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RICARDUŞ ARISTA RÇH A S
OF THE HERO OF THE POEM.
O, the nature of Dunciad in general, whence de " For contrary obje&s muft either excite contrary fived, and on what authority founded, as well as " affe&ions, or no affections at all. So that he who of the art and condud of this our Poem in parti " loveth good men, muft at the fame time hate the cular, the learned and laborious Scriblerus hara, bad; and he who hateth not bad men, cannot love according to his mariner, and with colerable thare “ the good; because to love good men proceedeth of juđġnient, difertated. But when he cometh to 5 from an aversion to evil, and to hate evil men speak of the person of the hero ficred for such “ from a tenderness to the good." From this depoem, in truth he miserably halts and hallucinates: licacy of the muse arole the little epic (more livery for, milled by one Montieur Bossu, à Gallic critic, and choleric than ber elder fifter, whore bulk and he prateth of I cannot tell what phantom of a he complexion incline her to the phlegmatic): and To, only raised up to support the fable. A putrid for this, fome notorious vehicle of vice and folly conceit! As if Homer and Virgil, like miodern was fought out, to make thereof an example. An undertakers, who first build their house and then early instance of which (nor could it escape the ac. Seck out for a tenant, had contrived the story of a curate Scriblerus) the father of epic poem himself war and a wandering, before they once thought affordeth us. From him the practice descended to either of Achilles or Æneas. We all therefore the Grerk dramatic poets, his off-pring; who, in Set our good brother and the world also right in the composition of their Tetralogy, or fet of four this particular, by affuring them, that, in the pieces, were wont to make the jaft a fatiric tragedy. greater epic, the prime intention of the muse is Happily, one of these ancient Dunciads) as we máy to exalt heroic virtue, in order to propagate the well term it) is come down unto us, amongst the love of it among the children of mėn; and con- tragedies of the poet Euripides. And what doch fequently that the poet's first thought mult needs the reader suppose may be the fubje& thereof? be turned upon a real subject mect for laud and 'Why in truth, and it is worthy oblervation, the celebration, not one whom he is to make, but one unequal content of an old, dull, debauched buffoon whom he may find, truly illustrious. This is the Cyclops, with the heaven-directed favourite of primum mobile of his poctic wo:ld, whence every Minerva; who, after having quietly borne all the thing is to receive life and motion. For this fub- monster's obscene and impious ribaldry, endeth the ject being found, he is immediately ordained, or farce in punifliing him with the mark of an inde. rather acknowledged,
' an hero, and put upon such lible brand in his forehead. May we not then be adion as befitteth the dignity of his characteri excused, if, for the future, we confider the epics of
But the inusę ceascth not hereher eagle-flight. For Homer; Virgil, and Milton; together with thisoůr Sometimes, fatiared with tủe contemplation of theie poem, as a complete Tetralogy; in which the last fons of glory, he turneth downward on her wing, worthily holdeth the place or tation of the satiric and darts with Jove's lightning on the goose and piece?': Serpent kind. For we may apply to the muse in i Proceed we therefore in our subject. It hath her various moods, what an ancient master of wil been long, and alas for pity! Aill remaineth a dom affirmeth of the Gods in general: “ si Di question, whether the hero of the greater epic " non irafcuntur impiis et injustis, nec pios utique should be an honest man; or as the French critics * juftofque diligunt.' In rebus enim divertis, aut in express it, un honnete homme (a): but it never
in drramque partem moveri neceffe eft, aut in admitted of a doubt, but that the hero of theliale "neutram. Itaque qui bonos diligit, et malos odit; epic Thould be just the contrary. Hence, to the " et qui malos non odit, nec bonos diligit. Quia advantage of our Dunciad, we may observe, how si et diligere'bonos ex odio malorum venit ; et ma' much julter the moral of thay poem must needs be, " los odiffe ex bonorum caritate descendiri." Which in our vernacular idiom may be thus interpreted : (a) Si un Heros Poët que deititre un lonnite bomme: d' If the Gods be not provoked at evil men, nei- Boffu, du Poime Epige, bv. v. ch. s. cher are they delighted wish the good and juft:
where lo important a question is previously decid-, and his language to consist of what we must aled.
