great value to us tho it be couched in the worst argot. When we sit down to be entertained by a poem to Dulciana's eyebrows, on the other hand, we demand the utmost nicety of expression. The Johnson selling literature, not being a sonnet to the eyebrow of a fair one, but information of value to those who would make money by raising poultry, is of homely flavor and expression throughout.
The stand that the prospect or customer is entitled to a personal letter is
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ADDING PIQUANCY TO SELLING FLAVOR
LUXEBERRY WHITE ENAMEL
one that is taken theoretically by a large number of business men, but few have worked out the plans for putting the theory into practice. Meanwhile Johnson reaps the benefits of his own personality methods, and the neglect of others to get away from the traditional —and incidentally, perhaps, the strictly -grammatical.
'HEN William Galloway
“Bill," as the farmers love to
call him-gave a "divide-themelon” banquet at his factory in Waterloo, Iowa, celebrating a milestone on the way to progress, it was said that the melons were given a thorough internal bath of champagne. When the guests came to the melon course and noted the particularly fine flavor of the fruit, it was noted that many prominent prohibitionists—to whom the flavor was a new sensation-might be seen slyly slipping the seeds into their pockets. This story is perhaps a trifle exaggerated, but it illustrates perfectly the Galloway method of adding piquancy to selling flavor. I have noted, in a previous paragraph, that “Incubator Johnson” serves his selling facts raw—and "makes 'em like 'em.” He goes straight to the point with a plain man's story. "Bill" Galloway adds the champagne flavor.
Galloway, with large ambition and financial capacity, was not content to be a one-line man. He builds cream separators, spreaders, gasoline engines -farm necessities of all kinds and sizes. And the attitude of the farmer is of as great value as the quality of the goods, for, with a small margin system of selling, only as the customer continues can
a permanent profit be earned. In working out his personality methods, Galloway sticks close to the "divide - the - melon” selling plan. When a product is put on the market by way of the traveling man and local dealer, “each must have his bite of the melon"—is the Galloway claim. When the goods are offered by the "direct-toyou” method, the farmer gets the intermediate profits-not forgetting a taste of champagne. The reason? Well, because “Bill” is a farmer himself and he just naturally likes to treat his patrons well.
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BSTRACTIONS, Galloway believes, do not get anything; he is
careful always to use the concrete. One of his best selling arguments, occupying a leading place in a good share of his literature, is the story of his own experience when he drove about the country as an agent selling the farmer. The Galloway past compared with the Galloway present makes easy reading—and a basis for easy logic.
In entertaining the farmer-customer,
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