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heat being supplied by pipes in a chamber beneath, and is warmed with one of Mr. Whately's cast-iron boilers.
The principles of heating are now a subject of much discussion in foreign journals. We alluded last year to the system which was attracting so much interest, viz., the Polmaise. Flues have had their day,-steam succeeded, --hot water took its place, and now comes the Air King to dethrone them all. According to the accounts which have been given, the mode of heating by warm air has been far more successful thus far,—as well as, it is stated, more congenial to the plants, -and at not a quarter of the expense,—than hot water. Two years ago we tried a small house heated upon this system, but it did not succeed, owing to improper construction; this year we have again partially tried this plan, and it appears to work admirably. The Polmaise system is merely the construction of a chamber over the furnace, from whence the air is conducted into the house, and, traversing its length, when it becomes cool, is brought back by drains under the floor, to be heated again. Thus a constant circulation is going on, which is highly congenial to the plants, moisture being supplied by a pan of water, over which the hot air must pass as it comes into the house. For the climate of England, there is no doubt of its perfect success, but for our severe weather it remains to be seen whether it can be made to answer; the only requisite will be a powerful furnace to supply hot air. We shall soon give some plans and a further account of this new mode, that our amateurs may be induced to try it; for vineries where only a slight heat is required, in the months of March and April, it will succeed well.
The increase of nurseries is the best evidence of the prosperous condition of Commercial Gardening: a large extent of country to supply, with an increasing taste every where apparent, has caused a demand which has not been fully met, particularly in choice varieties of pears. In the Atlantic cities, this is especially the case. But large quantities of stocks have been planted out, and we may soon look to a supply fully adequate to the wants of the public.
In Boston and vicinity, the nurserymen have been extending their premises, and their collections of trees. The Pomological Garden of Mr. Manning has been extended, and the facilities for supplying trees increased ; and we are happy to know that the deserving young men, who have succeeded to the management of their father's place, so well sustain the reputation of the garden for accuracy. Mr. Allen of Salem has been highly successful in the culture of the grape, and it is with great satisfaction that we lay before our readers, in another page, the result of his experience thus far, in regard to this delicious fruit.
A constant demand for large trees has been of service to the older establishments around Boston, whose accumulated stock might sometimes be thought of little value; and Messrs. Winship and Kenrick have contributed to supply the demand. Messrs. Hovey & Co., by the construction of two new houses upwards of one hundred feet long, have greatly extended their collections of greenhouse plants; and their stock of fruit trees, especially of new and rare kinds, is very large. The specimen fruit trees, containing 500 varieties of pears alone, are rapidly coming into fruit. Mr. Walker, of Roxbury, is devoting much attention to the pear, with a view chiefly to raise large and fine specimens which will come at once into bearing, and thus prevent the amateur from waiting for a supply of fruit.
Our time has not allowed us our usual autumn visit to New York, but we learn that our Flushing friends have a fine stock of trees. Mr. Reid, of Murray Hill, has a fine piece of ground at Elizabethtown, N. J., from whence his stock is mostly received. Mr. Thorburn, at Hallet's Cove, is devoting much attention to a fine collection of plants.
In Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, many additions have been made to the several nursery establishments, and our correspondent, Mr. Buist, has opened a seed establishment in Chestnut Street.
Of commercial gardening in other cities, we have no direct information. In our last volume is an account of its condition in Western New York, particularly around Rochester and Buffalo. In the former city, Messrs. Bissell and Hooker and Ellwanger & Barry, Moulson, and others, are extending and increasing their several collections of trees and plants.
GARDEN LITERATURE. The principal publications of the year have been Browne's Trees of America; the Farmers' Dictionary, by D. P. Gardener; the Fruit Culturist, by J. J. Thomas; and the Compend of American Agriculture, by Mr. Allen. Mr. Downing's Fruits has passed to a sixth edition. A Report of the Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts, by order of the State, has been completed by G. B. Emerson, Esq., but it will not be distributed till after the Legislature convene. Other smaller works have been published. A new edition of the Flower Garden Companion, by Mr. Sayers; and pamphlets on the Grape and Strawberry, by Mr. Longworth; and the Culture of the Grape, by Dr. Flagg. Mr. Colman's work has reached the seventh No., three more completing the work. The old New England Farmer has been discontinued, and its place filled with the Horticulturist, published at Albany. The Genessee Farmer is ably edited in the Horticultural department by Mr. Barry, of the Mount Hope Gardens, Rochester. The American Agriculturist and Cultivator continue to be issued with their usual merit.
