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fore a year is out the lack of certain essentials in the de "lle must certainly realize that the war has not yet struction of mankind will bring them up against a stone reached its supreme point. In the west we have for months wall, in which there is no exit except by the acknowledg been fastened to the same spot, facing the superior forces ment of their defeat."

of the foe. ...

"Neither has a decisive victory yet been reached in the Modification of the German east. The Austrians have not been able to continue their Press Attitude.

attack in Galicia, according to the plan of campaign.

Rather, the Russians have gained ground there. We should press in commenting upon the vicissitudes of the regard it as a misdeed against our people if we were to campaign and upon the prospect for the immediate gloss over this naked truth. We are of the opinion that future. “We will admit," says the Berlin Jorgenpost,

it is far more patriotic to look the danger squarely in the for example, “that we had in many respects imagined

face and to cherish no illusions regarding the present po

sition. that victory over our opponents would be easier than

"We do not know whether the war will end in the present it appears after the first triumphs to be." Socialist

year. On the other hand, it is a fact that in the spring the dailies have in some instances been disciplined for a

struggle must be carried on with fresh forces, seeing that tone of pessimism, while even the organ of the solidly

the English army, which in truth does not exist on paper established industrial interests, the Rheinisch-West- only, but is a reality, will then appear in the French fälische Zeituny, makes these remarks:

theater of war. That is the situation.”

STRATEGICAL POSITION OF THE BELLIGERENTS ON

ON THE EVE OF THE SPRING

SPRING CAMPAIGN GERMANY has lost the initiative. Great Britain

ports of dissensions between German commanders and . France is ready to hurl her re those of Austria-Hungary are wild inventions, accordserves of a million men in conjunction with Kitchener's ing to the expert of the Kreus-Zeitung, who notes, too, army upon the northern line. Italy is going into the the misapprehension in western Europe regarding the war. Austria is no longer to be taken seriously. The might of Russia in the field : Turkish stroke has failed. Russia, even if Warsaw

"The fantastically overrated treasure and troops of Russhould fall, will press Germany hard in the eastern

sia, about which so much is said now in the newspapers of theater, thus weakening the Kaiser's resistance in the

our enemies, do not daunt us in the least. To be sure, west. Such is the situation in outline on the eve of

since the year 1907 much has been done to strengthen the the eighth month of the European war, as we have it Russian army and navy. Yet, with all the patriotism in from the press of the allies. The military experts of the world, it is impossible in seven years to bring about the London Times, the Paris Figaro and the Petrograd in a military force the promptness, the initiative and the Novoye Vremnya are in substantial agreement on these efficiency which are so essential in the command of a campoints, except that the Russian daily is rather more dis paign. These are the qualities in which Russia found herposed to see victories for the Grand Duke's strategy

self lacking deplorably in the struggle with Japan. These than are his western contemporaries. These experts

qualities are not improvized on a sudden and least of all

in a land like Russia. That is why the very numbers at the point out, moreover, that while the tactics of the war

disposal of the Russian general staff are a source of emthe operations upon the field of actual battle-remain

barrassment when it comes to providing them with aminvolved in some obscurity, the strategy of the cam munition, with weapons and with food and uniforms." paigns is published far and wide. There is no concealment of the grand plan upon which each belligerent is

Expectation of Germany's proceeding. This renders comment upon the outlook

coming Effort in the

West. for the immediate future more intelligent, altho it does 110t remove the difficulty of estimating the results so

,

experts, the German armies will undertake a sufar achieved.

preme effort in the west. There is a suspicion in Paris, Confidence of German

according to the Figaro, that Emperor William initiates Military Experts. a drive in the direction of Poland in order to throw

General Joffre off his guard. What the allies have to in the civil population of Germany; but the spirit expect, at any rate, opines the expert of the London of her military experts was never so hopeful. In the

