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HUERTA

view. But the opinion is very emphatically expressed by other journals, especially the Bull Moose journals, that Colombia is not entitled to a single cent from us. The Chicago Tribune, for instance, has this to say on the subject :

“The Panama strip was a yellow-fever swamp inhabited by rebels, mosquitoes, and beach combers. The United States took this pestilential land, cleaned it, incised it, and made it a great highway of the world running past the gate of Colombia.

“In proportion to population and trade, Colombia will receive more benefits from the big cut than any other country; and Colombia's only contribution to the marriage of the oceans was to forbid the banns. "If

money is to pass between the United States and Colombia because of the canal, the money should

pass

from Colombia to the United States.”

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Our Share in the Secession "NOBODY SEEMS TO LOVE US, DO THEY, MISTER HUERTA?”

of Panama.
“NOPE, NOBODY!”
-Donahey in Cleveland Plain Dealer OF

F COURSE the equity in Colombia's claim lies in

the degree of responsibility which rightly lies upon Then she adds 70 more annuities of $250,000 each, for

us for the secession of Panama. The Hay-Herran the Salgar-Wyse concession, making a grand total of treaty had been refused ratification by the Senate of $49,946,000, and even then she would be entitled to Colombia, on the ground that the constitution of that nurse a grievance, we are told, because we will have country forbade the cession of sovereign rights. There paid her nothing at all “for the loss of her territory or

was a suspicion that Colombia was playing for time, the untold injury inflicted upon her commerce by the expecting the French concession to lapse in less than a loss of the Isthmus of Panama.” She will compromize year, and to be able then to receive not only her own on $25,000,000, an "apology,” and special privileges on share of the sum we were willing to pay for the canal the canal and the Panama railway. “It is a rather diffi- rights but the share of the Frenchmen as well. Colomcult matter to see,” says the Seattle Post-Intelligencer bia demanded modification in the treaty. President naively, "what we are going to get for this $25,000,000. Roosevelt declared that no modifications of any kind These additional millions do not seem to have any

would be made at that stage of the game, and said that definite connection with value received. Why should if the treaty was not made law, our Congress would at not Great Britain, Germany, France and Spain chip in

its next session “adopt measures which every friend to help pay this sum to Colombia ?” The Indianapolis of Colombia would regret,” the implication being that News tells what we get for our money: The treaty will,

we would turn to the Nicaragua course. Thereupon if ratified, “set this government right with Colombia Panama seceded, a sum of $300,000, it is claimed, being and the whole of South America and with its own con forwarded from some source in New York to finance science."

the secession. Two days before the revolt was pro

claimed, our secretary of the navy ordered ships to the What Is Colombia Entitled

Atlantic and Pacific ends of the Panama railroad, which to Receive From Us? HERE seem to be very few papers that agree with was operated under special treaty guarantees, and on the News that we should ratify the Colombia treaty

November 2, 1903, about twenty-four hours before the just as it stands.' Many of them object to what the revolt actually started, this order was sent to the comHearst papers call the “abject apology,” and others ob

manders of our warships: ject to.the large sum to be paid. There are some willing "Maintain free and uninterrupted transit. If interruption to agree to one of these, some willing to agree to the is threatened by armed force occupy the line of the railroad. other, but very few that are willing to agree to both. Prevent landing of any armed force with any hostile intent, The Baltimore Sun is of the view that the payment of either Government or insurgent, at any point within fifty the money is a good business proposition because of the

miles of Panama. Government force reported approaching better feeling it will establish in other American nations.

the Isthmus in vessels. Prevent their landing if in your “The people of South America," it says, "will judge us

judgment the landing would precipitate a conflict." more by a single act like this than by a thousand honeyed The carrying out of these instructions, it is claimed, phrases of good-will." The N. Y. Journal of Commerce rendered it impossible for Colombian troops to put thinks that every decent American ought to be willing down the revolt at once. Three days later, on Novemto have this country express regret for what happened, ber 6, the revolutionaries were recognized by our govas well as to pay some sort of “a solatium” to Colombia. ernment as "the responsible government of the terriThe Philadelphia Bulletin believes that a wrong was

tory.” done Colombia and an amende honorable, in form as

A New Issue on Which Roosevelt well as substance, should be made. The N. Y. Evening

