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-Williams in Boston Traveler

A Great Battle at Sea

Impending. NGLISHMEN have little doubt that the German

fleet now in seclusion will sooner or later break forth into the North Sea and try conclusions with Sir John Jellicoe. Italian comment implies that the Kaiser may keep his fleet intact until the very end of the war. Germany would thus remain the world's second naval power and might secure more favorable terms in that capacity. This argument, altho plausible, as the London Times has admitted, loses force to English experts as the situation on land develops. As for the Berlin experts, they accept for their navy the position and, consequently, the function of "the inferior fleet." What, then, is the function of the inferior fleet? First, replies the expert of the Manchester Guardian, it should make use of the threat comprised in the very existence of the naval forces intact to prevent the enemy from transporting troops overseas within range at least of the smaller craft. “If anyone had said before the beginning of the war that, in spite of Germany's thirty submarines —we say nothing of her swarms of torpedo craft-England would be able to transport a large army across to France and support it by continual reinforcements, almost without loss, he would scarcely have been believed.” The German Heet ought certainly to perform this part of its duty as the inferior fleet. Again, were there no German fleet, it would be possible to land a British army on German soil. A Russian army could be set ashore on the Baltic coast. Even if these things were not actually done, the Germans would be forced to detach valuable forces to prevent invasion. The hazard of a decisive battle, which may appeal to them as a naval proposition, might by some miracle result in the defeat of Sir John Jellicoe. Whatever be the nature of the debate in German naval circles, Admiral Ingenohl is assumed in England to want a fight.

German Determination to Wear

Down the English Fleet. A

imagination, the exploits of German squadrons in "holing" British cruisers and invading British harbors have not altered the balance of naval power. The battle off the Falkland Islands has left the situation about where it was when the war began as regards naval power, notes the expert of the Paris Gaulois. This daily understands that the completion of Britishı Dreadnoughts on the stocks has been so accelerated that two great units have been added to the fleet since the war began. This story lacks confirmation, like tale of the resurrection of the battleship Audacious. Germany, according to the Paris daily, can not complete her three Dreadnoughts in the building yards owing to lack of copper and chemicals. These reports are pronounced fantastic in the Berlin press, but the experts are censored and details are withheld. Nor can much that is definite be gleaned in foreign dailies respecting the monstrous submarines to be used in the German invasion of England. The policy of "attrition" is maintained in Berlin. British battleships are to be picked off. Mines are to be laid. The English coast is to be raided.

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Germany Endures a Greater

Naval Strain Than Ever. FACING each other in the North Sea when the

war broke out, to turn to the naval expert of the Westuninster Gasette, the Englishı had thirty battleships and


-Minor in N. Y. Evening World

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cruisers of the latest type opposed to twenty-one Ger William can continue to exist without making some man ships of similar design and construction. Each effort to justify the enormous sacrifices involved in the side had supplementary ships of older date and some fact of its existence. Berlin dailies suggest by their what less nominal fighting value. For months now somewhat guarded comment upon the naval outlook Germany has not attempted to use her vast naval force that German sea-power will be an important factor in for any strategical or tactical purpose whatever, unless that invasion of England which is soon to be attempted.

are to take seriously the effects of the recent The English will be taught, according to the Kreuscoast raids. The effects were serious to individuals Zeitung, that German might at sea is real.

The war and to single units taken by themselves, but upon the is five months old, says the London Telegraph, in reply, balance of naval power they have had no effect at all. but not a single German battleship has put to sea. GerGermany has submitted without a struggle to the total man cruisers, apparently, are more active. As regards loss of her position as a naval power in the world at the war at sea, England thinks she has won already. large. She foregoes all oversea trade still. She suffers an incalculable loss of prestige. She incurs a serious risk in her efforts to meet the economic crisis at home.

Austria is still busy capturing crerything in sight-officially.