low to be the most daring figure of speech, chat But then it is not every knave, nor (bet me add) | which is taken from the name of God every fool, that is a fit fubject for a Dunciad. Gentle love, the next ingredient in the true There must till exist fome analogy, if not resemo hero's composition, is a mere bird of passage, or blance of qualities between the heroes of the two (as Shakspeare calls it) summer-teeming luft, poems; and this, to admit of what neoteric critics and evaporates in the heat of youth ; doubeless by call the parody, one of the liveliest graces of the that refinement it fuffers in passing through chode lietle epic. Thus it being agreed that the consti- ccrtain strainers which our poet somewhere Ipeaktuent qualities of the greater epic hero, are wil-cth of. But when it is let alone to work upon the dom, bravery, and love, from whence springeth lees, it acquireth strength by old age; and becometh heroic virtue ; it followeth, that those of the lefler a lafting ornament to the little epic. It is true, epic hero should be vanity, assurance, and de- indeed, there is one robje&tion to its fitness for fuch bauchery, from which assemblage resultech heroic an use : for not only the ignorant may think iç dulness, che never-dying subject of this our poem. common, but it is admitted to be so, even by him
This being fettled, come we now to particulars. who best knoweth its value. “ Dont you think It is the character of true wisdum, to seek its chief “ (arguech he), to say " only a man has his fupport and confidence within itself; and to place “ whore (d );' " ought to go for little or nothing? that support in the resources which proceed from “ Because defendit numerus ; take the first tep choua conscious reditude of will.--And are the ad “ fand men you meet, and, I believe, you would vantages of vanity, when arifing to the heroic “ be no loser if you betted ten to one, that every ftandard, at all thort of this self-complacence ? Nay, “ single finner of them, one with another, has are they not, in the opinion of the enamoured “ been guiley of the same frailey (e)." But here owner, far beyond it ? ' Let the world (will such he scemeth not to have done justice to hintelf: "an one say) impute to me what folly or weakness the man is fure enough a hero, who hath his lady " they please ; but till wisdom can give me some- at fourscore. How doth his modelty hereiu koep " thing that will make me more heartily happy, the merit of a whole well-spent life: mut taking * 1 an content to be GAZED AT (6)." This, we fee, to himself the commendation (which Horace acis vanity according to the heroic gage or measure; counted the greatest in a theatrical chara&er) af not that low and ignoble species which pretendeth continuing to the very dregs the same he was to virtues we have not; but the laudable ambition from the beginning, of being gazed at for glorying in those vices, which every body knows we have. “ The world may alk
-Servetur ad IMUM " (fays he) why I make my follies public? Why
Qualis ab incepto processerat " dot? have passed my life very pleasantly with
But here, in justice both to the poet and the " them" In short, there is no sort of vanity such hero, let us farther remark, that the calling her his a hero would scruple, but that which might go whore, implied she was his own, and nor his near to degrade him from his high station in this neighbour's
. Truly a commendable continence ! our Dunciad ; namely," whether it would not be * vanity io him, to take shame to himself for not,
and such as Scipio himself must have applauded.
For how much felf-denial was necessary not to " being a wise man!"
cover his neighbour's whore? and what disorders Bravery, the second attribute of the true hero, muft the covering her have occasioned in that fois courage manifeking itself in every limb; while ciety; where (according to this political calculator) its correspondent virtue in the mock hero, is, that
nine in ten of all ages have their concubincs ! fame courage all collected into the face. And as
We have now, as briefly as we could advise, power, when drawn together, molt needs have gone through the three conflituent qualities of ei. more force and fpirit than when dispersed, we ge
ther kero. But it is not in any, or in all of these Derally find this kind of courage in so high and heroic a degree, that it insults not only men, but
that heroism properly or effentially refideth. It is
a lucky result rather from the collifion of these Gods. Mezentius is, without doubt, the bravest lively qualities against one another. Thus, as chara&er in all the Aneis : but how ? His bravery, from wisdom, bravery, and love, ariseth magnawe know, was an high courage of blafphemy. nimity, the object of admiration, which is the aiin And can we say less of this brase man's, who having cold us that he placed his “ summum debauchery, fpringech buffoonry, the source of ri.