May Be Elected Again. Post asserts that our government has all along admitted IF THE treaty which Secretary Bryan has negotiated that some money payment should be made to reimburse is ever approved by our Senate, there are going to be Colombia for Panama's fair share of the Colombia some surprised editors in the newspaper offices of the national debt, and to satisfy her moral claim upon at country. The N. Y. Times does not like the way in east a portion of the money paid for the canal charter. which Colombia was outwitted, and it thinks some inSecretaries Hay, Root and Knox, it says, all took this demnity should be paid; but the sum mentioned is "pre

THE

WHAT PRESIDENT WILSON WISHES TO DO TO MEXICO

7

posterously large” and a formal apology is "certainly Hay and Secretary Root made positive and final denial uncalled for." Secretary Bryan, according to the Bos that we had taken any collusive part “in fomenting or ton Transcript (Rep.), has revealed a surprising in- inciting the uprising on the Isthmus of Panama.” The difference to the rights and dignity of the United States, Detroit Free Press thinks that we are no more bound and can have had but one purpose in seeking to humble to pay anything to Colombia than to Spain for helping this country, and that must have been to "smirch the to free Cuba. If, says the Democratic Evening Post of Roosevelt administration.” Colombia, in the judment of Louisville, there is any issue on which Mr. Roosevelt the Chicago Evening Post, merely overreached herself, can be elected President of the United States in 1916, and we owe her neither apology nor cash. The Wash it will be the issues that are presented in the Colombian ington Post calls attention to the fact that both Secretary treaty.

A new dance popular at army posts is wig-wagged thus: One step forward ; hesitate; sidestep. It is known as the “Woodrow Wilson Rag." I fear me these military men are cynics.-N. Y. Telegraph.

"Professor Taft says he owes the fact that he is what he is to the spankings he received from his father." Doesn't give the voters of 1912 any credit.—Toledo Blade.

New Mexican president must be in favor of both Federals and Constitutionalists, and yet not be in open revolt against either party. If there is such a man, he is too good a diplomat for Mexico.-Wall Street Journal.

Judging from the number of times he has been reported on his "last legs," Victoriano must be built like a centipede.—Washington Post.

PRESIDENT WILSON'S MEXICAN POLICY

POLICY AND ITS RECENT STARTLING DEVELOPMENT DURING these months of "watchful waiting.” Pres

condition of disorder." He added: "They want orderident Wilson's Mexican policy has been far from the old order; but I say to you that the old order is dead. standing still. It has expanded in a way that has It is my part, as I see it, to aid in composing those startled many and terrified some. In his Mobile speech differences so far as I may be able, that the new order, he set forth his policy as the recognition of such gov which will have its foundations in human liberty and ernments only, in South and Central America, as were human rights, shall prevail.” As he proceeded, the established by constitutional methods. In his address President became more and more specific. “The functo Congress on April 20, he declared our only object in tion of being a policeman," he said, "has not appealed Mexico to be “to restore to the people of the distracted to me, nor does it appeal to our people. Our duty is republic the opportunity to set up again their own laws higher than that. If we are to go in there, restore order and their own government,” disclaiming the desire "to and immediately get out, and invite a repetition of concontrol in any degree the affairs of our sister republic." flict similar to that which is in progress now, we had He asked approval of Congress for the use of armed better have remained out." We shall not only help the forces to obtain "the fullest recognition of the rights and Mexican people to restore order and reorganize a condignity of the United States.” In response Congress ap stitutional government, according to the President, but proved such use to enforce the demand "for unequivocal we shall continue “until we have satisfactory knowlamends for affronts and indignities committed against the United States in Mexico.”. Up to the time of the occupation of Vera Cruz, that was the length and breadth of the President's policy, as laid down in his public utterances, tho he had gone a step further in an ultimatum to Huerta long before when he declared that Mexico must not only elect a president by a constitutional election but must elect some one else than Huerta. When the President delivered the address at the funeral services of the marines killed at Vera Cruz, he said: “We have gone down to Mexico to serve mankind if we can find out the way,” and then added : “A war of aggression is not a war in which it is a proud thing to die; but a war of service is a thing in which it is a proud thing to die.” This, if taken literally instead of rhetorically, furnishes an elastic program. A "war of service” may mean almost anything. The President proceeded a little later to open up his mind more fully on this subject.