Kansas City Stur. No doubt her fleet could not emerge from its lurking

The Khedive is to lead the Turks into Egypt. They may not place without tremendous risk. Nevertheless it remains

need anybody to lead them out again.—Kansas City Star. clifficult for the expert we follow here to understand

The "dreadnought' is misnamed when the submarine is around. how so vast and powerful a Aeet as that of Emperor —Knickerbocker Press.


TO PARIS MUCH pressure of a tactful kind was exerted upon

upon the western front, the Russians begin a new drive President Poincaré, in the light of Vienna news in Poland. Even, therefore, if the Kaiser ordered a paper reports, before he consented to the return of the fresh rush upon Paris the Grand Duke Nicholas would French government to Paris. President Poincaré, who make all operations very hot in the east. His mobilizaexerts a more direct influence upon affairs than any tion is complete. of his predecessors in office, dreaded the effects upon the German mind of a defiant return to the ancient

Progress of the German Strug

gle Towards Paris. capital when an invading army is but seventy miles off.


ERVANY still hopes through repeated attacks He argued that the Kaiser might order just such a

upon the lines of the allies in the west to find a movement upon Paris as was directed against Calais.

place weak enough for an effective piercing movement. Desperate as such a step might prove, the Germans

This is realized perfectly at Paris, according to the would be tempted to sacrifice everything for the sake

Figaro, which insists that there is nothing tangible to of the prestige of success. Even if they failed to seize

base the German hope upon. General Joffre remains Paris itself, their appearance in the environs in con

true to his tactical conception of an immense reserve. sequence of some tactical accident at the front would

Wherever the line of the allies suffers from German embarrass the cause of the allies. Then, too, a second

activity, the reserve makes good the deficiency. Miliflight from Paris as a measure of insurance must affect

tary Berlin finds in these tactics an insoluble problem, European opinion even if the city did not fall. The

says the French daily. Paris, it adds, is perfectly safe. Kaiser would not a second time commit the blunder of

The Germans are sarcastically invited to test the truth ordering five army corps to Poland at a critical moment.

of that statement by experiment. The news from the It is possible, too, that the deadlock at the front is part

front in Belgium suggests to the London Times, too, of some subtle German plan to disarm the suspicions

that the German offensive is slackening and that the of the French, to give them a poor opinion of their foe.


Paris Again a Seat of


transfer of the French government from Bordeaux back to Paris became an accomplished fact. The deciding circumstance to the expert of the Débats (Paris) was the decreasing mobility of the vast German army owing to the breakdown of the strategic railroad system. Berlin has imposed so terrific a strain upon roadbeds and rolling stock in the swift (lespatch of regiments and divisions from one front to the other that repairs must be made all the time. The lines suffer, again, from lack of material indispensable in making repairs, and this material, which must in some cases be imported, is on the contraband list compiled by the British. Nor can the long runs of the locomotives continue, however urgent the strategical necessity of transferring corps from east to west. So complete is the cooperation of the allies that whenever pressure falls

DOGS ( WIR These are Red Cross dogs of the German army, waiting the call into action. They are used for hunting out the wounded men and guiding the rescuers to them. They have proved very helpful and a recent dispatch tells of additions to the canine corps.




permanently at the disposal of the German military authorities for requisitions and measures of public order. The Germans live on the country.

At least one-eighth of France is under Emperor William's rule to-day. The Germans have requisitioned the ablebodied to thresh the wheat. They have taken over all the big mills on the Aisne, setting aside for their own use in field bakeries what flour they want. The same fate has overtaken the sugar refineries. They exploit the mines in the conquered territory, forcing the inhabitants to labor without pay. Wool and raw materials generally have been seized and sent to Germany. Even the shirts the men and the stockings of the women have been commandeered for the Germans in the trenches. These troops are said in our contemporary's columns to be living “amid perfect abundance and quietude, and smoking big cigars stolen in Brussels.” They are told by their officers that the march upon

Paris is delayed because cholera rages there. FuncGONE TO HOLLAND

tionaries have been sent from Germany to assist the The Belgian refugees, before their flight from their native town, took

military in administering northern France. Male inthis method of making known their future addresses to their relatives and friends, postal facilities being no longer available.

