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of eulogy on the excellencies which they discovered, or fancied they had discovered, in their fellow countrymen, without at the same time, pointing out the imperfections of their character. Such a course cannot have been dictated either by wisdom or genuine patriotism. The subject proposed for our consideration is not restricted to the terms of eulogy, but is to be an impartial exposition of the character of the Welsh nation in all its parts. Honesty, undoubtedly, is the best policy. The writer of the present composition hopes that he shall be guided by that plain and honourable principle. If he should be led to expose some of the imperfections and deficiencies of the nation to which he has the honour to belong, his only motives will be, honesty as a historian, and a desire to excite in his countrymen a virtuous emulation of their neighbours, the inhabitants of England and Scotland. He is not insensible of the danger of exposing faults, but is aware that according to the morality of many in the present day, the criminal party will not be blamed, but the one who undertakes to make the exposure. Acting on the same principle of honesty, the writer will be most happy to defend the nation against calumnies, and to point out the excellencies which he knows it to possess.

Dr. Johnson, when requested to write an account of his stay in Wales, excused himself by saying that it was so much like England, that he had nothing particular to state. I am not necessarily required, in this composition, to contrast the inhabitants of the principality with those of other countries, for the purpose of shewing the resemblance or the dissimilarity which exists, but simply to exhibit the national character of the Welsh people; but still I may occasionally, by way of illustration, form a comparison.

The moral features of the Welsh nation present appearances as diversified as the scenery of the country which they inhabit. When we explore the landscape views presented to us in different parts of Wales, we sometimes behold a beautiful


plain or vale, well cultivated, and bearing fruit in rich profusion-emblematical of many a character among its inhabitants, distinguished for sincerity of mind and simplicity of speech, and on which at the same time, clusters of fruit are growing, honourable to itself and beneficial to its country. Frequently we survey with delight the placid lake, the waters of which are clear as crystal, reflecting on their surface the heavens above, and so representing many that belong to our country, whose character shines with all the splendour of grace, exhibiting the image of that higher heaven, with which they are connected, and in which they are destined to dwell. But devious paths, winding and uneven roads, may likewise be seen in all parts of the principality; not unaptly representing the morals of those who are devoid of simplicity of heart and integrity of purpose. Men may be found among us, whose character is difficult to be understood, who are wanting in honesty, and who proceed in so tortuous a course that they deform the society in which they move, and disgrace the country to which they belong. Our native land is distinguished for its hills and mountains, which, we are happy to say, are symbolical of the various eminent persons that have appeared in the principality. But we must not exult, as if we could boast of having had the most splendid actors that ever appeared on the theatre of the world. The eminent men whom Wales has produced, judging from their productions, when compared with those of some other nations, bear to them the same disproportion as our mountains do to those of other countries. But this reduces us to rather a low standard ; for what are our mountains when compared with the Alps, the Andes, and the giants of Himalaya ? I do not speak of mental capacity, but of the developement of it in literary productions. As it regards original powers, there have been natives of Wales who, in other circumstances, would have equalled those of any country, but their powers have not been exhibited to advantage, because they have not, from want of encouragement, been brought into full play. There is hardly a churchyard in the principality, within the hallowed precints of which the author might not, with propriety and force, adopt the language of the plaintive Gray, and say:

“ Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid

Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire;
Hands, that the rod of empire might have sway’d,

Or wak’d to extacy the living lyre.

But knowledge to their eyes her ample page

Rich with the spoils of time did ne'er unroll;
Chill penury repress'd their noble rage,

And froze the genial current of the soul,

Full many a gem of purest ray serene,

The dark unfathom’d caves of ocean bear;
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,

And waste its sweetness on the desert air.”

The Welsh nation may be viewed as it is divided into different classes, each distinguished by the amount of wealth it possesses, or by the occupations of its component memhers, The nobility and the great landed proprietors form the highest class. In so small a country these cannot be very numerous; but there is no county which is not adorned by the presence of some of them. Their ancient halls are considered as central points from which activity and happiness radiate to a wide circumference. Around these mansions are highly cultivated lands and a great extent of well-wooded country. The occupiers, in these modern times, with very few exceptions, bear more of the English character, than of that which may be called exclusively Welsh. Their education, their language, and the society in which they move, are principally English, consequently their habits have become gradually conformable to those of our more powerful neighbours. This class of society enjoy most unbounded respect. They act on a large scale, and their influence over the minds of all the subordinate classes, by which they are surrounded, is very great. Not many of the great landed proprietors of Wales, are chargeable, in the present day, with severity towards their tenants; still it may be fairly questioned whether they have faithfully discharged their duty to the community at ibe head of which they are placed. The tenantry of our country are generally poor, for nearly the whole of the produce of their labour is absorbed in rent, taxes, and the expenses of cultivation. Property most undoubtedly has its rights, and these must be maintained inviolate; but it should never be forgotten, especially by the higher orders themselves, that property has also its duties. If the good feeling cherished, and the great respect entertained, by the subordinate classes in Wales towards their superiors, should ever be disturbed, and an attempt made to effect a revolution in the state of property, the higher orders themselves will have to appropriate most of the blame. It is not intended to deny that they have done much to improve the principality; but what they have done amounts to little or nothing compared with the means which providence has placed at their disposal. Had they embarked more of their income in assisting their tenants to drain the soil, to plant the lands with wood, and to erect comfortable residences for themselves, and more suitable accommodations for their cattle, the country would, in the present day, wear a very different aspect, and a much higher tone of feeling would be evinced by the inhabitants. Since the country has been blessed with the light of the Reformation a school ought to have been established in every parish, for the instruction of the children, in consequence of which they would be made more useful members of society, and more scientific workmen in their various occupations. Scotland is able to boast of its excellent parochial schools and its four Universities, in which the youth of that country are generally educated. Such of the young people as remain in their native land, are well prepared for the avocations by which they obtain their livelihood. But Scotland sends forth her sons into the wide world, and where

ever they go, they almost invariably succeed in life. Though the writer is not a great admirer of the Scotch character, in all its traits, he is compelled to eulogize the dexterity with which a Scotchman makes his way in the world. If Scotland, with a more numerous population, has four Universities, is it too much to contend that Wales ought to have half that number, and those well endowed ? If any should consider two, more than the proportion to which it is entitled, surely no one can deny that it ought to be favoured with one such establishment. It is true that we have St. David's College in South Wales, an excellent institution, but it is on too confined a scale, and not adequately supported. The College accommodates about sixty young men, and all those are designed for the clerical profession. One professorship is only nominally filled, as the funds will not allow of an additional resident professor. Is not such a state of things a perpetual monument of the indifference and ungenerous disposition of our wealthier classes? How desirable it is that Natural Philosophy should be taught in the College, that, as the young men are candidates for the christian ministry, they should be led to an intimate acquaintance with the works of the Creator, to look upon the infinity of his wisdom, and admire the boundless treasures of his goodness! May a wellwisher of the College be permitted to suggest, that its efficiency would be very much promoted, by the adoption of regulations to accustom the young men to extempore speaking. This being of essential importance, in the present day, especially in this country, it well deserves the consideration of the Principal and Professors, under whose judicious management their pupils would be prepared to meet the taste, and improve the minds of the people, among whom they are destined to labour.

I wish to fortify my recommendation with the remarks of one who greatly excels in that for which he pleads--' a ready elocution. The following quotation is taken from Lectures on the Church of England, by the Rev. Hugh M'Neile, M.A.

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