President Wilson Outlines

His Mexican Policy.
N a conversation with Samuel G. Blythe, reported in

the Saturday Evening Post and widely commented on since, President Wilson lays down a Mexican policy that goes far beyond his original outlines. Every movement for liberty, he says, has come from underneath, from the people. In the struggle in Mexico, every de

Gerare mand for order has meant order for the benefit of the old-time régime, “for the aristocrats, for the vested in "HOW DO YOU THINK MY “MAKING OF A MAN WOULD GO

IN MEXICO CITY?" terests, for the men who are responsible for this very

- Cesare in N. Y. Sun

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I

edge ... that the way is open for the peaceful re business is it of ours what may be the size of landed organization of that harassed country.” We shall watch estates in any other country?” Suppose, it goes on to them narrowly, leaving them to work out their own say, we object in the near future to the size of the destiny, but “insisting that they shall take help when land-grants to railways in Canada. Will it be our duty help is needed.” He elaborated this idea, as follows: to inform the Canadian government that they must stop

that sort of thing? Or, remarks the Philadelphia “It is not my intention, having begun this enterprize, to, Ledger, suppose England had insisted after our civil turn back-unless I am forced to do so—until I have as

war that the large plantations of the South should be surances that the great and crying wrongs the people have endured are in process of satisfactory adjustment.

divided up among emancipated slaves and had sent

Of course it would not do for us to insist on an exact pro

over her fleet and army to see that it be done. The cedure for the partition of the land, for example, for that Ledger regards the President's statement of his purwould set us up in the position of dictators, which we are

poses as “the most alarming pronouncement ever made not and never shall be; but it is not our intention to cease

by an American President.” It says: in our friendly offices until we are assured that all these matters are on their way to successful settlement.”

"He proposes to take the land from those who have come

into possession of it lawfully and legally, and to divide it The Land Question the Dominant up among the unlanded masses. Were he to attempt in this Issue in Mexico.

country what he plans and demands for another country, in THE HE dominant issue in Mexico, as Americans are the internal affairs of which he is an intruder, his impeach

rapidly coming to view it, is the land question. ment or revolution would immediately follow... Henry George, if he were still living, would gloat over “When men who have disfranchized the negro deliberthe recognition that question is receiving as the center ately propose to enfranchize the peon who is immeasurably and source of Mexico's difficulties. John Reed, who

less fitted for the ballot than the American colored man, to

turn over to him a nation, to confiscate nd distribute to has been trailing the Constitutionalist army, writes in the Metropolitan as follows on this subject:

him the lands, they are without standing in argument, and the sincerity of their political policies at home cannot exist

unless they are insincere in their program for Mexico.” “'It is common to speak of the Madero revolution, the Orozco revolution, the Zapata revolution, and the Carranza revolution. As a matter of fact, there is and has been only

The N. Y. Sun is almost equally emphatic. Will the one revolution in Mexico. It is a fight primarily for land.

common sense of this country, it asks, be willing to upThe peons followed any man who proposed any remedy for

set in Mexico.conditions which it is bound to perpetuate the reform of existing conditions, no matter how inade in this country? It continues : quate. Madero's plan, written in prison at San Luis Potosi, raised a nation in arms because it emphasized the distri

“Will the citizens of this great nation cheerfully give bution of land.”

blood and lives that the forces ordinarily employed on the

north of the Rio Grande to protect property rights shall be Zapata, we are told by Mr. Reed, is not and never has used on the south to destroy them? Land in Mexico, our been in accord with Carranza, because the latter has

