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WITCH on the current that
Suppose that chemists, for example, causes an electricincandescent
“Not the name
discover a way of preparing an elelamp to glow. What happens?
ment so that it is able to yield much You get light, but also heat. of a thing light without breaking down readily Since your eye is a special instru
but the mark
under the electric current. Their ment particularly sensitive to light,
discovery may mean the birth of a since you read a book with light and
of a Service”
new lamp, or it may come to naught. not with heat, the more light that
It must be subjected to critical you get from your lamp the more
study by other scientists. The physatisfactory should be the result in every sicist steps in with his analytical instruments way. A light which is brilliant but cold to discover how much of the glow that comes would represent the ideal of efficiency. from the new material is light and how much Whether this ideal is ever reached, the in
is heat, in other words, how much more effi. candescent electric lamp will grow steadily
cient is the new material than anything thus colder, steadily more efficient, thanks to the far discovered; he estimates what is the candle Research Laboratories of the General Electric
power of the new material for a measured Company at Schenectady.
amount of current; he devises better physical
conditions for the material to perform its In these laboratories a corps of picked men, function. Next, the microscopist, perhaps, each an expert in some phase of illumination,
studies it to learn how it withstands the pitting men who are in communication with the fore.
and the scoring action of the current. most European investigators of light, are constantly at work. After many months of patient
Thus the new material is passed through experimenting the art of drawing tungsten successive laboratories, from scientist to scien. into a delicate wire was developed in these tist, from engineer to engineer. If the dislaboratories. Thus it became possible to make covery proves to be of commercial impor
tance the General Electric Company
transmits it to its own lamp manu-
facturing centers at Cleveland and
Harrison and to other companies en-
This constant research, this cease-
tric Company constitute MADZA the new fila
Service. When you see MAZDA on ment which
a bulb, think not of the shining glows in the
lamp itself, but of the Service reMAZDA lamp of
ceived by its particular authorized today and which has
manufacturer, of the thousands of supplanted the old car
experiments bon filament because
that had to be three times as much light
performed, in can be obtained for a
his interests given amount of current.
and yours, of
the hundreds The Research Labor
of light proatories of the General
ducers that Electric Company represent almost every branch
were devel. of technical knowledge
tested before -chemistry, metallurgy,
one was finally physiology, psychology,
selected and physics, microscopy, en
included in gineering, optics.
Specialists in every branch of science are engaged in MAZDA the MAZDA In these laboratories Service all with the aim of making MAZDA always the mark scientists conduct many of the furthest advance in the science of illumination. Here
that you screw a microscopist is shown at work.
into its socket. researches along advanced theoretical lines. What is the secret of the Because the work of the Research Laborphosphorescent glow that emanates from certain atories is never ended, MAZDA Service is marine animals and decaying organic matter ? continuous. As new discoveries are made that Why can the glow-worm shine in your hand
bring us a little nearer the ideal cold light and never burn your skin? What is the exact
they will be applied in making new lamps, color of daylight? Is the best artificial light
which like their predecessors will be marked a miniature sun or a body with a brilliancy
MAZDA. Hence MAZDA will always be not so white? Scores of such problems must
found on the latest lamp evolved by MAZDA
Service be attacked in the quest of the ideal light.
- a lamp in which the best scientific
thought of the time is embodied. But even more important commercially is re- / search that gives promise of immediate results. GE) GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
by A. H. Harris, vice-president of the New York Central. "Congress could then properly control its own children," declared Mr. Harris, testifying before the Senate Interstate Commerce committee. “Now these children are stateborn. It is unreasonable for the railroads of this country to be chartered by the States and Congress given the power to control them.” The railroads, continued Mr. Harris, could readily adjust themselves to federal incorporation, and such incorporation would unify control of the roads and simplify their corporate management In criticizing the Rayburn bill, designed to abolish interlocking directorates, Judge Lovett asserted:
"If the Interstate Commerce Commission had its way as this bill proposes, the New York Central line would terminate at Buffalo and give up its voice in the control of any lines west of Buffalo. The Pennsylvania Railroad would be cut in two at Pittsburgh because it could have no officers in common with the lines it is interested in west of that point. The Baltimore and Ohio would terminate at Petersburg, W. Va., and be cut off from its present service to St. Louis. The Southern Pacific, which has a continuous service clear across the continent, would be broken into seven or eight fragmentary lines.
