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THE FIJI CONTINGENT ON THE WAY TO THE FRONT Before this war in Europe is over nearly all the races of the earth seem likely to be included in the combatants. There are Turcos, Senegambians, Afghans, Turks, Sikhs, Boers, North American Indians, as well as Poles, Jews, Slavs, Magyars, Czechs, Servians, Bohemians, French, Germans, Belgians and Anglo-Saxons. The latest addition is a contingent of Fiji Islanders that is on the way from Australia. They long ago forgot their cannibalistic pleasantries and are now, most of them, Wesleyan Methodists. THE EFFORT TO INVOLVE ITALY IN THE

EUROPEAN WAR PRINCE VON BÜLOW had scarcely assumed his of Austria only. Italy's fulfillment of her pledges to

functions as ambassador from Emperor William to the Triplice consisted in her remaining loyally neutral. King Victor Immanuel when a concerted effort was Nothing more could be expected from her." Two new made by certain radical elements in Rome to make life factors have arisen to delay the entry of Italy into the at the Quirinal impossible for the former imperial chan war, according to the London Post. One of these is cellor. These intrigues are traced by the Berlin Tages- the arrival of cold weather. The other is the appearzeitung to agents of the London foreign office. Prince ance of cholera in Austria-Hungary. The Italian milivon Bülow appears to the London News to have bent tary authorities do not object to heat-witness the his energies less to the persuasion of the Italians to fighting in Cyrenaica with a tropical sun blazing. They come out on the side of Germany than to a defeat of shrink from cold and snow. Especially do they dread the plan to involve them with the allies. The Prince is the prospect of cholera. Meanwhile Premier Salandra, widely known in Italian society, where his wife has in view of recent indiscretions, has sent a circular to many influential relatives. He knows Italy well. His the prefects calling the attention of editors to the law love for her is deep-rooted and sincere. Unfortunately relative to promulgation of military secrets. News of for his plans, the new Italian foreign minister, Baron the movements of Italian troops is rigidly censored. Sydney Sonnino, is half English through his mother.

Italy Under the Salandra The Baron is said to cherish for England the same de

Ministry. gree of sympathy the Prince cherishes for Italy. The FOREIGN policy, the army and finance must occupy result is a diplomatic duel on which for the moment the reconstructed Salandra ministry in Rome to the the most critical issues in world politics depend, or so exclusion of other issues, says the Giornale d'Italia, in the European dailies affect to think. Organs of official close touch with Baron Sonnino. Diplomacy affords opinion in Berlin have for some weeks praised Italy Italy just now its most complex problem since the for her strict neutrality and advised her to persist in Risorgimento, it adds. As for the army, Italy desires it. Premier Salandra has just been fortunate enough a perfectly efficient fighting force in the shortest posto win a vote of confidence from the deputies in Rome, sible time. The normal methods of finance are not and, since he professes the strictest neutrality, the adapted to the present extraordinary situation. The Norddeutsche Zeitung predicts that British efforts to anticlerical Messaggero, while objecting to a conservainvolve Italy must fail.

tive element in the reconstructed ministry, admits that "this is not the time to raise domestic questions."

The Popolo Romano approves of the appointment Immediate Future of Italy as a Neutral.

of Baron Sonnino as foreign minister because of ALANDRA, the Italian premier, remains an instru his firmness. The clerical Corriere d'Italia expresses

ment in the hands of the inscrutable Signor Gio confidence in the cabinet, especially in Salandra, whose litti, who, all foreign dailies agree, will decide the policy of neutrality will, it thinks, be continued. The attitude of his country to the war. “Germany never Corriere della Sera affirms that Italy still counts in had any illusions," we find the Berlin Tag saying "She Europe if only because she is considered as a sword knew that the whole triple entente would be against her whose weight may be felt in the balance where the in the event of war, while she could count on the aid destinies of nations are weighed.