Washington informants solemnly inform us, is inequitably carefully avoided the land question. The relations be

divided. Is it equitably divided anywhere? If the peace tween Carranza and Villa are strained for the same

of Mexico is dependent upon expropriation, do the Tannen

baums, Bouck Whites and Becky Edelsons of our own backreason. In the state of Chihuahua Villa gave to each

yard see any other solution for the injustice and unfairness adult male citizen 627/2 acres of land to be inalienable

of present conditions than the division of property or the for a period of ten years. That is one of the reasons, expropriation by the State of all property ?” according to the Washington correspondent of the N. Y. Times, why Villa stands so high in Washington

Is It Any Business of Ours and why Carranza is distrusted. For the program

What Mexico's Land Sys

tem Is? which Washington has in mind, according to the Wash

A

S NO plan for the redistribution of land in Mexico ington correspondent of the N. Y. Sun, "contemplates

has up to this time been advanced for discussion, a radical reorganization of the present system of land

and as President Wilson has, indeed, disowned any inholding in Mexico." The Springfield Republican calls

tention of trying to dictate any such plan, the discussion attention to the fact that one private estate in Mexico is

on the subject is a little blind. It is evident that much as large as the state of Connecticut, and there are

depends on the plan itself and upon the way in which others on a similar scale. The present plight of Mexico,

it is imposed upon Mexico—whether by force or perin the judgment of Charles R. Flint, who has done busi

suasion. The San Francisco Chronicle calls attention ness with that country on a large scale for many years, to the fact that the Mexican government itself is a very is the result of a greed for land, wealth and power on

large land-owner, and can do something in the way of the part of the governing classes. “They wanted too

redistribution without confiscation of private property. much,” he says; "they didn't know when to stop.”

Then an absolutely just system of taxation would of Peace, he holds, can come only with a rearrangement itself be sufficient to enforce a large measure of subof the whole scheme of land-tenure.

division. According to a statement printed and circu

lated by the agents of the Constitutionalists in this "Most Alarming Pronouncement Ever Made by an American

country, the present system of land-consolidation in President."

Mexico was caused by the unjust rates of taxation HILE there is little or no dissent from this diag- imposed by the Diaz government, by which the large

nosis of Mexico's complaint, there is strenuous estates pay but ten per cent. of the taxes and the objection to Uncle Sam's taking upon himself the cure' small land-owners pay ninety per cent. This system of of the disease. "Will our neighbors kindly answer this taxation forced the small owners to give up their lands simple question,” pleads the Hartford Courant: "What and out of it have come the present woes of Mexico.

WHIL

RONÍAN CATHOLIC THREAT TO BOYCOTT THE SAN FRANCISCO FAIR

9

The abolition of the system, such is the conclusion we attack—in the coming congressional campaign. The are expected to draw, would restore the land to the sessions of the conference during the past month have peons and end the woes that have led to the series of been attended by all sorts of guesses day by day. The revolutions. As for the general purpose of President one important development that seems to be definitely Wilson to see that some settlement of this question be determined so far is the conclusion of the conference obtained, he is not without defenders. The N. Y.

to take up matters entirely beyond the scope first outWorld, for instance, referring to the system of peonage lined. The immediate issue between the United States and land-monopoly, has this to say: "Xot since the and Huerta no longer constitutes the main subject of United States government under the leadership of consideration. Mexico's internal conditions as well as Abraham Lincoln destroyed human slavery has it her foreign relations are to be considered, in spite of the undertaken a nobler mission than the emancipation of protest made at first by Carranza. This, it is evident, the Mexican masses from a tyranny that is little better gives to the conference an importance far beyond that than slavery.” And the Springfield Republican, in re first attaching to it. "The question now," as the Inply to the question, What business is it of ours what dianapolis News observes, "is not one of saluting the Mexico's land-system is like? says the question should American flag, or intervention, or of recognizing either read, "What business is it of ours how frequent or how Huerta or the Constitutionalists, but of bringing permaeasy is revolution in a neighboring state?" This ques nent peace to Mexico under a settled government estabtion, it thinks, answers itself. President Wilson, it lished by the people themselves. And, in addition, this reminds us, is not attempting to pacify Mexico or to great end is to be brought about with the help of three reform its land-system by force.