Times, is that Germany, "in view of the general situaVossische Zeitung, the Kreus-Zcitung, and the Kölni tion, which is only superficially advantageous to her," sche Zeitung we find serene confidence in the capacity may make a last violent effort in the west before the of the Kaiser's commanders to retain all that has been allied armies are all assembled and before the seasons won. They tell us that Paris ceased to be the objective in the east, and the completed preparations of states of the western forces when Great Britain was realized

which contemplate the abandonment of their neutrality, as the "essential enemy.” The task before the general place Emperor William's forces at a manifest disadstaff is the reduction of the island foe. In the east the

vantage : aim is to defeat one after another the Russian armies

“What we must be prepared to meet is the replacement coming to the frontier, and this has been done. From the standpoint of German strategy to-day, moreover,

of first line German troops in the trenches by half-baked

levies, and the assembly at one or more points of a great the problem of the war is England. Berlin dailies at

mass of active army corps for a last and decisive attempt last agree that the issue of the struggle is to be decided

to break through. Between Arras and the Oise is not an at sea because Germany has already won on land. Re unlikely front for such an operation. . .

FOOD, or rather the want of it

, inspires some dismay

both his own country and England, he will be able to deal a powerful blow at some strategic point. This is to be the outstanding feature of the spring campaign just ahead.

"If we regard the general situation we shall not be so foolish as to wish to goad this commander or that into a premature offensive. We can bide our hour in the knowledge that the commanders of the Allies in the west fully realize what Germany may be about and are quite prepared for her. It is not likely, do what Germany may, that she will ever again advance in Flanders under such favorable conditions as those which she enjoyed in October and November last, while on the rest of the allied front the French keep guard, and we shall all welcome a German advance. If no such advance takes place then we shall act at our own time—all the Allies and all together-so that whether we have already and finally broken the German offensive, or whether one more convulsive effort on Germany's part is still to be expected, we can make our minds easy concerning the result.”

Strategy of a Railway War

in Europe. TERI 'ERRITORIAL details conflict hopelessly in official

reports of the ground held by Germans and allies, yet, according to the careful expert of the London Truth, if we compare the existing situation in the east with that in the west, we see that far from being unfavorable to the Russians, the balance is the other way. In the west, he says, all the enemy's territories which the allies have so far occupied is a small slice of Alsace. In the east the Russians have conquered three-quarters of Galicia .(the Kreus-Zeitung admits no such thing) and the whole of the Bukovina (a mendacity, comments the Kölnische) amounting to twice the territory which the Germans occupy in France, besides a strip of East Prussia which very nearly corresponds in size to that part of Belgian territory which is now in the enemy's possession. (Von Hindenburg has driven the Russians out, notes the V ossische.) It is indeed conceded by the expert of London Truth that the Germans are in occupation of a great part of Russian Poland, but they have paid dearly for it in lives :

SUCCES

Has Germany's Strategy

Definitely Failed? UCCESS for Germany depends entirely upon her

capacity to retain what she has won in the land campaign. This seems to be the one point upon which a German expert and a British or French expert can agree. But whereas the Kölnische Zeitung and its contemporaries in the fatherland insist that the troops of the Kaiser will not recede, but advance, if anything, the London Post and the Paris Temps tell us that a German retreat is to be the next development. It may not be witnessed this spring, altho on that detail optimism prevails in the camps of the allies. Thus, one of the great living authorities upon war in its scientific aspect, Lord Sydenham, better known to many as Sir George Sydenham Clarke, says in the Manchester Guardian that on both fronts the Germans appear to be held fast, even if we assume that they will penetrate to Warsaw. “Their offensive plan of campaign must be regarded as having definitely failed, altho the German people as a whole are probably quite unaware of the real military situation.” In France, Joffre wisely avoids a general attack upon strongly entrenched positions, which could only succeed at a heavy cost of life. He waits until, with the large forces now in preparation in

“This is a railway war, and if only the Grand Duke had half the numbers of railways in Poland that the Germans have in the provinces of Silesia and Posen, von Hindenburg's successive attacks would have been checked by superior force before there had been time for them to inaterialize. That the Grand Duke should have done as much as he has is a testimony to the strategical skill which he has displayed in parrying the attacks made on his position by his redoubtable antagonist. On no single occasion has he allowed his hands to be forced, nor has he ever feared to withdraw from an untenable position, even when by so doing, as in the case of the retirement in the first week of December to the line of the Bzura and Pilitza rivers, his action had the appearance of defeat.”