habitants are forced to work as road-makers. These conflict is lapsing once more into a series of artillery

labors make military motor traffic swift and easy. In duels. The lull, it admits, is only temporary and its

the conquered portion of France, moreover, the Ger

mans have begun the publication of newspapers. There chief interest is that it may be taken to mark the close

is at Hirson, for instance, a Journal which declares that of the latest and by far the greatest of the German efforts to achieve Emperor William's aims in France.

the Germans love and respect the French. France, it

adds, was misled by the mendacity of the English, who Whatever aims his Majesty had, however, declares the Petit Parisien, have been abandoned as far as France is

know very well that France and Germany are natural

allies. The Germans did not wish to take Paris, for concerned. It says the march on Paris will never be

that would humiliate France. Whenever the Germans resumed.

start a newspaper on conquered soil in the west, the German Interpretation of comment is along these lines.

the French Campaign. IN N ALL their comment upon the situation in France

Political Outlook in and Belgium, military experts in London and Paris

France To-day. neglect the fundamental German conception of the war; GREAT precautions were taken by Premier Viviani conception is based upon the "unity” of the war. The in Paris to insure perfect harmony among the several general staff in Berlin is not conducting three separate groups. There will be no signs of division among and distinct wars against France, against Russia and Frenchmen, comments the Temps, in the course of the against England. The war to Germany is one. An present parliamentary session. The ministry now in operation in the west is coordinated with an operation power reflects every faction in the chamber. This body in the east. French dailies treat each episode by itself, had barely passed through the ordeal of its election omitting its relation to the German campaign as a when the war-cloud darkened the horizon of Europe. whole. They have contrived in consequence to convey

It gathered for the first time last June. The Socialists, a false notion of what has been effected. They think under the hapless Jean Jaurès, controlled over a hunthe Germans are waiting for the ground to become

dred votes. The groups of the radical left numbered harder in Flanders, making it difficult for the enemy 164 more. Against them are the more moderate reto entrench. They infer that Germany lacks men to publicans and the conservative "right.” Thus the radimake an offensive movement in northern France effect cal element controls the chamber of deputies altho the ive. The fact is that “one single great plan of war is ministry of Viviani includes leaders of the extreme being carried out and there is no pursuit of partial suc conservative party. The first subject to be taken up by cesses, no premature attack.” To this the expert of the the ministry must be finance, according to the Temps, Gaulois replies that the Emperor William entered the but the more radical organs, and especially the paper war with a single plan of campaign—the crushing of edited by the great Clemenceau, seem inclined to make France and the checking of Russia. Unfortunately for an issue of the censorship and of the activities of royalthe Germans, they were under the spell of their suc ists. The latter, if we may trust the radical republican cesses at Sedan and elsewhere when the third Napo- organs, are making capital out of the position won by leon was Emperor.

King Albert of Belgium. There are vague hints that

a certain republican general was disgraced by monarDesolation in the North of France.

chical reactionaries in high command. Premier Viviani N

ORTHERN France suffers under the German oc will do his best, notes the Berlin Kreus-Zeitung, to

cupation a martyrdom which, in the opinion of the prevent the explosion of any unpleasant scandal, but Paris Temps, is comparable in its agonies with that of he will have difficulty in ruling a chamber so turbulent Belgium herself. There is a "commandatur" in every by temperament and so excited by the crisis the country locality. The mayors and the municipal councillors are is passing through




AGAINST GERMANY L m2 was evacuated by orders of the Grand Duke Prussia, he tells us, is defended by its marshes and Nicholas at the time when the military experts of lakes, between which the passages are narrow.