"If this bill were to be enacted a great many systems might become bankrupt and go into the hands of receivers because they could not finance themselves.”
Federal incorporation and control, he agreed with Mr. Harris, would be the only solution to the present railway crisis.
The Financier vs.
The Engineer. ONCERNING the extravagant purchase of the Westchester
Railway, a high-speed electric line not more than twenty-six miles long, by the New Haven directors at a cost of more than $11,000,000, the Engineering News declares that this deal was quite compatible with other financial exploits in connection with the New Haven corporation, as well as the other financiering with which the Morgan firm had been connected. It is quite easy to believe, points out this journal, that the financiers actually thought that the roads would eventually prove to be worth what they had paid for them. This type of financiering was popular from 1900 to 1907, the period of "egg-scrambling" or trust formation. Properties were then bought at two or three times their cost value and sold to the public at seven eight times their cost value. This proćess, we are informed, created several "Captains of Industry” a half-dozen years ago. The Engineering News suggests another solution for the difficulties of railway financing.
"A point of great interest to engineers in this exposure is that it cannot fail to have the greatest influence in destroying public confidence in the banker as a safe business guide. No financier has ever had to such a high degree the confidence of the investing public as did Mr. Morgan; but the New Haven revelations, coupled with the disastrous experiences of his firm as promoters of the shipping and shipbuilding combinations and other enterprizes which have grounded the shoals, illustrate that the banker whose overconfidence or conceit causes him to rely on his own judgment rather than the opinions of competent experts is truly a blind man leading the blind.
"No other class of men in the community has given as careful study to the problems involved in the operation of railways and other public utilities as have engineers. It is true that there are all kinds of engineers and one often finds the names of engineers as sponsors of enterprizes of doubtful merit. But it is the bankers' or business men's responsibility to pick the engineer as an adviser whose opinion can be trusted just as he selects his legal adviser. A conservative banking concern should no more assume responsibility for an enterprize which they offer to the investing public without the favorable opinion of an engineer than they would sell bonds whose validity was questioned without obtaining the advice of an attorney."
The Telephone Emergency TH
Railroad Rates in Europe
and America. S LONG as the law insists on limiting their earning power in
the present arbitrary fashion, the railways will find it increasingly difficult to supply themselves with needed capital. So Arthur von Gwinner, managing director of the Deutsche Bank of Berlin and the leading German expert on American affairs, declared last month in a speech before the American Luncheon Club of Berlin. Herr von Gwinner believes that American freight rates ought to be raised 25, 35, or 50 per cent. higher. The American roads, he pointed out, charge per ton-mile a rate of 65, 63, and 46 cents on an average, while English railways in certain cases charge $2.45, the Prussian state railways, $1.33, and the French Chemin de Fer du Nord, $1.13. This comparison, the German expert went on, is more remarkable because of the high wages paid on the American roads. He continued:
"HE stoutest telephone line But for the suburban and rural
cannot stand against such a lines reaching a scattered popustorm as that which swept the lation and doing a small business Middle Atlantic coast early in in a large area, it is impracticable the year. Poles were broken off to dig trenches, build conduits like wooden toothpicks, and and lay cables in order that wires were left useless in a each individual wire may be tangled skein.
underground. It cost the telephone com
More important is the probpany over a million dollars to
lem of service. Overhead wires repair that damage, an item to be remembered when we talk
are necessary for talking a very about how cheaply telephone
long distance. It is impossible
to talk more than a limited service may be given.
distance underground, although More than half of the wire
Bell engineers are making a mileage of the Bell System is un world's record for underground derground out of the way of communication. storms. The expense of underground conduits and cables is Parallel to the underground warranted for the important there must also be overhead trunk lines with numerous wires wires for the long haul, in order and for the lines in the con that the Bell System may give gested districts which serve a service universally between large number of people.
distant parts of the country.
. AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY
AND ASSOCIATED COMPANIES
“Such a state of affairs is utterly anomalous. It is more than that—it is a deliberate menace to the prosperity of the republic and because the prosperity of the rest of the world is closely bound up with that of America, it is a danger to all of us. Unless ways and means are found to remedy it, you are headed straight for an economic calamity.
“Meantime the natural development of your country will be sorely crippled. Your lawmakers ought not to waste time hag
Shooting the Ropuds
gling whether railway rates can be raised, | itors while maintaining a wage scale that Soguenay River
3, 4, or 5 per cent.; they ought to be in does not permit her to meet their prices, creased ten times those percentages. Far and does not offer to capital an inducegreater issues are at stake than bigger ment to go in to new fields of developdividends for the shareholders. Your ment or
even to remain where it has whole industrial fabric must experience hitherto been occupied. She meets this NIAGARA
an unprecedented boom the moment the not by removing the shackles from her railways are placed in a position to make industries but by fastening other shackles vast extensions to their existing plants.” on her capitalists; fetters that must be
added later to those that already gall the Richelieu & Ontario
limbs of labor. She has entered upon Opportunities for legitimate reform of capitalistic abuses were not lacking the most elaborate experiment ever seen in the United States, said Herr von
to compensate the worker for the work Spend your
he has lost through insisting upon imGwinner, instancing the necessity for
possible economic terms, now that work Vacation better laws protecting stockholders
is no longer to be had, by a vast eleemosyagainst the autocratic action of Boards
nary system which makes the State pay on the cool of Directors. But he warned the
for his unemployment, his sickness, his Waters of
Americans against such regulation misfortune and his death. He is to be
big business that would be likely to sustained in his position of inability to the North destroy it.
compete with other workers; and he is to be protected against the penalty of his
economic defiance at the expense of the Enjoy a restful cruise along the GROPING TOWARD INDUS
whole community. The budget just premost picturesque water route on the
sented calls for an annual expenditure continent.
of over a billion dollars. Twenty years From Niagara Falls and Toronto
'HE problem of industrial relations
ago it was half that sum. .Taxes are now across the broad expanse of Lake
seems to become daily more and accomplishing actual confiscation. Ontario-through that wonderland, more insoluble. Yet it is a prob-project is not 'humanitarian, but unspeak
“Reduced to its simplest terms, this the Thousand Islands—the thrilling
lem that is commanding daily greater ably cruel; tho that high-sounding word descent of the St. Lawrence Rapids
attention from the industrial world and and its familiar fellow, 'social justice,' are to Montreal, Quebec, Murray Bay
threatens to become the central prob common cloaks for legislative cowardice and Tadousac. Then up the Saguenay
lem of business. Recently the federal or incapacity that does not dare apply the River Canyon past Capes Trinity and Commission on Industrial . Relations real remedy to the obvious disease. It Eternity and into the Laurentian
held a lengthy and detailed hearing in merely postpones the inevitable, and inMountains. New York concerning proposed solu
tensifies the catastrophe, which can tions of labor difficulties; but, The
more be averted than hunger can satisfy Other
itself on air." Charming Trips
Annalist exclaims editorially, this Along the North Shore of
mountainous record of industrial disthe Gulf of St. Lawrence,
Has the Protocol satisfaction will probably suffer the
Made Good? fate of all such records and never get
HE labor protocol, as an arrangeread. tou, N. S.; or on through
"If the Commission is able at
ment for industrial understandNew York City. last to digest the evidence and formu
ing, was instituted in the garFor particulars apply any
late thereon a theory of social salva- ment-making industries of New York tion, to which all the members will City in 1910. Altho it has been mainsubscribe, that in itself will be the
tained with more or less success since Passenger Dept.