Japan, it is said, would not take the Philippines as a gift. But that's not what we're afraid of.- Baltimore mcrican.

Just at present even the young wife's bread shows a tendency to rise.—Chicago Herald.

CONDITIONS OF JAPAN'S APPEARANCE AS A
BELLIGERENT IN EUROPE

pean theater of the war if a German triumph should statement on the subject of Japan's possible ap threaten to neutralize the effect of the capture of Tsingpearance as a belligerent in the European theater of the tau and only then. The logical course of Japanese inwar have not yet been successful. Not only is the tervention, we are told, would be by way of Poland. usually communicative statesman evasive to the news Japan might, however, prefer to take the field against paper correspondents, according to the Vossische Zei Turkey because the “freedom of the Suez Canal”—that tung (Berlin), but his absorption in the political cam is, its complete control by Great Britain—is a vital conpaign renders access to him difficult. The election takes sideration to official Tokyo.. place at the end of the present month. Its leading issue,

Japanese Objection to Japanese in the light of the comment in vernacular Japanese

Intervention in Europe.
with an extension
.

. in Mr. Yukio Ozaki. Should the Seiyu-kai or constitu France is rumored to have extended an invitation. tional party retain its ascendancy in the house, suspects Japanese officers are said to be actually commanding the our German contemporary, Japan will not soon appear Russian artillery in Poland. Other accounts represent as a belligerent in Europe. Indeed, the Hochi Shim these soldiers as merely “observers.” Japan, dreading bun, a Tokyo paper in touch with official opinion, has events in China, will remain in Asia. Thus the Hochi outlined the possibilities definitely. Japan, it says, will returning to the subject and thus, too, the Kokumin, intervene energetically and without delay in the Euro which says Japan is not India but an independent na

ATTITUDE OF JAPAN IN WORLD POLITICS

163

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tion with her own interests to defend. The Vichi Nichi widely read by the commercial classes and the exalted can not see how a force really worth while could be sent bureaucrats, urges the English to expel the Germans from Japan to Europe. The financial considerations from Belgium without delay for the sake of the moral involved alone make the suggestion impracticable, says effect. Notwithstanding Japanese faith in the supremacy The Japan IVeekly Chronicle, issued in English in of the British fleet, it adds, this German occupation of Tokyo. These and other Japanese impressions, includ Belgium remains a serious menace to the future of the ing that of a high official quoted in the Paris Temps, allies in the war. Their business is to bend every energy do not alter the belief in certain influential European to free Belgium from the invader. The Nichi Nichi is military circles that Japan at the right time will be a far from convinced that the progress of the war hitherparticipant in the European field. The Paris Homine to is favorable to British arms, and even the Asahi enchaîné, inspired by Clemenceau, says the project has (Osaka), altho professing confidence in the might of not fallen through by any means.

It is all a matter of the British fleet, thinks the Japanese ought to prepare terms.

themselves to hear the worst respecting the fortunes of

their ally
Japanese Press on the War
Situation in Europe.
as

Count Okuma Elucidates the
Post remarks, the average Japanese journalist is

Japanese Point of View. almost wholly ignorant of conditions in the United EUROPE should pay no attention to hints that Japan States and England. "If the editors are in this condi will take advantage of the crisis to create a new tion, the people must be even more grossly ignorant of yellow peril or to revive an old one, says Premier western life.” The remark has special reference to the