"Here Europe, including here and there a Briton, were con the first Russian invasion under the unfortunate Sasjecturing that perhaps the allies have all along been too sonoff and Rennenkampf penetrated into the country optimistic on the subject of Russia. The failure of the as far as Königsberg, but the results of that invasion German advance upon Warsaw as far back as October were so unfortunate that it is not likely to be taken as last was taken too seriously in western Europe, perhaps, a model now.” The people of East Prussia are said, observes the Rome Tribuna. The Germans, with the nevertheless, to be once more taking refuge in Berlin. assistance of the Austrians, tried to repeat in Poland, The German general staff is said to have given orders as the London Times reminds us, some of the charac that the country be evacuated and laid waste. Apparteristics of their first great rush upon Paris. Their ad- ently, therefore, they may decide, if the Russian presvance was necessarily slower, owing to the nature of sure becomes severe, not to offer very serious opposithe country; but it was rapid enough to give the Rus tion on this front. The Russians will claim “victories” sians many awkward problems for solution. The main as they advance. The truth may well be that the Gerpurpose of the Germans was to establish themselves mans want the enemy to advance a long way into their upon the line of the Vistula. To that end, they deemed country in order to defeat them by a swift concentrait necessary to seize Warsaw, largely because their oc tion. All news from the eastern theater of the war cupation of the Polish capital would “hearten the flag must be read between the lines, therefore, for the next ging spirits of their troops and have a correspondingly month at least. The whole campaign has been inconbad moral effect upon the Russians.” The originai clusive. movement upon Warsaw was bold and audacious. It succeeded so well that the Germans were once within

Advantages of the Germans half a day's march of Warsaw. In the end they retired

in Fighting the Russians.

MPRESSIONS of a Russian army on the first stage swiftly. The campaign between Russia and Germany

of a march to Berlin can have no validity just now. has since been one of many vicissitudes. The episode

These are the conclusions of a very competent military at Lodz now suggests a new riddle to the experts. Is the German project of occupying Russian Poland as

expert in England, writing for the Manchester Liberal a means of stemming the Russian tide within measur

organ. His judgment is endorsed by the comments of able distance of accomplishment?

the Figaro's expert, who deprecates too blind an optimism. On their eastern frontier, notes the Briton, 390,

the Germans have an exceedingly strong line of forts Difficulties of the Campaign and the fortified place is by no means discredited by for Russia.

events in Belgium. These German fortresses are conevents in Poland, opines the well-informed mili

nected by strategic railroads which enable the defence tary expert of the Manchester Guardian, becomes the

to concentrate superior numbers at a given point. “At Russian problem of the invasion of Germany. Eastern

the same time the fortresses make excellent bases for the sudden launching of attack against the heads of the invading columns as they emerge from shelter.” It was by a series of such attacks that the misadventure

of the Russians at Lodz was rendered inevitable, as CZARS

this expert foresaw. They began these tactics last LOVORO

November when the Russians were in force between Lyck and the River Warta. They have since repeated the maneuver dozens of times. The configuration of the frontier and the splendid system of strategic railways

give the Germans opportunities which embarrassed the cabar's

Russians greatly. (457ER

One Continuous Battle

in Poland. FROM Warsaw to Kolo—the extreme western point

attained by the Czar's army proper—the Russian advance has been a series of sanguinary struggles, says the military expert of the London II' estminster Gazette. Each of these struggles a century ago, he tells us, would have been given a name and remembered as a “great” battle. This "battle of Poland" has a certain unity. It might be considered as a gigantic Borodino with the substitution of towns tens oi miles apart for the villages and farms on the old-time battle fronts. As re

ported in the despatches from day to dlay, this “battle 71.

of Poland" seems a chain of apparently unconnected in

cidents. It has not been decisive except in the winning DEAD IN THE RUSSIAN TRENCHES --Handy in Duluth News-Tribune

and losing of land. The two armies remain intact, even






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after so sanguinary a conflict as that which preceded the Russian evacuation of Lodz. Russian experts quoted in the Novoye Vremya regard this as normally characteristic of the war in the eastern theater of operations. “Except in a local sense, there were no great surprises." The killed and wounded attain almost incredible totals and the Germans shrink from nothing still in their determination to seize and occupy Russian Poland.