great American powers whose interests are, as are ours,

wholly American." If the conference succeeds on this The Mediation Conference Expands Its Scope.

larger plan, the President's victory, says the News, will IN THE meantime the situation not only in Mexico

be one of world-wide importance. By the middle of but

last month, however, the outlook for the conference large measure on the success of the Mediation Con had become very uncertain, and every day was bringing ference in Niagara Falls. If it fails to meet the situa rumors of an impending break between Huerta's deletion, it is evident that the President's Mexican policy gates and the delegates of the United States, on the will be a point of attack—perhaps the main point of choice of a provisional president.

By the time mediation has accomplished anything many of the soldier boys will have grown too old for military service.—Toledo Blade.

The search of myth literature has begun in educational circles. A beginning will be made with the Baltimore platform.—Los Angeles Times.

THE SHADOW OF ROMAN ANTI-CLERICALISM OVER

THE PANAMA EXPOSITION ROMAN

OMAN dailies of the anticlerical type follow with to one anticlerical speech delivered by the Mayor of

interest the rise and progress of the Roman Cath Rome on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of the olic campaign in this country against Italy's commis fall of the temporal power of the papacy, addressed a sioner to our Panama world's fair. Nothing is less letter to an exalted ecclesiastic saying he wished to exlikely to the Rome Tribuna than a request for the press his profound sorrow. The Pope said that Signor resignation of Signor Ernesto Nathan, one of the most Nathan, as a public official, was not satisfied with famous of living Romans. Whenever visitors arrive in solemnly recalling the anniversary of the day on which the eternal city, observes the London Post, they ask the sacred rights of pontifical sovereignty were tramabout three persons—the Pope, the King and Signor pled upon, but also dared to offend the doctrines of the Nathan. The Jew became a figure of international re Roman Catholic faith, the Vicar of Christ and the nown when he was chosen Mayor of Rome. When, church itself. "Signor Nathan," the Pope added, several years ago, the anticlericals obtained for the first "aimed directly at our spiritual jurisdiction, denouncing time since 1870 a majority in the town council they with impunity and to public contempt the acts of our were greatly embarrassed. Their ranks were practically apostolic ministry.” The letter further denounced as destitute of men experienced in municipal administra blasphemous the words used or alleged to have been tion. Don Scipio Borghese, a great noble of radical used by Signor Nathan against the divine essence of views, refused the civic chair. Commendatore l'anni, the Church and against the veracity of its dogmas and the leader of the anticlerical combination of monar the authority of its councils, offending the religious feelchical democrats, republicans and socialists, followed ing of the faithful. Against this “accumulation of imthat example. There remained no one more eligible to the pieties” the Pope protested, calling the attention of the factions in power than Ernesto Nathan. As a Jew and whole world to the constant and ever growing offenses as a former master of Freemasons, he was, however, against religion which, His Holiness complained, are peculiarly odious to the Vatican. He was famed for perpetrated in the very see of the Roman Pontiff. his success in business and for his scrupulous honesty.

How Signor Nathan Further

Offended the Pope.
Signor Nathan in a Controversy LITTLE time was lost by Signor Nathan

in replying with the Pope. BEFORE Signor Nathan had been long in the civic Mayor of Rome, by sending from the Vatican thunders

chair of Rome, his utterances in public were a against him who sits at the capitol renders still more source of agitation to the Vatican. The Pope, in reply evident the theme of the Mayor's speech—the contrast

Nathan as Mayor of Rome

Shocks the Cultured.