Okuma, who has been stirred by German newspaper two thousand or more newspapers published all over

allegations to that effect. It will be Japan's one ambiJapan in the native tongue. Less than half of the two tion at this time, he declares over his own signature in score vernacular organs issued in Tokyo are taken seri

The Japan Magazine (Tokyo), to prove that she can ously in Europe, a fact which must be borne in mind in work harmoniously with great western powers for the connection with recent anti-American outbursts in support and protection of the highest ideals of civilizapopular prints. The influential Kokunin Shimbun tion, "even to the extent of dying for them.” Not only (Tokyo), solidly respectable and widely circulated, in in the far East, "but anywhere else that may be necessists that Japanese relations with the United States are sary," Japan is ready to lay down her life for the prinfriendly. It sees a grave peril to the future of mankind ciples that the foremost nations will die for. “She in German occupation of Belgium. That event is cer

entered the alliance with Great Britain to stand for and tain to inflame the Jingoes in Berlin, it opines, who will

die for what Anglo-Saxons are everywhere ready to strive for naval expansion. Germany's object is to in defend even unto death.” Japan's relation to the crease her coast line in Europe, the Tokyo daily argues. present conflict is as a defender of the things that make Belgium affords an opportunity. It will be held by the

for civilization and a more permanent peace.

In Germans to the last moment, even at the risk of com

writing thus, Count Okuma echoes the sentiments of promising the safety of East Prussia. The Jiji Shimpo, the leading Japanese dailies, those which are quoted as

having authority in Europe. Unfortunately, as the London Post laments, a prodigious amount of misinformation on the subject of England and the United States is circulated in the less responsible vernacular press, a circumstance which may have its effect upon the result of the election now only a few weeks off.

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French Agitation Over Japan

as a Belligerent. FRENO RENCH opinion has for some weeks past been agi

tated by reports that Japan is to receive territorial concessions in Indo-China as a reward for the help expected of her in Europe. There have been no negotiations on any such basis between Tokyo and Paris, according to the well-informed Temps. Japan's assistance is highly desirable, none the less, affirms the Petit Journal (Paris), inspired by former foreign minister Pichon. Emperor Yoshihito, it believes, has given a direct intimation that he favors the despatch of a large force to the western theater of the war without delay. Twelve army corps can be transported with comparatively little trouble from Japan to Europe, and the sooner they come the better, thinks this daily. Numerous French newspapers hint that the arrival in Europe of some half million Japanese troops would facilitate the final extinction of German militarism. Without such aid the cause of the allies may languish. Such utterances are deprecated by the influential Paris bats. It confesses its wish for Japanese cooperation in Europe, but it urges these considerations :

Bronstang
REACHING OUT

-San Francisco Chronicle

“To begin with, from a military standpoint, nothing jus- emergence of Japan in the capacity of savior of the tifies the inference that Japanese aid would produce, in a white man from his own brother. The Russkoye Slovo relatively short time, the result desired. Other aid may be admits the importance of the military effect if Japan afforded sooner without sacrifices on our part. It can even

came to fight in Europe. The Germans would be in a be affirmed that such aid will be given, not because we will

panic, it opines : have succeeded in securing it, but because, apart from any consideration of sympathy or diplomacy, there are in Europe two nations who will be compelled by regard for their

“One can not help agreeing with those influential French

publicists who tell us that Japanese intervention in the own interests to come into line against Austria-Hungary.

European war would render a great service to the cause of Whether the present governments like it or not, they will

peace and civilization. To be sure, the Franco-Anglo-Belbe forced to come in. Their intervention will precipitate

gian army can without aid prevail over the presumptuous almost at once the crash of the Austro-Hungarian military

foe. But the most humane war is that which is over the machine.

soonest. From this standpoint, there should be no false “Now, for various reasons, this intervention will not be

pride and no consideration of purely chimerical yellow delayed beyond a date at which it would be possible for the

perils. first Japanese army corps to be landed on our continent.”