second most remarkable fact in the then, it has never proved entirely satisCANADA STEAMSHIP
of factory either to the manufacturers or LINES shops and factories, advocated by ex
employees. Devised to prevent possible Limited perts like Miss Josephine Goldmark,
industrial warfare, by the attorney of Montreal
the author of "Fatigue and Efficiency," the manufacturers' association, Julius Professor Rautenstrauch, of the de- Henry Cohen, it is at bottom only a partment of Mechanical Engineering in safety valve. So declares Mr. Cohen Columbia University, and others, is
in an interview in The Annalist. But bitterly opposed for the most part by the safety-valve is necessary in indus
organized labor. The enactment of Copes Trinity and Eternity, Soguenay River Canyon
strial development, asserts Mr. Cohen: federal and state laws designed to prevent discrimination against organized dustrial development where there must be
“We have come to the point in our inlabor, has resulted, according to Walter Waterman PORTO Does It Gordon Merritt, counsel for the anti
safety-valve provisions; otherwise the old
story of bloodshed and misunderstanding, Makes boat a motor boat. 1914 Model, 3 H. P. boycott association, in the defeat of of picketing and injunctions, goes right on Weight 59 lbs. Sold direct from Factory to you, the aims intended by such legislation. all over again. There must be a place freight paid. Save Agent's profit
. Workingmen's compensation laws and where a record can be made by both The Waterman PORTO is the original other " ' paternalistic” remedies parties, where in the open they can meet
each other's contention. That clears the has Carburetor - not mixing termed equally futile. James J. Hill,
president of the Great Northern Rail- atmosphere. With the right machinery Solid Bronze Skeg, protecting 10% x 16
that precludes deadlock, just as in Governway, declared them so in a paper read
ment under a political constitution, the at the National Foreign Trade Conven
Legislature and the courts are the safety haust; Bronze Gear Water Pump; Spun. copper Water Jacket; any ignition equip tion. In criticizing this solution by the valves for the people; when they break DEMAND these essentials in an
British government, Mr. Hill said: down, then your whole situation breaks out-board motor, or you won't
"Widespread and long-continued indus "The system of collective bargaining Write Today for Free Engine Book
trial distress in England come from atWaterman Marine Motor Co., 7271 Mt. Elliott Ave., Detroit, Mich.
substitutes a constitution for chaos, law tempting to hold markets against compet for disorder, reason for force. It makes
eastward towards the coast of Labrador; down the South Shore to Pic
ticket or tourist office, or send six cents postage for illustrated guide. Address Desk G.
outboard motor. 9th year-25,000 in use.
in. Propeller. Steers by rudder from any
get your money's worth.
Canadian Northern “Royals” to Europe
I. Dissatisfaction of the miners with the conditions of employment.
2. A demand for collective bargaining through recognition of the union.
3. A refusal by the operators on the ground of the sacred freedom of the laborer.
4. A general strike.
5. A settlement through recognition of the union.
6. The introduction of business bargaining through periodical conferences.
7. A growing conservatism of the union and an increasing spirit of compromize on the part of the employers.
8. An approximation to industrial peace with satisfaction on both sides.
BRISTOL LONDON Montreal-Quebec to Bristol, Eng., via scenic St. Lawrence
WBRUSSEL CHICAGO NEW YORK
292 days on the beautiful, historic St. Lawrence, 372 days at sea, to Bristol, England. (2 hours to London.) Speedy, restful voyage to Europe.
Our palatial speedy steamships “Royal Edward” and “Royal George” are equipped with every convenience for your
comfortCabins "de Luxe”
Canadian Northern Steamships, Ltd., Toronto, Canada
Chicago. Ill., 64 W. Adams St. Montreal, Que. 9:0 St. James st. -suites and rooms with private baths, elevators,
Pittsburgh, Pa., Park Bldg. Ottawa, Ont., Russe'l Louge Blk. wireless, six passenger decks, spacious prome
St. Paul, Mind.. 4th & Jackson Sts. Quebeo, Que., ('an. North. Depot nades, etc. Call or write to any agent for book
Duluth, Mion.. 424 W. Superior St. Toronto, Ont., 68 King St., East
Minneapolis, Minn., 311 Vicollet av. Winnipeg, Man., 683 North Main let, sailing dates, cabin chart.
Ilalifax, x. 8., 103 lollis St.
Do You Know that Every
Many styles and
baggage in your city, let New York, U.S. A.
us tell you. National Veneer Products Co.