Is Italy Inclined to Enter greater power unsuspected of interested and ambitious the War?

designs to the detriment of their development. Italy

to is geographically designed for such a mission. sentative of national opinion, it seems clear that the adventurous and radical elements incline to inter

Italy's Part in the Balkan vention, altho the conservative and influential deem

Theater. neutrality safest, at least from the standpoint of things ITALY made a profound diplomatic blunder in aban: as they are. zionale, deplores the appointment of Baron Sonnino as Balkan war, according to the Messaggero. She made foreign minister on the ground of his lack of poetry a mistake again in opposing a Servian port on the and of lyrical enthusiasm and because of his tempera Adriatic. Neither should Italy have opposed Greek ment generally, which disqualifies him from compre claims to Epirus and the Aegean Islands. The recoghending the Italian world. However, this paper prom nition of those aspirations is a necessary condition ises support even of Sonnino if he will give Italy the without which the Balkan league can not be reformed national war which is so necessary. It is thought signif- because otherwise Greece and Servia not be icant that the Sonnino organ, the Giornale d'Italia, is induced to compensate Bulgaria and thus gain her pointing to the rapid diffusion of German influences in adhesion. Moreover, if Italy proposes to reconstruct Italy in the shape of German advertizements, German the Balkan league, she must act with Servia in conquer“shop-walkers,” books, newspapers, governesses (of ing Bosnia and Herzegovina and in securing an outlet whom Padua alone has a hundred), waiters and hotel on the Adriatic from Austria. Italy must also appear keepers. The Lakes of Garda and Capri are almost as the sincere and disinterested champion of the prinGerman colonies. These are said, too, in the anti ciple of nationality. This she can not do as long as German papers, to be the advance-guard of Prince von she lays claim to the Dalmatian coast, which is overBülow, who has all sorts of schemes to render Italy whelmingly Slav, and as long as she maintains her powerless. The result is an outbreak of activity among doubtful conduct regarding the isles of the Aegean. radicals in Rome, led by the clever Marchese de Viti. She could not put herself at the head of the Balkan They hold meetings often to keep up the agitation in league recomposed on a national basis if she violated favor of intervention in the European conflict. The the principle of Slav and Greek nationality. The whole anti-clericals are charging the Pope with a pronounced article is deemed in Europe a serious indication of pro-Germanism, altho this is denied by the organ of Italian intervention and of the policy behind it. the Vatican. A significant fact is the appointment of a general recently as minister of war in succession to

Prince von Bülow at the

Crisis of His Career. a civilian.

ALL Europe watches with interest at this moment the German Views Contested in Italy.

von Bülow in behalf of Germany and of Baron SonROMAN opinion has not been on the whole im nino in behalf of Italy. What the intentions of Son

pressed by Berlin assertions that Germany is not nino may be passes conjecture in the foreign press. responsible for the outbreak of war in Europe. Thus The government in Rome dreads most of all, affirms the Tribuna, in close touch with diplomatic circles, de the Paris Figaro, a peace from which it would be exnies the allegations on this subject of the German pro cluded—that is, a treaty ending the war without recogfessors and intellectuals. "Our denial," it adds, "is nition of Italian claims in southern Europe. If Italy strictly connected with Italy's honor because, had Ger remains a neutral to the end, she will not be recognized many been attacked, instead of being the aggressor, as an important factor in the settlement by the allies. Italy would have been bound by treaty to support her Notice to that effect has been served upon the Salandra at any cost. She did not do so because a case under ministry by such organs as the London Post. German the treaty of alliance had not arisen.” The Italian organs like the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, inorgan next comments upon the weakness it detects in spired officially, assure Italy that she will participate the argument advanced by the German professors and in the "settlement” whether she comes in as a belligerconcludes : “German policy had imposed for years upon ent or not. French papers tend to the idea that Italy

rope the dilemma of recognizing a German hegemony is at last convinced that the allies must win. She was or of having war.” This was said at the height of the not so sure of that at first. The desperation of the agitation for war upon Austria in behalf of the union pass to which Germany has been reduced, according to with Italy, of the provinces still "unredeemed” from the Matin, is revealed by the despatch of Prince von the Hapsburgs. What will finally decide Italy, accord Bülow to Rome. He comes, it says, too late. Nevering to the Messaggero, inspired by the influential Signor theless, concedes the London News, there are factors Bissolati, deputy for the Quirinal division of Rome, of the utmost importance on the side of Germany still. may be defined as her need of closer union with the The outcome of the situation in Rome is the most states of the Balkans. The Balkan peoples, in order critical factor in the struggle against Germany on its to give stability to their league, require the help of a diplomatic side.