"Nevertheless, the despatch of Japanese troops to Europe is not a matter calling for discussion at this time. The

sending of such troops over the immense distance involved Tokyo and London in Negotiation for Japanese Aid.

would present great technical difficulties. Altho the

Indian, Canadian and Australian troops have been brought London and Tokyo have for the past six weeks had

across the ocean, it must not be forgotten that they belong in view the defense of Egypt by a Japanese force, or so

in a special sense to the military organization of Great

Britain and that their real headquarters would be in Lonthe Berlin dailies tell us. Japan longs to enter the field

don. The Japanese army, on the other hand, would have against Turkey, thinks the Vossische Zeitung. The

to depend upon Tokyo for supplies and arms, for its amBritish troops in Egypt would make way for an army munition and artillery are of special home design. These now in Korea. Constantinople has just experienced a technical problems could, indeed, be solved through effiJapanese scare, arrests of alleged Chinamen as spies ciency. from Tokyo taking place by wholesale. Japan con “More serious would be the political problem involved templates the protection of the Suez Canal by a force in Japanese intervention. The extension of the world obof at least two hundred thousand men. The English ligations and responsibilities of Japan must entail certain could then concentrate their energies in Flanders. Ja

conditions, for no great nation will consent to shed the

blood of its children solely tó vindicate the principles of pan would collect an indemnity from Germany. These

international justice. Japan can get no compensation at details have inspired much comment in Russian news

German expense, for the African colonies of Germany are papers, which make much of American objection to any

too far away and her Pacific islands are too insignificant, such procedure. The Washington government, thinks to say nothing of the suspicions that would arise in the a writer in the Noroye I’remya, might not like the American mind.”

If San Francisco is wise she will make the Pacific coast eliminate all anti-Japanese agitation until after Congress has paid the bills for the customary exposition deficit.—Boston Transcript.

There shouldn't be any trouble establishing a popular government in Mexico, considering the sort of government that seems to be most popular in that country.—Chicago Herald.

GROWING IMPORTANCE OF THE POPE

THE POPE AS A FACTOR

IN THE EUROPEAN CRISIS WITH

ITH the approach of the day upon which Italy bassadors. With some of these powers Italy may be

must decide whether to remain a neutral or to at war to-morrow. Their representatives at the Vatibecome a belligerent, Rome is occupied more and more can are inviolable. They can correspond with their with rumors concerning alleged negotiations between governments secretly. They enjoy the immuntiy of the Quirinal and the Vatican. One or two conversa accredited diplomatists. tions or alleged conversations between the pontifical secretary of state, Cardinal Gasparri, and an exalted

Benedict XV. as a Sovereign Italian official, form the subject of editorial conjecture

in Rome. in Italian dailies so important as the Stampa, the Peri BENEDICT #T: has been invited to dismiss the enseveransa and the Corriere della Sera, which agree that voy's at his court from the powers with which Italy's appearance as a belligerent must place the Vati Italy may find herself at war before long. In their can in a very extraordinary position. The ministerial place he would be permitted to receive ecclesiastics Tribuna confirms these rumors after a fashion. Higli from the countries involved, provided those ecclesiastics Italian officials and exalted Vatican ecclesiastics, it says, were already Vatican functionaries. What the Pope study with anxiety the grave problem sure to confront thinks of the suggestion is not known, but the Tribuna both the civil power and the church should the Quirinal hints that were his Holiness conciliatory in his attitude declare war. The famous "law of guarantees" whereby the Vatican would be allowed to send a representative Italy assures territorial sovereignty to the Vatican pre to the peace conference, whenever it assembles. Italy, cincts, besides recognizing the Pope's right to govern that is to say, would not object. France, it is assumed, the church with independence, raises delicate questions would not object either. The Viviani ministry, indeed, relative to a state of war. There are at the Holy See offered no objection whatever to the reception by the envoys from powers to whom the Pope sends his am Sultan in Constantinople of the envoy from the Pope.