of the greater epic; fo from vanity, assurance, and "bonum ia tbofe follies, which he was not con"tent barely to possess, but would likewise glory termeth it (1), of the little epic.
dicule, that “ laughing ornament," as he well * in," adds, “ If I am misguided, 'TIS NATURE'S
FAULT, and I follow BER (6)." Nor can we be mistaken in making this happy quality a species of butinnot:
(d) Alluding to these lines in the Epift. to Dr. Ar courage, when we consider chofe illuitrious marks of it, which made his FACE more known ( as he " And baş nat Colly Rill bis lord and whore, * juftly boalteth) than most in the kingdom;"
Ilis butubers Henley, bis free-mafors Moore?" 6) Del. lo the Life of G. C.
(e) Letter to Mr. P. p. 46. 6) Life of C. C. 9. 23. cait.
) Loter i. 11, P.7. 31.
He is not ashamed (God ferbid he ever should | ing there represented as falt alleep ; so mi beseenibe ashamed!) of this character ; who deemeth, that ing the eye of empire, which, like that of Provinot reason but risibility distinguisheth the human dence, should never doze por flumber. “ Hah! fpecies from the brutal. “ As nature (faith this “ (faith he), faft adeep, it seems ! that's a little
profound philofopher) distinguisheth our fpecies « too strong. Pert and dull at least you might " from the mute creation by our risibility, her “ have allowed me, but as feldom asleep as any " design most have been by that faculty as evi- " fool (1)." However, the injured hero may " dently to raise our HAPPINESS, as by our Os comfort himself with this refledion, that though “fublime (OUR ERECTED TACES) to lift the dignity it be a fleep, yet it is not the sleep of death, but so of OUR FORM above them (i)." 'All this confi- of immortality. Here he will (m) live at least, dered, how complete a hero must he be, as well as though not awake; and in no worse condition how happy a man, whose rifibility lieth, not than many an enchanted warrior before him. harely in his muscles, as in the common sort, but The famous Durandante, for instance, was, like (as himself informeth us) in his very fpirits ? and him, calt into a long slumber by Merlin the British whose Os fublime is not fimply an erect face, but a bard and necromancer; and his example for subbrazen head; as should seem by his preferring it mitting to it with a good grace, might be of use to one of iron, said to belong to the late king of to our hero. For that disastrous knight being
sorely Sweden ?
pressed or driven to make his anlwer by several But whatever personal qualities a hero may have, perfons of quality, only replied with a figh, Patithe examples of Achilles and Æneas thow us, that ence, and thuffle the cards (n). all thofe are of fmall avail, without the constant But now, as notbing in this world, no not the aslistance of the Gods: for the fubverhon and most facred and perfe& things, either of religion credion of empires have never been adjudged the or government, can escape the sting of envy, mework of man. How greatly foever then we may thinks I already hear thefe carpers objecting to the eteem of his high talents, we can hardly conceive clearnefs of our hero's title.';. his personal prowess alone sufficient to restore the It would never (say they) have been esteemed decayed empire of Dulness.“. So weighty;an at- ' fufficient to make an hero for the Iliad or Æneis; chievement hiust require the particular favour and that Achilles was brave enough to overturn one prote&ion of the GREAT; who being the natural empire,' or Æneas pious enough to raise another, patrons and supporters of letters, as the ancient had they not been goddess-born, and princes bred. Gods were of Troy, must first be drawn off and What then did this author mean, by ereding a engaged in another interest, before the total sub-player instead of one of his patrons (a person, verlion of them can be accomplished. To fur-" * never a hero even on the stage,” to this digmount, therefore, this last and greatest difficulty, nity of colleague in the empire of duiocfs, and atwe have, in this excellent man, a profesled favpur- chicver of a work that neither old Omar, Attila, ite and intimado of the great. And look, of what por John of Leyden, could entirely bring to pass. force ancient piety was to draw the gods into the To all this we have, as we conceive, a sufficient party of Æneas, that, and much stronger is mo answer from the Roman historian, “ Fabrum effe dern incense, to engage the great in the party of “ suæ quemque fortunæ :” that every man is the dulness.
