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an abundance of air and light, and water freely ; discontinue syringing after the buds open. Fumigate, if the green fly appears.

Japan Lilies, managed as we have directed, will now be 2 feet high, and will require a shift into the next size.

Achimenes of the several kinds should now be potted off carefully.

Camellias will now be making their new growth, and will require very liberal supplies of water, and repeated syringings over the foliage ; old stunted plants should be headed in, and they will soon push out vigorous shoots. Inarching may still be performed.

Hyacinth and Tulip beds, owing to the late cold weather, could not be uncovered ; they should now be looked after without delay.

Calceolarias should be repotted again.

Dahlias will now be coming forward when they have been potted, and if a stock is wanted, the cuttings may be put in.

Verbenas may now be propagated from cuttings, for a stock for planting out in summer.

Gloxinias which have started well, should now be shifted into larger pots.

Pansies, raised from seeds last month, should now be potted off into boxes or pots.

Salvia splendens and fulgens should now be propagated for a young stock for summer.

Fuchsias will now need shifting into larger pots if fine specimen plants are wanted.

Chrysanthemums should be propagated from cuttings, or the roots divided to make a good stock.

Hydrangeas may now be propagated from cuttings.

Dwarf Rocket Lurkspur seed should be sown as soon as the ground can be made ready.

Gladioluses, tuberoses, and other summer bulbs, may now be potted for early blooming.

Oxalises done flowering should be sparingly watered.
Pæonies should be removed this month.
Carnations and picotées, in frames, should be aired every fine day.

Choice annuals, such as we recommended last month, with other new and choice kinds, should now be planted in pots and placed in the hot-bed or green-house. Such as are already up may be potted off into small pots.

Herbaceous plants, of all kinds, may be successfully transplanted this month.

VEGETABLE DEPARTMENT. Tomatoes, Egg plants, fc. raised from seeds sown either in February or March, should now be potted off into small pots, preparatory to their removal to the open ground in May.

Lettuce, Radishes, Cabbages, Celery, &c. may be sown for a succession.

Cucumbers falready hilled out will need attention and liberal supplies of water.



MAY, 1847,


ART. I. On the Cultivation of the Arrow Root in the United

States as an Article of Commerce. By Dr. A. MITCHELL, of Portland, Me. In a Letter to Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. Communicated by Gen. Dearborn.

DEAR SIR.-I enclose you a letter from Doct. Mitchell of Portland, one of our most distinguished naturalists, with a small package of seeds of the Arrow Root.

I hope you will make an experiment in cultivating that valuable plant, although it is of a southern clime. If it is brought forward in a hotbed, it is possible you may mature the plant.

You can publish the letter in your Magazine, if you think proper. With sincere esteem, your most obedient servant,

H. A. S. DEARBORN. Hawthorn Cottage, Roxbury, April 5, 1847. .

MY DEAR SIR, -I here enclose you a small specimen of the Indian Arrow Root, sent to me by Dr. Henry Bacon, of St. Mary's, (South Georgia). The article was cultivated by him on his plantation in Florida. I will here call your attention to the cultivation of this plant, and briefly state that the success has met the most sanguine wishes of the cultivator, and bids fair to form one of the articles, as an American product of commerce, both for export and import.

The specimen which I send was derived from the root of the (Maránta arundinacea :) there are three species of this genus, viz., the arundinacea, Galánga, comosa; they are natives of the Indies, a herbaceous and perennial exotic, which VOL. XIII. - NO. V.


have been, a long time, cultivated in the West India Islands. The specimen which I send you appears to be the most superior article that I have ever seen of the kind, abounding in an excess of nutritive qualities, and purity of appearance, surpassing that of the West Indies.

An intelligent gentleman, Col. Halloes, and a favorite officer of Bolivar, has the honor, I believe, of being the first cultivator of this plant, on a large scale, in our Union. He was driven from his location in Florida by the Indians, after receiving a severe wound in the head by a rifle-shot; he then removed to Camden County, South Georgia, and entered at once into the cultivation of this plant on a large scale: thus you perceive this plant is gradually becoming acclimated in our country, and I have no doubt but a few years will elapse when we shall find it cultivated with success in latitude 360 north. It grows well in a siliceous soil, on a light sandy loam, resists the drought well, with more certainty of a crop than either cotton or corn.

I will take the pains to enter into a more minute detail of the facts connected with the cultivation of this article, as proven, amount per acre, &c., and have them reported through you in the agricultural department.

The Arrow Root obtains its name from the fact of the Indians using it to extract the virus communicated by their poisoned arrows.