The unspeakable Turk should begin at once to learn how to say "enough” in several languages.—Toledo Blade.

Some notion of the harmony with which Gens. Joffre and French work together may be gained from the following discovery:

If the Flanders floods become any worse, Flanders will be a great place for a naval battle.-N. Y. American.

Probably every soldier engaged in the European war has a desire to live long enough to find out what he is fighting for.-Toledo Blade.

“Unless China is Christianized,” declares Miss Hle Ding Lin, she will lead the rest of the world to paganism.” Some parts of the rest of the world can dispense with a guide.-Springfield Republican.


That is, they work together, either offensively or defensively. -St. Louis Post Dispatch.






PRESIDENTIAL BOOM HREE Americans have been for America to have anything to say and rural credits. He wanted to study brought out prominently be- about it.

the methods of the Credit Foncier in fore the whole world by the As a matter of fact, much more won France and the Landschaften associasituation in Europe — three derful things have happened than the tions in Germany and the reasons why

Americans and two of these nomination of Herrick for the Presi- the farmers are producing 28 bushels of Ohioans. They are Myron T. Herrick, dency. His “boom” may have started wheat to the acre in Germany and 20 Brand Whitlock and Herbert Clarke in Paris but it has not ended there. bushels in France, while we in this counHoover. The first monument the Bel- Cleveland, where his home is, took it try, with soil that ought to be more progians build after the war is over, says up several weeks ago and began to ductive, are producing but 15 bushels; Will Irwin, will be one to Brand Whit- arrange for a reception to help it on why we can get only 80 bushels of polock, our minister to Belgium, formerly as soon as it was known when he was tatoes, on an average, to the acre, and mayor of Toledo. He has had a very to return. The Washington Post takes France can get 190, Germany 226, and difficult task to perform and he has the movement very seriously. It re Belgium 286. In an interview in the performed it with splendid efficiency marks: “Distinguished as he is as a N. Y. Times in the spring of 1912, he and devotion, even to the extent at man of remarkable ability in business said: times of living on black bread. Mr. affairs, Mr. Herrick would command

"Since the Civil War we have bent our Hoover, the chairman of the American at once, if nominated, the confidence commission in London that has had and support of the business interests energies with wonderful success to the

building up of our 'infant industries.' It charge of the relief work, first for the of the United States in the largest is now time to turn some of the milk fleeing American refugees and then for

He, possibly, of all the men that has stimulated the 'infant industries' the starving Belgians, has shown him- named, is the best-equipped by experi- to the nourishment of senile agriculture. self a first-class organizer and adminis- ence, practice, and knowledge of affairs. We have neglected the farm; we have trator. With Hoover handling the in a more varied sense and in a broader emulated England in our race for comLondon end of the Belgian relief work sphere of action." "Republican light- mercial supremacy. We have not taken and Whitlock handling the Belgian ning,” observes that great organ of heed of the example of France, Germany, end, they have achieved wonders, and, Democracy, the N. Y. World, "might and other European countries that have consequence, when the American flash further and strike worse."

recognized the importance of the equal flag is seen nowadays in the streets of Nor is this the first time that Myron development of manufacturing and agri

culture." Brussels or Antwerp or any other Bel- T. Herrick has been rather conspicugian city, the people spontaneously take ously mentioned for the highest posi Experience in both France and Geroff their hats.