smith of his own fortune.' The politic Florentine, : Thus have we essayed to pourtray or fhadow Nicholas Machiavel, goeth ftill further, and affirm
out, this noble imp of fame. But now the impa- éth that a man needeth but to believe himself a tient reader will be apt to say, If so many and va. hero to be one of the worthieft.“ Let him (faich rious graces go to the making up a hero; what "he) but fancy himfelf capable of the highest mortal shall suffice to bear his character ? Ill hath things, and he will of course be able to archieve he read, who feeth not; in every trace of this pic " them.” From this principle it follows, that noforç, that individual, ALL-ACCOMPLISHED PERSON, thing can exceed our hero's prowess; as nothing in whom these rare virtues and lucky circumftan ever equalled the greatness of his conceptions. ces have agreed to meet and concentie with the Hear how he constantly paragons himself; at one drongest luftre and fullest harmony.
time to Alexander the Great,
and Charles the XH. .. The good Scriblerus indeed, nay the world it- of Sweden for the excess and delicacy of his amself, might be imposed on; in the late fpurious edi- bition; to Henry the IV. of France, for honest tions, by I can't tell what sham hero or phantom: policy ; to the first Brutus, for love of liberty ; but it was not so ealy to impose on him whom and to Sir Robert Walpole, for good government this egregious error most of all concerned. For no while in power : at another time, to the godsooner had the fourth book laid open the high and like Socrates for his diverfions and amusements : swelling scene, but he recognized' his own heroic to Horace, Montaignc, 'and Sir William Temple, afts: and when he came to the words,
for an elegant vanity that maketh them for ever “ Soft on her lap her laureat fon reclines," read and admired ; to two Lord Chanceilors, (though laureat in:ply no more than one crowned for law, from whom, when confederate against with laurel, as befitreth any associate or confort in him at the bar, he carried away the prize ef cloempire), he loudly refęnteth this dignity to violated majesty. Indeed, not without cause, he le (1) Letter, p. 53.
(m) Letter, p. I. (i) Letter, . &.
(m) Don Quixotte, part ii. bock ii. ch. 22,
quence; and, to say all in a word, to the righe “ surely much lels can any one, till then, be proreverend the Lord Bishop of London himself, in nounced a hero : this species of men being far the art of writing pastoral letters.
" more subject than others to the caprices of forNor did his astions fall short of the sublimity of " tune and humour." But to this also we have his conceit. In his early youth he met the revo- an answer, that will (we hoped be deemed decilution face to face in Nottingham; at a time live. It cometh from himself; who, to cut this when bis betters contented themselves with fol- matter Mort, hath foleninly protested that he will lowing her. It was here he got acquainted with never change or amend. old battle-array, of whom he hath made fo ho. With regard to his vanity, he declareth that nourable mention in one of his immortal odes. nothing shall ever part then. « Nature (faith But he shone in courts as well as in camps: he was he) “ hath amply supplied me in vanity; a pleacalled up when the nation fell in labour of this" sure which neither the pereness of wit, nor the revolution ; and was a gollip at her christening, “ gravity of wisdom, will ever persuade me to with the bishop and the ladies.
part with.” Our poet' had charicably endeaAs to his birth; it is true he pretendeth no re-voured to administer a cure to it: but he telleth lation either to Heathen god or goddess; but, what us plainly, “ My superiors perhaps may be menda is as good, he was descended from a maker of ed by him; but for my part lown myself inboth (0). And that he did not pass himself on the corrigible. I look upon my follies as the best world for a hero, as well by birth as education, " part of my fortune.” And with good reason; was his own fault : for his lineage he bringeth we fee to what they have brought him! into his life as an anecdote, and is fenfible he had Secondly, as to buffoonry, " Is it (faith he) a it in his power to be thought nobody's son at all;" time of day for me to leave off these foolerics, and what is that but coming into the world a " and set up a new character? I can no more hero?