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Signor Nathan which he made no effort to conceal while Mayor of Rome. He looked at all questions, according to the Tribuna, from a purely utilitarian point of view. He referred to eminent sculptors who criticized his scheme as "the usual artists." He provoked a pandemonium among the scholars and aesthetes with his plan to join the three capitoline palaces. "Michael Angelo," said Signor Nathan in reply, “altered other people's buildings. Why should I not alter his?” The period of office of Signor Nathan, in addition to being a quarrel with the Vatican, became as well a long dispute with the artists. He said to a reporter once: “I will not embalm Rome.” In a word, as the London Post remarks, he had all the qualities requisite in a mayor of New York or London. Rome required somewhat different ideals. He was an object of constant mockery to the Rome Travase which cartooned him as accompanied by an interpreter bearing an English-Italian phrase book. His most extraordinary utterance, perhaps, was an attack upon the Oecumenical Council of 1870, this speech leading to an acrimonious controversy between him and the Mayor of Montreal. He told a congress of archaeologists that "Rome is not a museum but a modern city.” He even addressed a mixed French audience on the folly of beatifying Joan of Arc.

Why Signor Nathan Was Made

Italian Commissioner to Our

World's Fair. THE JEW ON WHOSE ACCOUNT ROMAN CATHOLICS THREATEN DESPITE his advanced years, Signor Nathan is Λ PANAMA FAIR BOYCOTT

deemed abroad the most energetic as well as the Ernesto Nathan, while mayor of Rome, involved himself in a contro ablest man of business in all Italy. The very limitations versy with the Vatican which has been transferred to this country because of his selection to represent Italy in San Francisco.

he displayed while Mayor of Rome were the defects of

business traits. His tireless energy, his incorruptibility between the Rome of the past and the Rome of the and his efficient administration are vouched for by the present. "I am not the author," proceeded Signor Roman correspondent of the London Post, who came Nathan, “of a plan to banish from schools and semina into frequent contact with him. Of late years, concedes ries the whole of the daily press, nor have I imagined this observer, Signor Nathan's great popularity with condemnations of Christian democracy, the modernists the Roman masses had declined. The eternal city has and Sillonists and all those who are anxiously seeking municipal street cars, thanks to Signor Nathan, but she the faith which reconciles the intellect and the heart, has suffered the mutilation of her Aurelian walls. Himtradition and evolution, science and religion.” Signor self a foreigner by birth, he has more than once exNathan asserted furthermore that he had not failed in pressed the opinion—not shared by the tradesmenrespect for other people's beliefs or lacked regard for that Rome should cease to live by foreigners and bethe Pontiff as a man called to the highest office who come an industrial city like Milan. He lacked what the “within the limits of his heart and intellect sacrifices his Paris Gaulois terms the "historical spirit,” the offense whole being for love of good according to the dictates he gave the Vatican being acute and long continued. It of his conscience.” Signor Nathan went on to say that seemed natural to the authorities at the Quirinal to beas the supreme Pontiff from the height of the chair of stow upon so renowned a man of affairs such an apSt. Peter has a duty to tell the truth as it seems to him, pointment as that which gives Signor Nathan his represo also the Mayor of Rome, in view of the breach which sentative position at the Panama world's fair in San ended the temporal power, has an equal duty before his Francisco. He knows Italian commerce thoroughly. fellow citizens to delineate the new political and civil He is an expert on the state of Italian industry. It is era. The offense taken by the Pope did not arise from incorrect, according to information reaching the Trithe words of Signor Nathan, according to the latter, but buna, to affirm that the Vatican will order any boycott from facts which are advancing inevitably—the dawn of the Panama exposition. Members of the Roman ing day of a new Italy. Facts guiding the peoples of Catholic Church in the United States may refuse, to the earth are ruled by laws governing the universe, patronize the affair in any capacity. Organizations above pontiff and mayor alike. "If I have offended within the Church have passed resolutions in this sense, against religion,” concluded the Mayor, “my tranquil the demand for the retirement of Signor Nathan being conscience without any intermediary will answer before already loud and emphatic. The Italian government, God.” Such was the course of a typical incident in the according to the Roman daily, will not ask for his feud between Nathan and the Vatican.

resignation.

Ten to one that the Colonel's river is the paramount plank in the next Progressive platform.-N. Y. World,

New slogan for the Prohibition party : “Dare to be a Daniels !" Boston Transcript.

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