tion in our government. After his many, he went on to say, proved that Myron T. Herrick, ex-Ambassador election as governor of Ohio, in 1903, the development ,of scientific farming to France, ex-Governor of Ohio, has by the largest majority given to any has been largely due to the facility won equally enthusiastic praise by the man since the days of the Civil War, with which farmers can obtain funds way he has handled a difficult situa 114,000 he was looked upon as for the purpose of financing improvetion in France. “He won the hearts of possible or even probable successor to ments. Our railway securities, our inthe people of Paris,” says ex-Minister McKinley in the White House. Un- dustrial securities, our municipal secuPichon, in the Petit Journal. There fortunately he ran

for governor

rities, and now our commercial paper are other ambassadors and ministers in second time, at a period when the have been given a negotiable value that Europe who have earned the praise of liquor question came to the front and enables them to circulate freely and to their countrymen—Gerard in Berlin, when the revolt against George B. Cox be readily accepted as security for Van Dyke in Holland, Walter H. Page had reached its climax. Herrick was loans. Mortgages, and especially farmin London, Thomas Nelson Page in too closely identified with Cox for his mortgages, are the only form of seRome, Morgenthau in Constantinople, own political health, and as a result hecurity that retains its primitive immoPenfield in Vienna. Only one of these was defeated by a plurality of 43,000. bility. All this Mr. Herrick saw very men had had experience in diplomatic That and the meteoric career of Roose- clearly several years ago. The subject situations, but they all seem to have velt ended all further talk of Herrick has been up very prominently in Conacquitted themselves creditably under at that time for President.

He van

gress since then and President Wilson exceptionally trying circumstances. ished from the political arena, tho has had a commission traveling in None of them, however, seems to have President Roosevelt tried to induce him Europe to obtain data for the establishmade such a conspicuous success as to accept the ambassadorship to Italy ment of a new system of farm-banks. has been achieved by Herrick and and President Taft tried later to entice It has come to be recognized, in other Whitlock. If the latter does not look him into his cabinet as secretary of the words, as Herrick recognized years out he will be canonized before he gets treasury. Herrick good-naturedly re ago, that the greatest defects in our out of Belgium, and as for Herrick, fused all such offers and resumed his agriculture are due to our financial inbefore he left Paris last month some highly successful financial career. Two stitutions rather than to the farmers of the French newspapers were trying years ago, however, he accepted the themselves. Herrick has been a banker to nominate him for President of the post of ambassador to France because and financier nearly all his life, and he United States. If he had stayed a he had by that time developed a new saw how the farmer was being handimonth longer they might have gone ambition. He had become greatly in- capped all along the line. It was the ahead and elected him without waiting terested in the subject of farm finance sense of this among the farmers of the





West that produced the Greenback
movement, the Farmers' Alliance move-
ment, the Populist movement and even
the Free-Silver movement. They were
all efforts more or less blind to secure
a square deal for the farmers of the
country. This fact has been partly
recognized in the new federal reserve
system. It will not be completely rec-
ognized until a system of rural bank-
ing has been installed that gives the
American farmer an equal chance with
the French and German peasants.
"We cannot hope,” says Mr. Herrick,
"for an increase in the production of
food-stuffs in this country to approxi-
mate the increase in consumption un-
less the deserving tiller of the soil can
be supplied with the funds he needs at
low rates and for long periods. It is
as necessary for the farmer to have
cheap money as it is for the railroad
builder or the manufacturer." He is
so immersed in the subject that he has
written a book on it. It is entitled
"Rural Credits” and has just been pub-
lished by the Appleton Company.
Now anyone can

see with half an eye that in an issue of this sort there are tremendous political as well as economic possibilities. It is of vital interest not only to the farmers as a class but to everybody to whom the high cost of living is a matter of consequence.

There is no reason that we know of for supposing that Herrick has taken it up with a view to the political side, or, indeed, that he has any political ambitions left. His first utterance on returning to this country last month was to disown the presidential “boom” already started by that time and to stigmatize it as “nonsense.” He added, a little impatiently, that whatever credit he might have Copyright, Harris & Ewing

NOWA GRAND CORDON OF THE LEGION OF HONOR earned by his services in France he

When Myron T. Herrick reached New York on his return last month he found awaiting does not propose to capitalize. His him a presidential "boom," a large delegation of fellow-townsmen from Cleveland, O., and a present prominence before the country

decoration from the French government, which had awarded him the Grand Cordon d'Honneur,

which is the highest class of the Legion of Honor and the highest distinction that government is obviously a result of accident rather

awards. than of scheming on his part. In the ordinary course of events, his going to gave him a reputation that in the became a member of the National ReFrance would have removed him from course of a few years made him sought publican Committee. The only offices the stream of political affairs instead after by large banking concerns. He he would accept during this time were of plunging him into the spotlight as became secretary and treasurer of the one as member of the City Council, in it has.