put off my follies than my skin ; I have ofter But be it, (the pun&ilious laws of epic poely“ iried, but they stick too close to me: so requiring) that a hero of more than mortal" am I sure my friends are displeased with them, birth must needs be had: even for this we have a “ for in this light I afford them frequent matter remedy. We can easily derive our hero's pedi- “ of mirth, &c.” Having then lo publicly degree from a goddess of no small power and autho-clared himself incorrigible, he is become dead in ority amongli men; and legitimate and instal him law (I mean the law Epopæian) and devolvetla after the right classical and authentic fashion: upon the pactas his property; who may take him, for, like as the ancient sages found a son of and deal with him as if he had been dead as long Mars in a mighty warrior; a son of Neptune as an old Egyptian hero; that is to say, embowel in a skilful seamen; a son of Phæbus in a har- and embalm him for pofterity. monious poet; fo have we herc, if need be, a fon Nothing therefore we conceive) remaineth to of Fortune in an artful gamester. And who ficcer hinder his own prophecy of himself from taking than the offspring of Chance, to als& in restoring immediate effect. A rare felicity! and what few the empire of Night and Chaos?
prophets have had the fatisfaction to fee, alive There is in cruth another objection of greater Nor can we conclude better than with chat extraweight, namely, " That this bero ftill existeth, ordinary one of his, which is conceived in these " and hath not yet finished his earthly course.- oraculous words, My dulnefs will find fomebody to da ** For if Solon said well,
it right. ultima femper
6 Tandem Phæbus adeft, morfusque inferre par Expectanda dies homini: dicique beatus Ante obitum nemo fupremaque funera debet! “ Congelat, et patulos, ut crunt, induat hias, if no man can be called happy till his death,
tus." (a) 6-) A Statuary.
() Ovid, of the ferpent biting et Orpbeus's beads
THE DUNCI A D.
By virtue of the Authority in Us vested by tbe Ad for subjecting Poets to the power of a Licenfer, qve bave revised this Piece; where finding tbe Ayle and appellation of King to bave been given to a certain Pretender, Pseudo-Poet, or Phantom, of the name of TIBBALD; and apprebending the fame may be deeme cd in some fort a Reflection on Majesty, or at leaf or infult on tbat Legal Authority which bas bestowed est another person the Crown of Poesy: We bave ordered the faid Pretender, Pseudo-Poet, or Phantom, utterly to vanish and evaporate out of this work: And do declare tbe faid Throne of Poely from benceforth to be abdicated and vacant, unless duly and lawfully supplied by the Laureate bimself. And it is bereby cnaeled, that no otber perfon do prefume to fill tbe fame.
whether to betake himself to the church, or to
gaming, or to party writing, he raises an alar TIE ARGUMENT.
of proper books, and (making first his folemn
prayer and declaration) purposes thereon to fiTue proposition, the invocation, and the infcrip crifice all his unsuccessful writings. As the pile
tion. Then the original of the great empire is kindled, the goddess beholding the flame from
of dolness, and cause of the continuance there. her fcat, flies and puts it out by casting upon it . of. The college of the goddess in the city, the poem of Thulé. She forthwith reveals
with her private academy for poets in particu. herself to him, transports him to her temple, lar; the governors of it, and the four cardinal
unfolds her arts, and initiates him into her mys. virtues. Then the poem hastes into the midit teries; then andouncing the death of Eusden of things, presenting her, on the evening of a the poet laureat, anoints' him; carries him to Lord Mayor's day, revolving the long luccef court, and proclaims him successor. fion of her sons, and the glories past and to come. She fixes her eyes on Bays to be the instru. The mighty mother, and her son, who brings ment of that great event which is the subject The Smithfield muses to the ear of kings, of the poem. He is described penlye among his booke, giving op the cause, and apprehending the period of her empire ; After debating
Ver. 1. The mighty mother, &c.] In the firft edition it was thus,
Books and the man I fing, the first who brings In the first editions Tibbald was the hero of The Smithfield muses to the ear of kings, the poem, which will account for most of the sub- Say, great patricians! Gince yourselves inspire