Taste in Horticulture and in Designs.
We have been often pleased, in the perusal of the “Magazine of Horticulture and Botany,” at the laudable attempts of the Editor of that periodical, to introduce to the favorable notice and adoption of gardeners, and of those who may have a rod or two of ground to cultivate, such contrivances for the handsomer growth of plants as combine ornament with utility. A well ordered garden of ever so humble a character, properly laid out, or its plants judiciously arranged, pleases the eye very much more than a larger domain where Flora reigns indeed, but in a state of misrule and misprison. We have seen such gardens, so rudely kept, and so slovenly attended, that it would require the ardor of a botanist to perceive any particular interest in the variety, nay, in the profusion, which oftentimes may be found there. We have also seen in some a very limited area of a few feet of neatly kept borders and beds, much fewer plants, yet of such choice selection, and admirable adaptation to the circumstances of the place, as to afford a degree of pleasure as satisfactory as it was unexpected. We have been often most sadly disappointed in our expectations of some new species, some rare or lately introduced variety, through the careless or unpropitious manner in which it has been presented to our eye, and again as agreeably surprised to find, in some other collection, points of real merit and of excellence, which a better growth, or more favorable coincidences, have brought out. Were plants, like some other organized beings, as sensitive to a careless and indifferent regard to them, or to their wants, we could imagine how often and how deeply they must be wounded in their feelings, or shocked, at the want of common sense and of just propriety exercised towards them. In floriculture, more than half the art of culture depends on the proper taste employed in bringing out and setting forth the distinctive merits of the subject under consideration :this the more especially, if the subject be a plant of some well known kind, in which the genius of the florist would develope some new beauty, hitherto un perceived; or if, again, it be some new variety of an old and well known kind of flower, where none but his critical eye would be able to see the distinctive marks of the variety from the original species, unless his contrivance or his art should make them at once prominent. To these ends, the florist must become not only the artist, but the inventor : and the more fertile his mind in experiments, the more successful will he be in expedients. Whoever has had any practical experience in floriculture knows well how much soils and manures affect the growth and general habit. The cultivator of fruits, too, is well aware how much depends on good management, not only of cultivation in the soil, but also of judicious training, and artistical operations above the ground, on the body, branches, entire plant itself. Would he produce fair specimens of fruit, he knows that he must most carefully train, prune, ripen. No superfluous growth must be allowed to hinder the more important portions, on which are to depend the healthy and operative functions. Every tree, every
vine, has its rules of culture, whether espalier or standard. The better they are trained, the more orderly they look, and the more certain the anticipated result. As, in every thing which requires attention, there are, and must be always, rules to be observed and methods to be employed, so, particularly in the order and management of the garden, there must be a similar propriety, to be strictly and rigidly regarded.
It is on the just appreciation and nice tact acquired, of these facts, that the skill of the florist depends. He not only is the experimenter on the nature and properties of the soils best adapted to the luxuriant or more natural growth of plants, but he must combine the talent of a discriminating taste on the future arrangement of their growing and flowering. To a certain extent only can art overcome nature; and excess of care may prove as fatal, in some cases, as its want. tive habits of plants ought to be known. We should not expect to see the delicacy and tenderness of some species, whose native growth is usually sheltered by situations combining shade and moisture, exhibit themselves in a transplanted successful culture, exposed to the sun, and chilled by the changeful winds: nor should we anticipate a gorgeous exhibition of brilliancy, in tints of petal or foliage, where heat or light were insufficient. These same remarks hold good in the artistical arrangement of the growing plant, so that it may adapt itself to its unnatural situation, and imitate nature as much as its circumstances allow. In this, nature should be regarded as much as art will permit: for when either are forced out of their legitimate sphere, the effect must be always and unquestionably bad.
We have spoken of the skill of the florist in setting out the particular merits of new species and varieties, so as to show their best points, and at the same time to permit and even invite the eye of the beholder to detect at once the difference. It is well known that some quite choice varieties differ so little from the older ones, that such skill is necessary to make their merit appreciated. Sometimes it consists in the better shading of the petal, sometimes in the deeper green of the foliage, and sometimes in the straighter or cleaner contour of the stem. Judicious pruning frequently obviates unpropitious characteristics, or ingeniously contrived apparatus overcomes,