Society for Savings, he organized the which he served for two years, and the Myron T. Herrick's interest in farms Euclid Avenue National Bank, he post of colonel on Governor McKinley's and farmers is not, moreover, linked up various streaks of rust into staff. He had refused, it is said, beaccident. He was raised on a farm the Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway, fore accepting the ambassadorship to in Lorain county, Ohio, where he was he organized the “oatmeal trust,” and France, five diplomatic appointments born sixty years ago. He went to col- in the course of time he succeeded and three appointments to Presidential lege at Oberlin and later at the Ohio Samuel Mather as president of the cabinets. Wesleyan, but had to earn money as Society for Savings and was elected Herrick at sixty looks as if he were he was going through college, and he president of the American Bankers' in the very prime of life, tho his did it by tramping around from one Association. At all times he was near strenuous exertions in trying to take farm to another selling dinner-bells enough to politics to see the wheels go care of four embassies at once in Paris and, for a time, lightning-rods. He around. He was an adviser of William has told upon him somewhat. He taught school and studied law and was McKinley when the latter was still a makes a fine appearance.

He is at admitted to the bar, but fate intended young aspirant for political honors. least six feet tall, erect, well proporhim for a financier. A lucky land He was on fairly intimate terms with tioned, with a splendid head, wavy speculation in Cleveland gave him a Mark Hanna long before the latter be- hair which used to be brown but is start, and his skill in taking hold of came a President-maker.

He was

now iron gray. He has a voice deeply two or three moribund financial institu- delegate to a number of Republican musical, an engaging smile, strong but tions and putting them on their feet national conventions, and in 1900 he not coarse features, and altogether, in




his evening attire, it may be said that but few or none of suffering and se His pride in his native land is never the Apollo Belvedere “has nothing on vere struggle. He has eyes that look provocative. His efficiency is Amerhim.” He is reasonably fond of so- straight into yours, but they do not ican, too, and he has the adaptability ciety, loves good music, good paintings, bore into your soul and they do not of his nation. He made his name so good books. He has a fair amount of challenge you to combat. They are, so honored in France that henceforth it sentiment and poetry in his tempera to say, regardful eyes, kindly discern- must be associated with that of the ment. He is fond of golf and fonder ing eyes, not repellent or suspicious or great Jefferson

and the

greater still of running his own motor cars. even indifferent.

Franklin. The Gaulois is impelled to He believes in the Salvation Army and That he made a hit in France is evi- dwell upon the generosity of Mr. Herhas gone out of his way to indicate this dent from the tone of comment in all rick's instincts, the exquisite timeli• belief in other ways than by the giv- the Paris papers. That tone is far ness of his services not to his own ing of money. He can talk to a polit- from perfunctory or merely polite. It country only but to France herself. ical assemblage or to an after-dinner borders closely on enthusiasm. One He understands France and he lets that audience and do it agreeably and well. scrutinizes the character of Monsieur be known in all his words and in every But he is not an orator and does not Herrick vainly for traces of that cul- emergency. attempt to be one. He does not take ture which develops the

What honors must await so able a himself quite seriously enough for that. mopolite, notes a writer in the Paris man in the land of his birth, suggests Life has evidently been a serious thing Figaro. He is not in the class of the Débats. They are rich in men over with him—no

accomplish Americans who, however delightful there in free, peaceful America, it inwhat he has accomplished and be an personally, have lost the fine flavor of timates, but there can not be another idler or a trifler or a dilettante—but their western atmosphere by breath- Herrick. He has the sincerity of large it has not been tragic. There are no ing too fondly and too intimately the natures, the strength of gentle ones, deep dramas written in his face. It is air of the European. Monsieur Her- the force that goes with greatness. He the face of a man who has found it rick is typically American in the is the true child of America; but comparatively easy to achieve success, twentieth-century style of the type. He France will never forget that she disto make and keep friends, to stay on is the citizen of a republic rivaling covered him, hailed him, loved him good terms with his conscience, and Rome of old in its greatness and first. to keep his body in a fine condition. Athens in its culture and he is con Mr. Herrick disowns and disinherits There are lines of power and mastery, scious but not too conscious of that. his own presidential “boom.”