Waiting for a chance to

March to Berlin.


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appointing, as we find more than one military expert in England conceding. Official London may not have anticipated serious Russian pressure on Berlin by now; but the newspapers, including even the cautious Manchester Guardian, ventured to surmise that Berlin might be imperiled before Christmas. It is true that between Russian armies and German armies there have been great, even decisive, battles. The defeat of General Sassonoff in East Prussia, for instance, seems to the British paper a bigger event than the battle of Mukden. At Mukden the Russian losses were just over a hundred thousand. At the battle of Tannenberg there were lost that number in prisoners alone and it was followed by two other serious defeats at Insterburg and Lyck. “The most numerous army can not bear defeats of that magnitude without flinching, and the wonder is not that the Russians lost ground but that they

A SCRAP OF PAPER were able to recover so rapidly.” On the Russian left

-Macauley in N. Y. Tribune the prospects of the Russian aggressive are brighter:

achievement was the diversion of the German forces “The greater part of Galicia is now in Russian posses from the western theater of the war to the eastern. sion, and the Austrian army is divided between Cracow This made possible the check that kept the enemy out and the passes over the Carpathians into Hungary. It

of Paris. This is only an acknowledgment due to the should not be very difficult for the Russians to seize and hold the few Carpathian passes over which the Austrians

ally, says the Gaulois. It, too, thinks the Russians have could attack in the winter, and with their whole offensive

performed prodigies. It quotes a well-informed British strength to attack the German right and the Austrian left expert to the effect that the march upon Berlin ought in the neighborhood of Cracow. The advantages of this

not in reason to be expected before the end of this plan is that it would give the Russians access to the rich new year, if then. Russia has been hampered by her industrial and agricultural province of Silesia and turn the lack of railroads of the strategic kind. In spite of that fortress of Posen. It is also pretty certain that if this handicap she has forced Germany to concentrate three attack were resolutely pressed the Germans would not million men upon her eastern frontier. This has made continue their attacks further north, and the great weak

possible the campaign which leaves the allies in such ness of Russian strategy—the projecting bastion of Po

splendid shape in the west. In truth, affirms 'one of land—would be relieved. But there are grave objections

the greatest military experts in Russia, Colonel V. to this as to every other plan. The Austrians have two exceedingly strong fortresses in Galicia, Przemysl and Cra

Shumsky, who has gone to the front, and whom our cow, and their heavy artillery is exceedingly good. .

Paris contemporary quotes with approval, the German With Cracow and Przemysl in their hands and the Car- plan regarding the war has failed. What Germany set pathian passes held, the Russians might penetrate Silesia out to accomplish is still to be done—the crushing of sure that their retreat was safe, or they might make an France. Russia foiled that purpose by her swiftness attempt to raise Bohemia, the population of which is Slav, on the eastern frontier. Germany had to divert five if not exactly Russian in sympathies. Prague would be an army corps at least to meet this menace. Russia has excellent base for the invasion of Saxony in the spring." still to undertake her war on Germany in its second What Russia Has Accom

phase-an invasion of Emperor William's dominions. plished for the Allies. The task is not easy. The defence will be obstinate. RUSSIA, in the prosecution of her war, has suffered It was never characteristic of Russia to act in too great from

a hurry. Let the allies, says this authority, be patient. formed, according to the Paris Alatin. Her great They will meet in Berlin, if not this year then next.

Russia's triumph over John Barleycorn is the biggest victory won since the war started.—Toledo Blade.

The big war is horrible. And yet the camera at the front catches most of the soldiers wearing a smile.—Toledo Blade.

One never knows when he goes to bed at night what flag he will find flying over Dixmude in the morning.—Detroit Free Press.

Russian prohibition is evidently intended to spur the Czar's armies across the state line.Wall Street Journal.

Mr. Brander Matthews scolds the professors for preferring the rules of grammar to life. On their recent showing in Europe, the professors would do infinitely less harm by sticking to their grammars.-N. Y. Evening Post.

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