THE PRISOVER OF THE VATICAN IN IVAR TINE

165

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Mahmoud 1. received the representative of Benedict XV. with every assurance of his desire to protect Roman Catholics within his dominions. The diplomatic corps accredited to the Vatican has, since the arrival of the Servian and British representatives, become a highly important feature of the international situation. Cardinal Gasparri has a delicate task, notes the Paris Figaro, between the envoy from Prussia and the envoy from Belgium, who fill his ears with their complaints.

Delicacy of the Position

of the Vatican. N VIEW of the events of the past month, the em

barrassments of the Vatican seem to the Paris Temps well calculated to tax the capacity of Benedict XV. and his advisers. The church is an international institution, we are reminded by the organ of the French foreign office, and the Pope must strive to adjust the balance between his warring children very nicely indeed. His efforts to maintain a strict neutrality involve him now with the Belgians and again with the Germans. Moreover the Austrians regard or profess to regard with stupefaction the relations between Servia and the Vatican. The cry in Vienna is that the Vatican is going over to the Slavs. It seems to the Temps that Austria-Hungary and Germany enjoy on the whole a preponderating influence at the l'atican. This is the result of Emperor William's assiduous cultivation of the papal power. Naturally, this state of affairs is not pleasing to Roman Catholics in Belgium and in France. who are continually urging the pontifical secretary of state to open the eyes of the Holy Father to the true character of Emperor William. The faithful in Latin countries are scandalized because the Pope, in a letter to the German sovereign, used the phrase: “placing my reliance upon your sentiments of Christian charity," and so forth. This was a mere matter of style, explains the Paris Figaro, for his Holiness has long made up his mind, it ventures to think, regarding the true character of the "imperial bandit.”

THE CARDINAL WITO DIRECTS THE NEW VATICAN

DIPLOMACY Monsignor Gasparri, pontifical secretary of state, is said to be negotiating with the Italian government for at least a qualified recognition by Pope and King of one another officially as sovereigns.

thing would create a profound sensation. To-day the episode is lost in the general European uproar but it reminds Europe of the fact that Benedict XV. is a great diplomatist of the school of Rampolla and Leo XIII. and that he was made Pope for this very reason.

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German powers and the Latin ones, his special embarrassment in Italy seems to the Paris Temps the

How the Pope Would Rule

if Italy Went to War.

greatest of all. Anticlerical organs and Socialist dailies ONCE Italy had severed diplomatic relations with

Italy of deserting the cause of their own country in favor of the international policy of the Vatican. One of the accredited leaders of the Roman Catholic party in Italy, the Count della Torre, gave the lie recently to these charges. The Catholics, he said, are for neutrality, but not for absolute neutrality. The Catholics, he said, are true to the highest interests of their country. Neutrality for Italy is desirable only as the highest interests of Italy do not appear to be menaced by the situation as it exists. This assertion was authorized by the Vatican, says the well-informed Temps. Clerical organs in Italy highly approve of it. They agree with the Count della Torre that when Italy declares war, the faithful in Italy must accept the verdict loyally. In ordinary times, notes our French contemporary, a Vatican declaration that the Catholic party in Italy would yield obedience to the King in any

Emperor William, a peril would confront the Roman government in the shape of the Pope's diplomatic corps. Envoys to the Pope would be corresponding with their respective chancelleries, says the Temps. They must be granted immunity from search and seizure. These privileges do not harm Italy when she is at peace. How admit, on the other hand, that in the very capital of the Italian nation, there shall be envoys from the lands with which its government is waging war? Italy could not permit the correspondence of these envoys to pass through her post uncensored, seeing that information of the greatest consequence to an enemy could thus be transmitted safely. There have been no official negotiations between the Vatican and the Quirinal on this subject for the reason that Italy will not openly acknowledge contemplation of the possibilty of war. When and if war comes, however, a new code for the

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