With great esteem, I am, dear sir, your obedient servant, Portland, April 2, 1847.

AUGUSTUS MITCHELL. We acknowledge our indebtedness to General Dearborn for the communication of Dr. Mitchell's Letter, and also for the package of seed accompanying the same, which we shall make a trial of, and report upon its growth at a future time. It will give us great pleasure to publish the intended communication of Dr. Mitchell in relation to the mode of cultivating the Arrow Root, the produce per acre, the process of manufacture, and the probable profit as compared with cotton, corn, or tobacco. Gen. Dearborn deserves the thanks of every friend of agriculture for bringing this subject before the public, and we trust his efforts to introduce a new and important article of commerce will be seconded by every intelligent cultivator.-Ed.

Art. II. Explanations in reference to Two or Three Western Apples; with a Note upon a New Variety called the Butler Sweet. By T. S HUMRICKHOUSE, Coshocton, Ohio.

I am induced to offer a few additional observations, including a correction or two, upon some items contained in Mr. Fahnestock's article, March number of your Magazine, and in your remarks thereunder, in order to guard against misconceptions, which, if left unnoticed, might grow out of them.

First :-Hart's Orange Sweeting, or, as it may be better to call it simply, Hart's Sweeting. Scions of this apple were first obtained by me from Mr. Isaac B. Hart, of Tiverton township in this county, in the spring of 1841. On referring to my note-book, I find that, on the 6th day of April, 1841, I grafted, by the method of root-grafting, and placed in the nursery, six trees of it; and that I did not extend its cultivation further till 1845, when having, in the preceding winter, examined and eaten of the fruit from the original tree, I, on the 24th of March of that year, grafted seven more trees of it, by the same method, and planted them in the nursery. One of the last-mentioned trees I sent to you last fall, numbered, if I mistake not,. LI.; and from another of them the scions were taken which I gave to Mr. Mathews, who sent them to Mr. Fahnestock.

The fruit is of a clear yellow; of the size of the Green Newtown Pippin; nearly round; sweet, juicy, tender, and good; keeping till April. It is a seedling raised by Mr. Hart, as he informed me.

Second :-Red Pearmain, often called Long Pearmain. This is, in my estimation, a first-rate apple, in this climate, for November and December. It is not, however, a seedling of Ohio, but is one of the varieties originally brought to Marietta from Connecticut; and the name of Red or Long Pearmain has obtained for it here from its color and shape. It is the English Pearmain of Mr. Bateham's list.

Third :-American White Winter Calville. This fruit was first offered to the notice of pomologists by myself. I obtained the scions from trees in the orchard of Mrs. Foster, which she had raised from sprouts taken from the tree (since dead)

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at Mr Daniel Miller's. Respecting its origin, Mr. Miller informed me that his tree was brought from Virginia about forty years ago, and was a sprout taken from a tree in an old orchard on the south branch of the Potomac; that it was not a grafted tree, and that they had no grafted fruit in the orchard, with which he was well acquainted, where the sprout was obtained. I first saw and ate of the fruit in the winter of 1838-9, and grafted nineteen trees of it in 1841. In January, 1843, I sent a description of it to Wm. Kenrick, accompanied with scions. Last spring, I sent scions to yourself, which you have since informed me were growing.

Mr. Miller and Mrs. Foster called this apple the “White Pippin” and knew it by no other name. The name of American White Winter Calville was first given to it by myself. So you see it cannot be the White Winter Calville of the French, after which I named it, on account of its resemblance to that old variety; else, in naming, as I thought, a new variety, I unconsciously hit upon its old name with the erroneous prefix of "American,” a thing little likely to take place. It cannot be the same with the French variety, because this apple has been propagated by means of sprouts time out of mind, as I may say; a thing impossible unless root-grafting had been employed upon the first tree in the series, and that tree had established itself upon its own roots, and threw up sprouts from them to be taken and reared into trees. At the time at which this must have happened, had it happened at all, I believe that root-grafting the apple was not practised; and there was, moreover, little or no grafted fruit of any kind in the part of Virginia from which the family of Mr. Miller removed. Nor would the slightest suspicion now exist of its being the French variety, if I had not unfortunately renamed it.

My reasons for giving it the new name I believed to be sufficient at the time; they were briefly as follows:— There are so many apples called “Pippin," with various prefixes and addenda, as to have already brought in great confusion in relation to some of them. The prefix“ White” might come at some time to be omitted, since the difference between white, green and straw color, as descriptive of the color of an apple, is often very slight indeed; and we have already “Green Pippins” and “Golden

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