13 Beiger St., Mishawaka, Ind.
BORROWING MONEY ON individual, as his policies approach.
maturity, finds that the difference be
tween the face of the matured policy 'HERE has been much agitation of and its loan value, which properly be
late over the tendency of insured longs to him, is so small as to show no
advantage in carrying the contract
The policyholder has the inalienable tractually entitled. Some insurance right to avail himself of the plain terms companies, in order to counteract this of his policy, and the idea that the tendency, have raised the rate of in insurance company has any right whatterest. In other words, they charge ever to exercize paternalistic powers, their policy-holders more for loans than over him is, The Bellman insists, prethey charge bankers who draw upon posterous. them. According to the newspapers, they are justified in this, because the holders of insurance are practically
THE “MOVIE” GOLD defeating the object of life insurance
RUSH by destroying the one guaranty of their OMPARED with the really infamilies against impoverishment. Be
comprehensible figures of the fore being alarmed by this agitation, it
new moving-picture industry, is necessary to analyze carefully the
Nome and the Klondike, Ballarat and character of the policies written and
Kimberley seem like mere incidents, the object for which they were taken
declares Henry Wysham Lanier, who out. The increase in the amount of
describes “the latest business gold-rush" insurance is phenomenal. The amount
in The World's Work. He instances of ordinary life policies in 1886 was a
the case of a foreign “movie” corporalittle less than two and a half billion
tion which was proposing to incorpodollars. In 1911 it reached the as rate its American business separately. tounding total of fourteen and a half | “They had spent five or six hundred billion dollars or an increase of about
thousand dollars in building up the 500 per cent. in twenty-five years. United States end, and they suggested The amount of policy loans has in- capitalizing this new branch at three creased in an even higher ratio, but this millions—showing in detail from their ceases to be alarming, according to
own experience that they could in their the Minneapolis Bellman, when the
various lines make an annual profit of character of the majority of policies 60 to 100 per cent. on this figure. I now written is taken into account.
cculdn't see anything very far out in
their estimates, either—tho there are "No doubt there are some who are fool
new elements in the business ish enough to sacrifice their policies in
from now on that are difficult to gauge order to buy automobiles or other luxuries, but a very large proportion of the
in advance.” The history of the cinema large policies written to-day are taken really dates from 1867, tho the first out for investment or commercial policies, real motion-picture invention was patas protection to firms and corporations.ented in 1869. Edison exhibited the One of these policies will frequently first moving-picture machine, to proamount to ten or twenty times as much ject from film, the kinetoscope, as the ordinary policy taken out for fam
at the Chicago Fair in 1893. But ily or individual protection. Their total
it has not been until the last few must be a very considerable part of the
years that the "movies” have become a entire amount of the insurance in exist
“gold mine.” To-day the prosperity of "It is absurd to declare that the increase
the “movie” industry is summarized by in policy loans marks the decadence of
Mr. Lanier in the following terms: the feeling of responsibility to dependents, or the prevalence of shiftlessness “(1) The total business of the whole and improvidence. At least it is ridicu industry last year was more than $300,lous to do so without sufficient evidence000,000—which is said to make it the to prove the assertion.
It very often
fourth largest in the United States; and happens that a corporation, having insured at least thirty brand new millionaires have the life of one of its principal men for a
been added to the roster by it. specific purpose, finds no further use for “(2) There were 5,000,000,000 paid adthe policy, the object having been attained. missions in 1913 to our more than 20,000 It therefore borrows the loan value, find-moving - picture theaters — which show ing it good business to do so, rather than
06,000,000 feet of film each night, and cancel, which would be the alternative, in
literally speckle the whole country. A order to realize on an asset no longer re
single motion picture may reach 15 million quired."
spectators—more than a company could play to in a "legitimate' production if it
toured steadily for twenty years. Again, a corporation may find that it
“(3) American film makers will exis putting too much money into its re
port this year probably 25,000 miles of serve of life insurance, and that by pictures; and the royalty paid to Mr. withdrawing some of the accumulated Edison is said to amount to about $10,000 surplus it can make a profit. Or an a week.”