THE GREATEST WAR IN HISTORY AR did not reveal King the sovereign in the splendid palace ing the warmed-up soup of the regular Albert to the Belgians was a riddle to his people. They were ration, sharing his match with a soldier altho, as the Rome Tri more accustomed to the Leopold of the from whom he has received a cigaret, buna says, it did reveal Congo.

or affording first aid to the injured. him to the world. Long One must go back as far as the There are lines about the Coburg before the crisis came in Belgium, her Homeric age, as the Paris Figaro re mouth that was always the characterpeople had seen their king in the mines marks, for an ideal illustration of all istic feature of the countenance of with a pick and shovel, on the railroads, that Albert, in the capacity of King, King Albert, says a writer in the where he drove an engine, and in the signifies to his Belgians. He is a king French daily. The cheek-bones tend factories, in which he exploited a me with the kingliness of Agamemnon, to prominence and the voice is rough chanical gift for which he was the comrade as well as the sovereign and heavy. The tall figure has lost markable from boyhood. The part he of his soldiers, and his heart is leonine flesh and the complexion is no longer plays to-day is made natural to him by as was the heart of Achilles. Albert, ruddy. There is a slight limp in the temperament. Bitterly, adds our con as king of the Belgians, reveals the walk, for the wound in the foot retemporary, do his people recall the large simplicity of that Diomed who ceived at Antwerp is slow to heal comsolemn warning he addressed three was the bravest and mightiest of the pletely. His presence with his men is years ago to the Senate in Brussels Achaeans before Troy. The Homeric now so much a matter of course that on the subject of the unprepared state virtue of the King of the Belgians, he receives no more attention after the of the kingdom for the conflict that the courage, endurance, strength swift salute from the soldier to whom has come.

His prophetic voice went equip him for the Homeric life he he speaks. The etiquet of peace is unheard.

That, too, was inevitable, leads, charging the foe in the fore- gone completely. Belgians no longer since King Albert is somewhat too front of the battle or lying by night in stand in the King's presence, for that stern, somewhat too serious, for the a circle of his braves, listening to their would be inviting death. His Majesty's comprehension of his people in ordi- tales of war. Albert is a king right rank is quite forgotten as he holds a nary times. He affords the anomalous out of the Iliad, for, while he remains torch while the engineers repair the spectacle of a severely intellectual sov the commander-in-chief of his people, break in a gun carriage or lathers his ereign ruling a thoughtless people, a their judge and their representative be- face to shave himself without the aid grave monarch in a normally gay fore the world, he is no more a despot of a mirror. He was knocked down realm. The soul of Belgium is artistic than was Menelaus or Ulysses. Like by a wounded horse during the retreat and the soul of her King is Roman. the true Homeric prince, he helps in from Antwerp, and as his car had been His stern devotion to sociology, his the building of trenches and acts as his commandeered for ambulance purposes dreams of a paradise on earth for own charioteer, or, as we moderns say, he walked into France surrounded by the workers in mine and mart, have chauffeur. His sway is so absolute be- thousands of troops as ragged and hunbrought upon him ridicule and criti cause it is founded upon the example gry as himself. He is so familiar a cisms of the sarcastic sort. Even his of heroism that he sets and his people figure on the fighting line that no sentry genius, mathematical and mechanical, love him because he lives their life. ever demands evidence of his identityseemed alien to his environment, for Glimpses of King Albert, afforded an embarrassment to which General Brussels was before her tragedy the frequently in accounts from the trench- Joffre was subjected on at least one giddiest capital in all the world, and es, reveal him in a soiled uniform, eat recent occasion.

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